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First aid and bls easy



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  • 1. 1
  • 2. 2 First Aid Skills
  • 3. 3 Lesson 1
  • 4. 4 Objectives Fundamentals of First Aid 1. Define the meaning of First Aid. 2. Explain how to use the 911 system. 3. Explain the first concern when giving first aid. 4. Explain when to move and when not to move an injured person. 5. List the four steps of victim assessment.
  • 5. 5  First Aid is the care given to an injured person to stabilize and keep him / her safe until he / she can receive professional medical attention. DEFINITION
  • 6. 6 AIMS OF FIRST AID • Preserve life • Prevent the casualty’s condition from becoming worse • Promote recovery
  • 7. 7 Scenario: A man has been hit by a car and thrown into the street. He is wearing shorts, and blood is flowing. What looks like a bone is sticking out of his leg.
  • 8. 8 a. The first rule of first aid and the primary concern is: SAFETY b. The second concern is, unless the victim is in a life-threatening situation, he or she should: NOT BE MOVED Two Major Concerns
  • 9. 9 Giving First Aid RAP ABCH R is for Responsiveness Is the victim conscious? Touch their shoulder, ask if they are alright. Ask if they need help. If they say no, then proceed no further If yes, or no response, then proceed to A
  • 10. 10 A is for Activate EMS or 911
  • 11. 11  Your name  The emergency  The location of the emergency  Condition of the victim How to Use 911 System The four things you need to remember when making a 911 call
  • 12. 12 When To Move An Injured Person P is for Position • Only re-position the victim if the victim is in further danger in their present location. • That does not seem to be spinal injury and additional care requires moving them.
  • 13. 13  If there are suspected spinal injuries, do not move the victim (except when the victim is in a life threatening situation). when an injured person should not be moved?
  • 14. 14 Use the mnemonic “ABCH” Four Steps of Victim Assessment A is for airway Use your finger to sweep the mouth to remove any seen object. If this fails, then perform the Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrusts. check to see if the airway is blocked.
  • 15. 15 B is for breathing Look, listen and feel by watching the chest and placing your cheek a few inches above the mouth of the victim to sense any movement of air. If the victim is not breathing, they may need their head repositioned.
  • 16. 16 C is for circulation If there is not a pulse, then this person needs CPR. The best place to check for a pulse is the carotid.
  • 17. 17 H is for Hemorrhaging If the victim is bleeding, then provide the necessary care.
  • 18. 18 Lesson II
  • 19. 19 Objectives Choking, Shock and Weather- Related Ailments 1. Review Victim Assessment from lesson 1 2. Explain and Demonstrate the Heimlich maneuver. 3. Explain and Demonstrate how to treat for shock. 4. Explain the treatment for hot- and cold- weather-related injuries or ailments.
  • 20. 20 Heimlich Maneuver Used only when the victim is conscious and is unable to breath or cough. If Victim is coughing, encourage to continue. If the victim goes unconscious, check ABC
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 22 1. Stand behind victim. 2. Wrap arms around victim’s waist and not around the ribs. 3. Make a fist and place the thumb side of your fist just slightly above the navel. 4. Grab your fist with your other hand.
  • 23. 23 5. Press into the victim’s stomach with five quick upward thrusts. Each thrust should have a pause in between. 6. After every five thrusts, recheck the victim. Repeat until the object has been dislodged.
  • 24. 24  Preserve body heat by placing a blanket or cover over the victim, or move the victim, if possible, to a warmer environment. Shock - Treatment
  • 25. 25
  • 26. 26 If the shock is the result of an allergic reaction, then follow victim's instructions for treating allergy and monitor the "ABCH" until medical attention arrives. Allergic Reaction
  • 27. 27  Spinal injury – do not move the victim.  If result of a head injury or if victim has difficulty breathing, elevate head and shoulders by placing a pillow or blanket under head.  If the victim is unconscious or vomiting, then turn the victim on their left side so the stomach is on the left side of the body.
  • 28. 28  If no, elevate legs eight to twelve inches off the ground.  If less then two hours from medical care, then do not give fluids (except to those who are conscious and are severely burned).  If no, give small and periodic amounts of water (only if conscious).  Wait for medical attention to arrive.
  • 29. 29 Weather Related Emergencies  Hyperthermia: Heat related, body unable to cool itself Heat Exhaustion: Skin cold & clammy, person alert Heatstroke: Skin hot, altered state of awareness Hypothermia: Cold related, body unable to warm itself Frostbite: Freezing of the extremities (fingers & toes) Frostnip: First stage of freezing outer layers of skin
  • 30. 30  Move person into a cool place  remove any excess clothing  cool victim with either water,fanning,or cool packs under the armpits or groin  wait for medical attention, in the case of heatstroke. Treatment for Hyperthermia
  • 31. 31 Treatment for Hypothermia  Move the victim out of the cold; handle the victim carefully; replace wet clothes with dry clothes  Insulate from the cold with layered clothing and/or an insulated sleeping bag.
  • 32. 32 Lesson III
  • 33. 33 Objectives 1. Explain and demonstrate first aid for a cut. 2. Explain how to treat a blister. 3. Explain and demonstrate first aid for a puncture wound. 4. Explain and demonstrate first aid for arterial bleeding of an arm or leg. 5. Explain and demonstrate how to stop bleeding.
  • 34. 34  Remove the object or clothing that is causing the blister.  Wash with warm water and soap.  Use a sterile needle to pop the blister at its base and drain.  keep it free from further irritation. Blister Treatment
  • 35. 35  Larger wounds - never remove barriers (may cause wound to bleed again).  Wash gently with outward strokes to move dirt and bacteria away from wound.  Use a stream of water to flush it out. Dry carefully, apply antibacterial ointment (for small wounds) and sterile bandage. Puncture Wound Treatment
  • 36. 36 2. Treating punctures: a. If the object has already been removed, treat the wound based on the type of bleeding that has occurred. b. The object acts as a plug and should not be removed c. The most important thing is to keep the object from moving
  • 37. 37  Wash hands with soap and water.  Apply direct pressure to the cut until it stops bleeding.  Gently wash with soap and water and rinse it for a few minutes.  Dry and add a bandage with small dab of ointment on it. Minor Cut Treatment
  • 38. 38  Check RAP ABCH first.  Try to stop the bleeding using direct pressure.  If the bleeding stops, treat for shock.  If not, then: Elevate that part of the body above the victim's heart and continue with direct pressure. Arterial Bleeding
  • 39. 39 Lesson IV
  • 40. 40 Objectives 1. Explain and demonstrate how to respond to poisonings. 2. Explain and demonstrate first aid for insect bites. 3. Explain how to remove a splinter from a finger. 4. Explain how to treat poisonings.
  • 41. 41 Poisons Poisons can enter the body one of four ways: 1. Inhalation 2. Ingestion 3. Injection 4. Absorption
  • 42. 42 absorbed, like Poison ivy,  Immediately wash the area with soap and water.  Then take a cool bath and apply calamine lotion.  If it spreads and painful, then seek medical attention. Poisoning Treatment
  • 43. 43 Poisonous injections: i.e. Snakebites,  Identify the snake, if possible.  Then clean the bite with soap and water and keep bite below heart level.  Seek medical attention.
  • 44. 44 If the poison is inhaled or swallowed;  Check "ABCH" and treat for shock.  Seek medical attention
  • 45. 45  If possible, try to catch the spider or insect without risk to you.  Check to see if the stinger is in the skin.  If not, Clean the area, apply ice to reduce swelling. Insect Bite or Sting Treatment
  • 46. 46  If stinger is found, gently scrape the stinger out of the wound using a plastic card or fingernail, pulling away from the wound to minimize amount of toxin released into the body.  Do not squeeze stinger. Treat wound as a minor cut.
  • 47. 47 check to see if the victim is allergic to the bite.  Look for signs of shock and swelling.  If no, then seek medical attention or an adult for assistance.  If yes, check “ABCH,” treat for shock, and immediately seek medical attention.
  • 48. 48 Lesson V
  • 49. 49 Objectives 1. Demonstrate and explain first aid for simple burns
  • 50. 50 Burns – Degrees of Burns First-degree burn a. Only the top layer of skin is burned b. The skin is only mildly discolored c. There is only a little swelling d. These burns usually heal within a week.
  • 51. 51 First-Degree Burn Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis First Degree Burn Damage to the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing pain, redness, and swelling. Redness (Erythema)
  • 52. 52 Second-degree burn a) several layers of skin are burned. b) The skin has a spotty or blotchy appearance. c) There is greater swelling, and there are blisters d) These burns take up to three weeks to heal and should be attended by a physician
  • 53. 53 Second-Degree Burn Second Degree Burn Damage to both outer skin and underlying tissue layers (epidermis and dermis), causing pain, redness, swelling, and blistering. Blisters (Bulla)
  • 54. 54 Third-degree burn a. Many layers of skin are burned. b. There is severe discoloration. c. Some skin may be charred d. These burns can be life threatening
  • 55. 55 Third-Degree Burn Third Degree Burn Damage extends deeper into tissues (epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis) causing extensive tissue destruction. The skin may feel numb. Full thickness burn with tissue damage
  • 56. 56 Degree of Burns First Degree Burn Second Degree Burn Third Degree Burn Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis
  • 57. 57 Heat Burn Treatment  Go through “RAPABCH” first, then ask if burn was caused by heat.  Determine degree and amount of burn.  If it is a third-degree burn or large second- degree burn, use the “ABCH”, then treat for shock.  Do not attempt to pull off the clothing because skin may come with it.
  • 58. 58  Cut it off if attached to the skin.  Apply a sterile dressing and elevate.  Seek immediate medical attention.  Burn is first-degree or small second- degree, apply cold water/compress until pain stops.  Do not apply an ointment.
  • 59. 59 Chemical Burn Treatment  Determine if burn was caused by a dry chemical.  If so, brush it off, remove clothing, wash area fifteen to twenty minutes.  If not caused by dry chemical, remove clothing and jewelry, wash area for fifteen to twenty minutes.  Seek medical attention both cases.
  • 60. 60 Electrical Burn Treatment Is victim in contact with electrical source, are you at risk?? yes, turn off power. Treatment same as heat burn.
  • 61. Basic life support
  • 62. Cardiac arrest Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart ceases to produce an effective Pulse and blood circulation.
  • 63. Cpr Cardio pulmonary resuscitation • Chest compression • Airway • Breathing • Defibrillation
  • 64. Basic life support Objectives • Tell the basic steps of CPR • Show the basic steps of CPR
  • 65. First step of bls Assessment • Make sure that the scene is safe • Check response • Check to see if the victim is breathing ( check for no breathing or no normal breathing) Don’t be panic
  • 66. Step ii Activate the Emergency Medical Service
  • 67. Step iii • Pulse check…. • Palpate carotid pulse • Take 5sec. Not more than 10 sec circulation
  • 68. Step iv Begin chest compression Technique • Position of the victim • Position yourself • Put the heel of one hand on the centre of the victim’s chest on the lower half of breast bone • Put the heel of your other hand on the top of the first hand
  • 69. • Straighten your arms and position your shoulders directly over your hands • Push hard and fast Press down AT LEAST 5cm (2 inch) Deliver compression in a smooth fashion at a rate of AT LEAST 100/min • Allow complete chest recoil • Minimize interruptions
  • 70. Opening the airway • Place one hand on the victim’s forehead and push with your palm to tilt the head back • Place the fingers of the other hand under the bony part of the lower jaw near the chin • Lift the jaw to bring the chin forward
  • 71. Breathing • Mouth to mouth • Mouth to mask • Bag and mask device
  • 72. Giving mouth to mask breath • Position • Place the mask over victim’s face • Using the hand that is closer to the top of the victim’s head ,place your index finger and thumb along the edges of the mask
  • 73. • Place the thumb of your second hand along the bottom edges of the mask • Place the remaining fingers of your second hand along the bony margins of the jaw and lift the jaw • Deliver air over 1 sec
  • 74. 74 Types of Drag and carry Techniques
  • 75. 75 Types of Drag and carry Techniques 1. Tied-hands crawling 2. Crawling techniques 3. One person arm carry 4. One person pack-strap carry 5. Fire fighters carry 6. Two persons drag 7. Two persons carry (by arm and legs) 8. Chair carry
  • 76. 76 1. Ankle pull 2. Shoulder pull 3. Blanket drag 4. Two handed seat 5. Four handed seat 6. Three person carry 7. Removal downstairs
  • 77. 77 Tied-hands crawling
  • 78. 78 One Person Arm Carry
  • 79. 79 One Person Pack-strap Carry
  • 80. 80 Fire Fighters Carry
  • 81. 81 Two Persons Drag/ Human Crutch
  • 82. 82 Two persons carry (by arms & legs)
  • 83. 83 Chairs Carry
  • 84. 84 Ankle Pull
  • 85. 85 Shoulders Pull
  • 86. 86 Blanket Drag
  • 87. 87 Two handed seat
  • 88. 88 Four Handed Seat
  • 89. 89 Three persons carry
  • 90. 90 Removal Downstairs
  • 91. 91
  • 92. 93 THAT’S ALL
  • 93. 94 THANK U ALL