Dr. Akhlas Ahmed
Lecture # 01
value of information is directly linked to
how it helps decision makers achieve the
Models, computers, and information systems
are constantly making it possible for
organizations to improve the way they
the potential impact of information
systems and having the ability to put this
knowledge to work can result in a successful
personal career, organizations that reach
their goals, and a society with a higher quality
System users, business managers, and
information systems professionals must work
together to build a successful information
4. Information Concepts
5. Information System Concepts
Information System is a set of
manipulate, and disseminate data and
information and provide a feedback
mechanism to meet an objective.
ATM, Barcode Scanners, airline reservation
systems, course reservation systems,
KIOSKS with touch screen are just examples
of Information System.
6. Data VS Information
consists of raw facts, such as an
employee’s name, employee’s number,
address, number of days worked in a week,
and sales order.
When these facts are organized or arranged
in a meaningful manner, they become
7. Data VS Information
Types of Data
Numbers, letters, and other
Graphic images and pictures
Sound, noise, and tones
Moving images and pictures
8. Data VS Information
is a collection of facts organized
in a such a way that they have additional
value beyond the value of the facts
For Example, a particular manager might find
the knowledge of total monthly sales more
suited to his purpose than the number of
sales for individual sales representatives.
9. Defining and Organizing Relationships
among Data Creates Information
we have stated, data –
simply, raw facts – has little
value beyond its existence.
For example, consider data
as pieces of railroad track in
a model rail road kit.
In this state, each piece of
track as little value beyond its
inherent value as a single
10. Defining and Organizing Relationships
among Data Creates Information
if some relationship
is defined among the pieces
of the track, they will gain
is much the
relationships can be set up to
organize data into useful,
11. Defining and Organizing Relationships among Data
Adding new or different data means relationships can be
redefined and new information can be created. For
instance, adding new pieces to the track can greatly
increase the value of the final product.
12. The process of Transforming
Data into Information
13. The Characteristics of
Accurate information is error free. In some cases, inaccurate
information is generated because inaccurate data is fed into
the transformation process (this is commonly called garbage
in, garbage out [GIGO])
Complete information contains all the important facts. For
example, an investment report that does not include all
important costs is not complete.
Information should also be relatively economical to produce.
Decision makes must always balance the balance of
information with the cost of producing it.
Flexible information can be used for a variety of purposes.
For example, information on how much inventory is on hand
for a particular part can be used by a sales representative in
closing a sale and by a production manager to determine
whether more inventory is needed.
14. The Characteristics of
Reliable information can be depended on. In many cases,
the reliability of the information depends on the reliability of
the data collection method.
Relevant information to the decision maker. Information that
lumber prices might drop may not be relevant to a computer
Information should also be simple, not overly complex.
Sophisticated and detailed information may not be needed.
In fact, too much information can cause information
Timely information is delivered when it is needed.
Information should be verifiable. This means that you can
check it to make sure it is correct, perhaps by checking
many sources for the same information.
15. The Characteristics of
Information should be easily accessible by
authorized users to be obtained in the right
format and at the right time to meet their needs.
Information should be secure from access by
16. System and Modeling
A set of elements or components
that interact to accomplish goals
boundary Defines the limits of a
system and distinguishes it from
everything else (the environment)
18. Components of a System
A system’s four components consist of
Input, Processing, Output, and Feedback.
Feedback mechanism involves your assessment of how
clean the car is.
19. Example of Systems and Their
Elements and Goals
Coffee beans, tea
teas and various
state, and nation
20. Systems Classification and
Their Primary Characteristics
21. System Performance and
Efficiency: output/input (A measure of what is
produced divided by what is consumed)
Effectiveness: extent to which system attains
Performance standard: specific objective of
22. System Performance and
A system performance
campaign might be to
$100,000 for a certain
type of product each
23. System Performance and
A system performance
standard for a certain
might be to have no
more than 1 percent
Once standards are established, system performance is measured
and compared with the standard. Variances from the standard are
performance standards may also require trade-offs in terms of cost,
control, and complexity.
24. System Variables and Parameters
variable – quantity or item controlled
by decision-maker. The price a company
charges for its product is a system variable
because it can be controlled.
parameter – value or quantity that
cannot be controlled, such as the cost of a
25. System Modeling Concepts
An abstraction or an approximation that is used to represent
26. Modeling a System
model is an abstraction that is used to
4 major types of models
A narrative model
A physical model
A schematic model
A mathematical model
27. Modeling a System
narrative model is based on words
Logical, not physical
A sales person verbally describing
a product’s competition to a sales
28. Modeling a System
physical model is tangible representation of
A builder may develop a scale
model of a new shopping center to
information about the overall
appearance and approach of the
29. Modeling a System
A schematic model is a graphic representation of reality
Graphs and charts
A blueprint for a new building, a graph
that shows budget and financial
projections, electrical wiring diagrams,
and graphs that show when certain
tasks or activities must be completed to
stay on schedule.
Program Flowcharts shows how
computer programs are to be developed
and Data Flow Diagrams are used to
reveal how data flows through the
30. Modeling a System
mathematical model is an arithmetic
representation of reality
Standard templates to identify all the
tasks, efforts, and elapsed time
associated with each task for
planning, building, and opening a
31. What Is An Information
32. Components of Information
Feedback is critical
operation of a system
33. Computer-Based Information
34. Computer Based Information
Computer Based Information System is
single set of hardware, software, databases,
telecommunications, people, and procedures
that are configured to collect, manipulate,
store, and process data into information.
A company’s payroll system and order entry
systems are examples of CBIS.
35. CBIS – Business Technology
procedures that are
configured to collect,
manipulate, store, and
36. Computer Based Information
Computer equipment used to perform input, processing,
and output activities.
The computer programs that govern the operation of the
System Software: Controls basic computer operations such
as start-up and printing.
Application Software: Allows specific tasks to be
accomplished such as word processing, image processing
and tabulating numbers.
37. Computer Based Information
An organized collection of facts and information.
The electronic transmission of signals for communications;
enables organizations to carry out their process and tasks
through effective computer networks.
Connected computers and computer equipment in a
building, around the country, or around the world to enable
38. Computer Based Information
The world’s largest computer network, actually consisting of
thousands of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging
Intranet: An internal network based on Web technologies that allows
people within an organization to exchange information and work on
Extranet: A network based on Web technologies that allows selected
outsiders, such as business partners and customers, to access
authorized resources of the intranet of a company.
Information System personnel include all the people who
manage, run program, and maintain the system.
The strategies, policies, methods and rules for using CBIS.