Fundamentals of First Aid
1. Define the meaning of First Aid.
2. Explain how to use the 911 system.
3. Explain the first concern when giving first
4. Explain when to move and when not to
move an injured person.
5. List the four steps of victim assessment.
First Aid is the care given
to an injured person to stabilize
and keep him / her safe until he /
she can receive professional
AIMS OF FIRST AID
• Preserve life
• Prevent the casualty’s condition from
• Promote recovery
A man has been hit by a car and thrown
into the street. He is wearing shorts, and blood
is flowing. What looks like a bone is sticking
out of his leg.
a. The first rule of first aid and the primary
concern is: SAFETY
b. The second concern is, unless the victim is in
a life-threatening situation, he or she should:
NOT BE MOVED
Two Major Concerns
Giving First Aid
R is for Responsiveness
Is the victim conscious?
Touch their shoulder, ask if they are
Ask if they need help.
If they say no, then proceed no further
If yes, or no response, then proceed to A
A is for Activate EMS or 911
The location of the emergency
Condition of the victim
How to Use 911 System
The four things you need to remember when
making a 911 call
When To Move An Injured
P is for Position
• Only re-position the victim if
the victim is in further danger
in their present location.
• That does not seem to be spinal
injury and additional care
requires moving them.
If there are suspected spinal injuries, do not
move the victim (except when the victim is
in a life threatening situation).
when an injured person
should not be moved?
Use the mnemonic “ABCH”
Four Steps of Victim
A is for airway
Use your finger to sweep the mouth
to remove any seen object. If this fails,
then perform the Heimlich maneuver
or abdominal thrusts.
check to see if the airway
B is for breathing
Look, listen and feel by watching the chest and
placing your cheek a few inches above the mouth of
the victim to sense any movement of air. If the
victim is not breathing, they may need their head
C is for circulation
If there is not a pulse, then this person needs
The best place to check for a pulse is the
H is for Hemorrhaging
If the victim is bleeding, then provide the
Choking, Shock and Weather- Related Ailments
1. Review Victim Assessment from lesson 1
2. Explain and Demonstrate the Heimlich
3. Explain and Demonstrate how to treat for
4. Explain the treatment for hot- and cold-
weather-related injuries or ailments.
Used only when the victim is
conscious and is unable to breath or
If Victim is coughing, encourage to
If the victim goes unconscious, check
1. Stand behind victim.
2. Wrap arms around victim’s waist
and not around the ribs.
3. Make a fist and place the thumb side
of your fist just slightly above the
4. Grab your fist with your other hand.
5. Press into the victim’s stomach
with five quick upward thrusts.
Each thrust should have a pause
6. After every five thrusts, recheck
the victim. Repeat until the object
has been dislodged.
Preserve body heat by placing a
blanket or cover over the victim,
or move the victim, if possible, to a
Shock - Treatment
If the shock is the result of an allergic
reaction, then follow victim's instructions for
treating allergy and monitor the "ABCH" until
medical attention arrives.
Spinal injury – do not move the victim.
If result of a head injury or if victim has
difficulty breathing, elevate head and
shoulders by placing a pillow or blanket
If the victim is unconscious or vomiting,
then turn the victim on their left side so
the stomach is on the left side of the
If no, elevate legs eight to twelve inches
off the ground.
If less then two hours from medical
care, then do not give fluids (except to
those who are conscious and are
If no, give small and periodic amounts
of water (only if conscious).
Wait for medical attention to arrive.
Weather Related Emergencies
Hyperthermia: Heat related, body unable to cool itself
Heat Exhaustion: Skin cold & clammy, person alert
Heatstroke: Skin hot, altered state of awareness
Hypothermia: Cold related, body unable to warm itself
Frostbite: Freezing of the extremities (fingers & toes)
Frostnip: First stage of freezing outer layers of skin
Move person into a cool place
remove any excess clothing
cool victim with either
water,fanning,or cool packs
under the armpits or groin
wait for medical attention, in the
case of heatstroke.
Treatment for Hyperthermia
Treatment for Hypothermia
Move the victim out of the cold; handle the victim
carefully; replace wet clothes with dry clothes
Insulate from the cold with layered clothing
and/or an insulated sleeping bag.
1. Explain and demonstrate first aid for a cut.
2. Explain how to treat a blister.
3. Explain and demonstrate first aid for a puncture
4. Explain and demonstrate first aid for arterial
bleeding of an arm or leg.
5. Explain and demonstrate how to stop bleeding.
Remove the object or clothing that
is causing the blister.
Wash with warm water and soap.
Use a sterile needle to pop the
blister at its base and drain.
keep it free from further irritation.
Larger wounds - never remove
barriers (may cause wound to bleed
Wash gently with outward strokes to
move dirt and bacteria away from
Use a stream of water to flush it out.
Dry carefully, apply antibacterial
ointment (for small wounds) and
Puncture Wound Treatment
2. Treating punctures:
a. If the object has already been removed, treat
the wound based on the type of bleeding that
b. The object acts as a plug and should not be
c. The most important thing is to keep the object
Wash hands with soap and
Apply direct pressure to the cut
until it stops bleeding.
Gently wash with soap and
water and rinse it for a few
Dry and add a bandage with
small dab of ointment on it.
Minor Cut Treatment
Check RAP ABCH first.
Try to stop the bleeding using direct pressure.
If the bleeding stops, treat for shock.
If not, then: Elevate that part of the body
above the victim's heart and continue with
1. Explain and demonstrate how to respond to
2. Explain and demonstrate first aid for insect
3. Explain how to remove a splinter from a
4. Explain how to treat poisonings.
Poisons can enter the body one of four ways:
absorbed, like Poison ivy,
Immediately wash the area with soap and
Then take a cool bath and apply calamine
If it spreads and painful, then seek medical
Poisonous injections: i.e. Snakebites,
Identify the snake, if possible.
Then clean the bite with soap and water
and keep bite below heart level.
Seek medical attention.
If the poison is inhaled or swallowed;
Check "ABCH" and treat for shock.
Seek medical attention
If possible, try to catch the spider or insect
without risk to you.
Check to see if the stinger is in the skin.
If not, Clean the area, apply ice to reduce
Insect Bite or Sting
If stinger is found, gently scrape the stinger out
of the wound using a plastic card or fingernail,
pulling away from the wound to minimize
amount of toxin released into the body.
Do not squeeze stinger. Treat wound as a minor
check to see if the victim is allergic to the bite.
Look for signs of shock and swelling.
If no, then seek medical attention or an
adult for assistance.
If yes, check “ABCH,” treat for shock,
and immediately seek medical
1. Demonstrate and explain first aid for
Burns – Degrees of Burns
a. Only the top layer of skin is burned
b. The skin is only mildly discolored
c. There is only a little swelling
d. These burns usually heal within a week.
First Degree Burn
Damage to the outer
layer of skin
pain, redness, and
a) several layers of skin are burned.
b) The skin has a spotty or blotchy
c) There is greater swelling, and there are
d) These burns take up to three weeks to heal
and should be attended by a physician
Second Degree Burn
Damage to both outer skin
and underlying tissue
layers (epidermis and
dermis), causing pain,
redness, swelling, and
a. Many layers of skin are burned.
b. There is severe discoloration.
c. Some skin may be charred
d. These burns can be life threatening
Third Degree Burn
Damage extends deeper
into tissues (epidermis,
dermis, and hypodermis)
causing extensive tissue
destruction. The skin may
Full thickness burn
with tissue damage
Degree of Burns
Heat Burn Treatment
Go through “RAPABCH” first, then ask if burn
was caused by heat.
Determine degree and amount of burn.
If it is a third-degree burn or large second-
degree burn, use the “ABCH”, then treat for
Do not attempt to pull off the clothing because
skin may come with it.
Cut it off if attached to the skin.
Apply a sterile dressing and elevate.
Seek immediate medical attention.
Burn is first-degree or small second-
degree, apply cold water/compress
until pain stops.
Do not apply an ointment.
Chemical Burn Treatment
Determine if burn was caused by a dry chemical.
If so, brush it off, remove clothing, wash area
fifteen to twenty minutes.
If not caused by dry chemical, remove clothing
and jewelry, wash area for fifteen to twenty
Seek medical attention both cases.
Electrical Burn Treatment
Is victim in contact with electrical
source, are you at risk??
yes, turn off power.
Treatment same as heat burn.
Basic life support
Cardiac arrest occurs when the
heart ceases to produce an effective Pulse
and blood circulation.
Basic life support
• Tell the basic steps of CPR
• Show the basic steps of CPR
First step of bls
• Make sure that the scene is safe
• Check response
• Check to see if the victim is
breathing ( check for no breathing
or no normal breathing)
Don’t be panic
Activate the Emergency Medical Service
• Pulse check….
• Palpate carotid pulse
• Take 5sec. Not more than 10 sec
Begin chest compression
• Position of the victim
• Position yourself
• Put the heel of one hand on the centre of the
victim’s chest on the lower half of breast bone
• Put the heel of your other hand on the top of
the first hand
• Straighten your arms and position your shoulders
directly over your hands
• Push hard and fast
Press down AT LEAST 5cm (2 inch)
Deliver compression in a smooth fashion
at a rate of AT LEAST 100/min
• Allow complete chest recoil
• Minimize interruptions
Opening the airway
• Place one hand on the victim’s forehead and
push with your palm to tilt the head back
• Place the fingers of the other hand under the
bony part of the lower jaw near the chin
• Lift the jaw to bring the chin forward
• Mouth to mouth
• Mouth to mask
• Bag and mask device
Giving mouth to mask breath
• Place the mask over victim’s face
• Using the hand that is closer to the top of the
victim’s head ,place your index finger and thumb
along the edges of the mask
• Place the thumb of your second hand along the
bottom edges of the mask
• Place the remaining fingers of your second hand
along the bony margins of the jaw and lift the jaw
• Deliver air over 1 sec
Types of Drag and carry
Types of Drag and carry
1. Tied-hands crawling
2. Crawling techniques
3. One person arm carry
4. One person pack-strap carry
5. Fire fighters carry
6. Two persons drag
7. Two persons carry (by arm and legs)
8. Chair carry
1. Ankle pull
2. Shoulder pull
3. Blanket drag
4. Two handed seat
5. Four handed seat
6. Three person carry
7. Removal downstairs