Information Technology
Concepts
Presented by:
Dr. Akhlas Ahmed
Lecture # 01
Preston University

Hardware: Input, Processin...
Hardware Components







Central Processing Unit
Primary Storage (main
memory)
Secondary Storage
Input Devices
Outp...
Hardware Components
Hardware Components


Control Unit




Part of the CPU that sequentially
accesses program instructions, decodes
them, a...
Hardware Components


Register




High-speed storage area in the CPU
used to temporarily hold small units of
program
i...
Hardware Components in Action





Step
Step
Step
Step

1.
2.
3.
4.

Fetch instruction
Decode instruction
Execute the ...
Hardware Components in Action
Step 1:
In the instruction
phase,
the
computer’s control
unit fetches the
instruction to be
...
Hardware Components in Action
Step 2:
Then
the
instruction
is
decoded so the
central processor
can
understand
what is to b...
Hardware Components in Action
Step 3:
In the execution
phase, the ALU
does what it is
instructed to do,
making either an
a...
Hardware Components in Action

Step 4:
Then the results
are stored in the
registers
or
in
memory

Step 3 & 4 are called th...
Hardware Components in Action




After both phases have been
completed for one instruction, they
are again performed fo...
Hardware Components in Action








Some central processing units can speed
up processing by using PIPELINING.
Where...
Processing & Memory Devices
Processing Characteristics and
Functions


Machine cycle time is measured in:
 Microseconds (1 millionth) for slower
com...
Wordlength and Bus Line Width




Data is moved within a computer
system not in a continuous stream
but in groups of bit...
Wordlength and Bus Line Width
 This

number of bits is called the
Wordlength of the CPU.
 A CPU with a wordlength of 32
...
Wordlength and Bus Line Width







Data is transferred from the CPU to other
system components via Bus lines, the
ph...
Memory Characteristics and
Functions
Storage Capacity
Bill Gates made the famous remark…


“640 K ought to be enough for
anybody..” 1981….

Things have changed drastically!
20...
Types of Memory
Types of Memory







Random Access Memory
(RAM).
Dynamic RAM (DRAM).
Synchronous
DRAM
(SDRAM).
SDRAM also has the
ad...
Types of Memory





Read Only Memory (ROM)
Programmable Read Only
Memory
(PROM).
Commonly used in video
games.
Erasabl...
Read-Only Memory (ROM)





Can be read but cannot be written to
Nonvolatile
BIOS
Erasable ROM (EEPROM):




Flash ...
Cache Memory





Cache Memory is a type of high-speed memory
that a processor can access more rapidly than
main memory....
Cache Memory



A cache controller determines how often
the data is used and transfer frequently
used data to cache memor...
Multiprocessing







A number of forms of Multiprocessing involves
the simultaneous execution of two or more
instruc...
Massively Parallel Processing


Parallel
Processing,
a
form
of
multiprocessing
that
speed
processing
by
linking
several
p...
Massively Parallel Processing






With
Parallel
Processing,
a
problem is divided
into several parts.
Each part is “so...
Secondary Storage
Secondary Storage (Permanent Storage)




Secondary storage devices that
store
larger
amount
of
data, instructions, and ...
Access Methods


Sequential: records must be
retrieved in order




Devices used are called sequential
access storage d...
Devices







Magnetic tapes
Magnetic disks
RAID (Redundant array of
independent/inexpensive disks)
Storage area net...
Devices


Magnetic Disks are also coated
with iron oxide; they can be thin
steel platters (Hard Disk or
Diskettes).
Hard Drives and Diskettes


Hard Drives







Several magnetic
disks
Read/write heads
High storage
capacity

Diskett...
Types of Secondary Storage

Magnetic Tapes and Disks, Optical Disks, and CDROMs, and DVD’s are used to store data for easy...
Devices


Magnetic tapes (Common
secondary storage medium, Mylar
film coated with iron oxide with
portions of the tape ma...
Devices


Magnetic Disks are also coated
with iron oxide; they can be thin
steel platters (Hard Disk or
Diskettes).
Devices




RAID
(Redundant
array
of
independent/inexpensive disks) is a
method of storing data that generates
extra
bit...
Devices




SAN (Storage Area
Network)
uses
computer
servers, distributed
storage devices, and
network
to
tie
everything...
Devices - Optical Disk Storage
Uses laser beam technology to read
and write.


Optical Disks a rigid disk of plastic onto...
Devices


Digital Versatile Disk Player
(DVD) look like CDs but have a
much greater storage capacity and
can transfer dat...
Additional Devices and Media




Memory cards (The PC memory
card is like a portable hard disk that
fits into PC Card sl...
Additional Devices and Media


Expendable Storage (Allow users to add
additional storage capacity by simply
plugging in a...
Secondary Storage
Comparison of methods of secondary storage
Input and Output Devices
Input Devices


Personal computer
input devices
 Keyboard
(QWERTY)
 Virtual Laser
Keyboard

Virtual Laser Keyboard
Input Devices


Pointing and Selecting Devices
E.g., mouse, light pen, touch pad, touch screen,
joystick, and eye-trackin...
Input Devices
Scanning Devices (Entering Batch Data)


Scanner (Used for repetitive information)
a.
b.

Handheld scanner
...
Input Devices
Audio - sound that has been digitized

Voice Input
 Microphone
 Speech recognition
 Voice-to-text
softwar...
Input Devices


Digital Video cameras (make it possible
for people at distant locations to conduct
videoconferences, ther...
Input Devices


Point of Sale (POS) Devices


Credit/Debit Card Reader

Biometric devices


Read:
Fingerprints
 Face g...
Input Devices
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
(MICR) Device
Other Scanning Technologies




Text recognition software

Optical character recognition (OCR)
Optical mark recognition...
Output Devices

Display monitors
Output Devices

Display monitors







CRT- Cathode Ray Tube
The quality of Screen is often measured
by the number of...
Output Devices

Display monitors






The distance between one pixel on
the screen and the next nearest
pixel is known...
Output Devices

Display monitors






Monochrome (One of the three
colors: Gray, green, or amber).
CGA (Color Graphic ...
Output Devices

Display monitors


LCD (Liquid Crystal Displays)






Flat Panel Displays that’s use liquid crystal
o...
Printers and Plotters
Output Devices


Printers








Daisy Wheel
Plotters
Dot Matrix
 80 Columns
 120 Columns
Ink Jet
Laser Jet
Comp...
Output Devices - Audio Output


Sound card and speakers






Sound card translates digits into
sound
Also used to cap...
Computer System Types


Supercomputers




Typically
use
for
Scientific
applications, marketing
,
customer
support,
pro...
Computer System Types



Mainframe Computers




Typically
use
for
large
general purpose business &
Government computin...
Computer System Types


Personal Computers
 Handheld fitting on desktop, typically use to
improve personal productivity ...
Computer System Types - Portable
Computers
Notebook computers





Light weight
Battery powered
Limited expandability
...
Computer System Types - Tablet PCs
Type of notebook that accepts input from an
electronic pen
a.
b.

Slate model
Convertib...
Computer System Types 



Small computers that can be
carried in a pocket
Niche in the portable
computers market




...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Lecture 02 hardware

527 views

Published on

Management Information System

Published in: Education
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
527
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lecture 02 hardware

  1. 1. Information Technology Concepts Presented by: Dr. Akhlas Ahmed Lecture # 01 Preston University Hardware: Input, Processing & Output
  2. 2. Hardware Components      Central Processing Unit Primary Storage (main memory) Secondary Storage Input Devices Output Devices memory;
  3. 3. Hardware Components
  4. 4. Hardware Components  Control Unit   Part of the CPU that sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the register, primary storage, and even secondary storage and various output devices. ALU  Portion of the CPU that performs mathematical and logical comparisons.
  5. 5. Hardware Components  Register   High-speed storage area in the CPU used to temporarily hold small units of program instructions and data immediately before, during and after execution by the CPU. Primary Memory  Part of the computer that program instructions and data. holds
  6. 6. Hardware Components in Action     Step Step Step Step 1. 2. 3. 4. Fetch instruction Decode instruction Execute the instruction Store results
  7. 7. Hardware Components in Action Step 1: In the instruction phase, the computer’s control unit fetches the instruction to be executed from memory.
  8. 8. Hardware Components in Action Step 2: Then the instruction is decoded so the central processor can understand what is to be done. Step 1 & 2 are called the instruction phase, and the time is takes to perform this phase is called the INSTRUCTION TIME (I-time).
  9. 9. Hardware Components in Action Step 3: In the execution phase, the ALU does what it is instructed to do, making either an arithmetic computation or a logical comparison.
  10. 10. Hardware Components in Action Step 4: Then the results are stored in the registers or in memory Step 3 & 4 are called the execution phase. The time it takes to complete the execution phase is called the EXECUTION TIME (E-time).
  11. 11. Hardware Components in Action   After both phases have been completed for one instruction, they are again performed for the second instruction, and so on. The instruction phase followed by the execution phase is called a MACHINE CYCLE.
  12. 12. Hardware Components in Action     Some central processing units can speed up processing by using PIPELINING. Whereby the CPU gets one instruction, decodes another, and executes a third at the same time. The Pentium processor, for example, uses two execution unit pipelines. This gives the processing unit the ability to execute two instructions in a single machine cycle.
  13. 13. Processing & Memory Devices
  14. 14. Processing Characteristics and Functions  Machine cycle time is measured in:  Microseconds (1 millionth) for slower computers  Nanoseconds (1 billionth)  Picoseconds (1 trillionth) for faster ones.  MIPS (Millions of Instructions Processed per Second)
  15. 15. Wordlength and Bus Line Width   Data is moved within a computer system not in a continuous stream but in groups of bits. A Bit (BInary DigiT) 0 or 1. Therefore, another factor affecting overall system performance, particularly speed is the number of bits the CPU can process at any one time.
  16. 16. Wordlength and Bus Line Width  This number of bits is called the Wordlength of the CPU.  A CPU with a wordlength of 32 (called a 32-bit CPU) will process 32 bits of data in one machine cycle.
  17. 17. Wordlength and Bus Line Width     Data is transferred from the CPU to other system components via Bus lines, the physical wiring that connects the computer system components. The number of bits a bus line can transfer at any time is known as bus line width. A bus line with a width of 32 will transfer 32 bits of data a time. Common wordlength and bus line widths are 32 and 64.
  18. 18. Memory Characteristics and Functions
  19. 19. Storage Capacity
  20. 20. Bill Gates made the famous remark…  “640 K ought to be enough for anybody..” 1981…. Things have changed drastically! 2004 –PC with 512 MB of Main Memory was standard….
  21. 21. Types of Memory
  22. 22. Types of Memory     Random Access Memory (RAM). Dynamic RAM (DRAM). Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM). SDRAM also has the advantage of a faster transfer speed between the microprocessor and the memory.
  23. 23. Types of Memory    Read Only Memory (ROM) Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM). Commonly used in video games. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM). Commonly used with industrial robots and as a computer setup chip.
  24. 24. Read-Only Memory (ROM)     Can be read but cannot be written to Nonvolatile BIOS Erasable ROM (EEPROM):    Flash memory Can be written to and erased Secondary storage / Removable
  25. 25. Cache Memory   Cache Memory is a type of high-speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory. Cache Memory works in conjunction with main memory.
  26. 26. Cache Memory  A cache controller determines how often the data is used and transfer frequently used data to cache memory, then deletes the data when it goes out of use.
  27. 27. Multiprocessing     A number of forms of Multiprocessing involves the simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time. One form of multiprocessing involves coprocessors. A Coprocessor speeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activity. For example, math coprocessor chip can be used to speed mathematical calculations, and a graphics coprocessor chip decreases the time it takes to manipulate graphics.
  28. 28. Massively Parallel Processing  Parallel Processing, a form of multiprocessing that speed processing by linking several processors to operate at the same time, or in parallel.
  29. 29. Massively Parallel Processing    With Parallel Processing, a problem is divided into several parts. Each part is “solved” by a separate processor. The result from each processor are then assembled to get the final output.
  30. 30. Secondary Storage
  31. 31. Secondary Storage (Permanent Storage)   Secondary storage devices that store larger amount of data, instructions, and information more permanently than allowed with main memory. Offers the advantages of nonvolatility, greater capacity, and greater economy
  32. 32. Access Methods  Sequential: records must be retrieved in order   Devices used are called sequential access storage devices (SASD) Direct: records can be retrieved in any order  Devices used are called direct access storage devices (DASDs)
  33. 33. Devices      Magnetic tapes Magnetic disks RAID (Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks) Storage area networks (SAN) Optical disks Digital versatile disks (DVDs)
  34. 34. Devices  Magnetic Disks are also coated with iron oxide; they can be thin steel platters (Hard Disk or Diskettes).
  35. 35. Hard Drives and Diskettes  Hard Drives     Several magnetic disks Read/write heads High storage capacity Diskettes  Portable magnetic media
  36. 36. Types of Secondary Storage Magnetic Tapes and Disks, Optical Disks, and CDROMs, and DVD’s are used to store data for easy retrieval at a later date.
  37. 37. Devices  Magnetic tapes (Common secondary storage medium, Mylar film coated with iron oxide with portions of the tape magnetized to represent bits.
  38. 38. Devices  Magnetic Disks are also coated with iron oxide; they can be thin steel platters (Hard Disk or Diskettes).
  39. 39. Devices   RAID (Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks) is a method of storing data that generates extra bits of data from existing data, allowing the system to create “reconstruction map” so that if a hard drive fails, it can rebuild lost data. RAID sub-systems duplicate data on drives. This process is called DISK MIRRORING.
  40. 40. Devices   SAN (Storage Area Network) uses computer servers, distributed storage devices, and network to tie everything together. To increase the speed of storing and retrieving data, fiber-optic channels are often used.
  41. 41. Devices - Optical Disk Storage Uses laser beam technology to read and write.  Optical Disks a rigid disk of plastic onto which data is recorded by special lasers that physically burn pits in the disk.    CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) a common form of optical Disks on which data, once it has been recorded, cannot be modified. CD-W (CD-Writeable) an optical disk that can written upon but only once. CD-RW (CD-Rewriteable) on optical disk that allows personal computer users to replace their diskettes with high-capacity CDs that can be written upon and edited over.
  42. 42. Devices  Digital Versatile Disk Player (DVD) look like CDs but have a much greater storage capacity and can transfer data at a much faster rate.
  43. 43. Additional Devices and Media   Memory cards (The PC memory card is like a portable hard disk that fits into PC Card slot. Flash memory (A silicon computer chip that, unlike RAM, is nonvolatile and keeps its memory when the power is shut off).
  44. 44. Additional Devices and Media  Expendable Storage (Allow users to add additional storage capacity by simply plugging in a removable disk or cartridge. The disk can be used to back up hard disk data or to transfer large files to classmates.
  45. 45. Secondary Storage Comparison of methods of secondary storage
  46. 46. Input and Output Devices
  47. 47. Input Devices  Personal computer input devices  Keyboard (QWERTY)  Virtual Laser Keyboard Virtual Laser Keyboard
  48. 48. Input Devices  Pointing and Selecting Devices E.g., mouse, light pen, touch pad, touch screen, joystick, and eye-tracking device
  49. 49. Input Devices Scanning Devices (Entering Batch Data)  Scanner (Used for repetitive information) a. b. Handheld scanner Flatbed scanner
  50. 50. Input Devices Audio - sound that has been digitized Voice Input  Microphone  Speech recognition  Voice-to-text software
  51. 51. Input Devices  Digital Video cameras (make it possible for people at distant locations to conduct videoconferences, thereby eliminating the need for expensive travel to attend physical meetings.
  52. 52. Input Devices  Point of Sale (POS) Devices  Credit/Debit Card Reader Biometric devices  Read: Fingerprints  Face geometry 
  53. 53. Input Devices Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Device
  54. 54. Other Scanning Technologies    Text recognition software Optical character recognition (OCR) Optical mark recognition (OMR)
  55. 55. Output Devices Display monitors
  56. 56. Output Devices Display monitors     CRT- Cathode Ray Tube The quality of Screen is often measured by the number of horizontal and vertical pixels used to create it. A larger number of pixels per square inch means a higher resolution, or clarity and sharpness of the image. For example, a screen with a 1024 x 768 resolution (786432 pixels) has a higher sharpness than one with 640 x 350 (224000 pixels).
  57. 57. Output Devices Display monitors    The distance between one pixel on the screen and the next nearest pixel is known as DOT PITCH. The common range of dot pitch is from .25mm to .31mm. The smaller the number, the better the picture.
  58. 58. Output Devices Display monitors    Monochrome (One of the three colors: Gray, green, or amber). CGA (Color Graphic Adaptor) was one of the first technologies to display color images on the screen. SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array) displays are standard, providing brilliant colors and higher resolutions.
  59. 59. Output Devices Display monitors  LCD (Liquid Crystal Displays)    Flat Panel Displays that’s use liquid crystal organic, oil-like material placed between two polarizers to form characters and graphic images on a backlit screen. Passive-Matrix displays, the CPU sends its signals to transistors around the borders of the screen, which control all the pixels in a given row or column. Active-Matrix display, each pixel is controlled by its own transistor attached in a thin film to the glass behind pixel.
  60. 60. Printers and Plotters
  61. 61. Output Devices  Printers       Daisy Wheel Plotters Dot Matrix  80 Columns  120 Columns Ink Jet Laser Jet Computer Output Microfilm (COM) Devices
  62. 62. Output Devices - Audio Output  Sound card and speakers    Sound card translates digits into sound Also used to capture sound Other audio output  E.g., USB headphones
  63. 63. Computer System Types  Supercomputers   Typically use for Scientific applications, marketing , customer support, product development). Memory: 500+ GB
  64. 64. Computer System Types  Mainframe Computers   Typically use for large general purpose business & Government computing need to meet the goals. Memory: <100+ GB
  65. 65. Computer System Types  Personal Computers  Handheld fitting on desktop, typically use to improve personal productivity of a worker  Memory: 512MB - 2GB
  66. 66. Computer System Types - Portable Computers Notebook computers     Light weight Battery powered Limited expandability Docking stations
  67. 67. Computer System Types - Tablet PCs Type of notebook that accepts input from an electronic pen a. b. Slate model Convertible model
  68. 68. Computer System Types   Small computers that can be carried in a pocket Niche in the portable computers market    Handheld Computers Personal digital assistants (PDAs) Cell phones Most popular manufacturers   RIM – Blackberry Palm – Treo

×