Serious Videogames Fatworld - Nutrition Education / Social Change Persuasive Games
Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death, exceeding tobacco.
66% of Americans are overweight or obese.
Combating childhood obesity...
Combating childhood obesity... ...is now a national priority.
“Obesity is estimated to cause 112,000deaths per year in the United States…”“… one-third of all children born in theyear 2000 are expected to develop diabetesduring their lifetime.”The current generation may even be ontrack to have a shorter lifespan than theirparents.
HealthcareChildhood obesity is estimated at $3 billion per year in direct medical costs.
nature publishing group ARTICLES BEHAVIOR AND PSYCHOLOGYSchools Overweight Is Associated With Decreased Healthcare Cognitive Functioning Among School-age Children and Adolescents Yanfeng Li1, Qi Dai2, James C. Jackson3–5 and Jian Zhang1,6 Objective: Childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past two decades, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences. We examined the associations between academic performance (AP), cognitive functioning (CF), and increased BMI in a nationally representative sample of children. “Overweight is associated Methods and Procedures: Participants were 2,519 children aged 8–16 years, who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and measures of height and weight as a part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted between 1988 and 1994. Z-scores were calculated for each neuropsychological test, and poor performance was defined as z-score <2. with decreased Results: The association between BMI and AP was not significant after adjusting for parental/familial characteristics. However, the associations between CF remained significant after adjusting for parental/familial characteristic, sports participation, physical activity, hours spent watching TV, psychosocial development, blood pressure, and serum lipid profile. Z-scores on block design (a measure of visuospatial organization and general mental ability) among overweight cognitive functioning children and children at risk of overweight were below those of normal-weight children by 0.22 (s.e. = 0.16) and 0.10 (s.e. = 0.10) unit, respectively (P for trend <0.05). The odds of poor performance on block design were 1.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.01–3.83) and 2.80 (1.16–6.75), respectively, among children at risk or overweight compared to normal-weight peers. among school-age children Discussion: Increased body weight is independently associated with decreased visuospatial organization and general mental ability among children. Future research is needed to determine the nature, persistence, and functional significance of this association. Obesity (2008) 16, 1809–1815. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.296 INTRODUCTION e prevalence and severity of overweight is increasing dra- matically in children and adolescents (1). e short- and long- and adolescents” less clear whether these ndings hold true for children because of inconsistent conclusion from previous studies. Li observed that among Chinese elementary school children, severely obese term associations between overweight and a range of adverse children had signi cantly lower intelligence quotient than the health-related outcomes are well established and raise the level controls (4). Mo-suwan et al. found that an association between of importance for understanding overweight as a major public overweight status and poor school performance existed among health concern for children and adolescents. Few studies have ai children from grades 7 to 9 but not 3 to 6 (ref. 5). However, been speci cally designed and conducted to examine the asso- Datar et al. concluded that among American kindergartners, ciation between overweight and cognitive functioning (CF), signi cant di erences in test scores by overweight status were possibly because of the general assumption that overweight or explained by parental education and home environment rather obesity per se is not a primary risk factor for poor cognitive than overweight status per se (6). ese inconsistent ndings performance, but merely predisposes or exacerbates other risk may be related to the biosocial complexities of childhood over- factors for cardiovascular diseases (2). Limited number of stud- weight, academic performance (AP), and CF. Parental factors, ies have provided some evidence that increased body weight such as the provision of a stimulating home environment, play status per se is associated with lowered CF in men (2,3). It is critical roles in the development of overweight, less satisfactory 1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, the Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Institute for Medicine and Public Health, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA; 3Clinical Research Center for Excellence, VA Tennessee Valley Health Care System, Nashville, Tennessee, USA; 4Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA; 6Division of Health and Family Studies, Institute for Families in Society, University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA. Correspondence: Jian Zhang (JZHANG4@cdc.gov) Received 27 February 2007; accepted 22 September 2007; published online 12 June 2008. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.296 OBESITY | VOLUME 16 NUMBER 8 | AUGUST 2008 1809 Academic achievement is the basis of school funding.
Schools Healthcare Billions have been spent trying improve childrens diet and exercise behavior. Nothing has worked.