Dr. Akhlas Ahmed
Lecture # 08
The study of the patterns of interrelations among people in groups, and
the process of their measurement.
Way of mapping preferences among
Reveal relation of individual to group
Reveal (sub) structure of group
Reveal role (s) played by members
Predict amount / direction of interaction
Network centralization related to power and perceptions
of influence based on who (and which subgroups)
Communicated with each other most.
Analysis of underlying structure
-Path between nodes X and Y?
-How many links in path?
-What role (s) does each node play?
Analysis of underlying structure
Analysis of message flow in network
-How long to move through network?
-Types of messages?
Historically, it was developed by Jacob L.
Moreno in 1930s.
It is closely associated with small group
research, where its focuses on interpersonal
It is an empirical, phenomenological approach
to the study of group structure.
Sociometry can serve as a contrast or
complement to the formal study of group
structure through archival records.
term Sociometry refer to research using
It is sometimes called sociography, which is
a method of presenting data about complex
individual relationships and networks in graph
Sociometry Tests are simply surveys which are
administered to subjects (typically all subjects in a
small group) to determine the direction of certain
This can sometimes be assessed through simple
For example, a Sociometry test might ask members of a
department which other members they are most / least
likely to consult on important questions; whom they hold in
highest / lowest esteem; or with whom they most / least
likely to see face-to-face during the previous week.
In each representation, individuals are depicted as
Star representation is made up of several lines
pointing toward or away from a central point, which
represents an individual who is involved in relation
ships with each of the other points, and where the
arrows represent relationships such as ignoring,
reciprocation or rejection.
Chain representations includes a series of
relationships; the pair (a mutually reciprocated
relationship); the power (short for "power behind
the throne," who is the object of attraction of a few
very sociometrically attractive individuals; and the
isolate (a subject not chosen by anyone).
TECHNIQUES USED IN
Techniques for getting to know an individual
Techniques based on self-expressing
Techniques based on others’ views
WHAT IS SOCIOMETRY?
(in latin) = partner / friend
Metrum (in latin) = measurment
word ‘socimetry’ which comes from
French to our language means as the effects
of social life & friendship on an individual.
WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES
OF APPLYING SOCIOMETRY?
To learn the interaction & the structure of a group
To discover where exactly an individual exists in that
To elicit social relationship and the organization type
of a group through analyzing attitudes & aptitudes of
group members among eachother
To identify subgroups,leaders and cliques of a group
To obtain objective information about the real structure
of a group and group integrity.
The importance and functions
It enables us to learn about the group dynamics
and evaluate socialization levels of students after
some social activities and their effects on reaching
the intended goal.
It helps school administration,teachers and
counseling department by providing detailed
information about the general structure & the social
relationships of the group by preparing social plans
& programmes to develop them in a better way and
to find solutions to the problems.
After applying these regulations,groups can be reconstructed to increase efficiency in their
AREAS THAT SOCIOMETRY
CAN BE APPLIED
AND PUBLIC SECTOR, and
sometimes even in:
SOME CHARACTER TYPES
OBSERVED IN SOCIMETRY
Application of Socimetry
good and clear explanation should be
made to express the aim of the technique
before the application
A friendly and attentive classroom
atmosphere should be created.
Class members should have known
eachother since about 6 months to get
It must be applied to the students who can
read and write