Biosafety and ethics in Molecular biology laboratory


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Biosafety and ethics in Molecular biology laboratory

  2. 2. Table of content  Molecular biology laboratory  Biosafety  Principles of Biosafety  Risk assessment  Standard molecular biological practices  Laboratory facilities  Safety equipment
  3. 3. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORTARY Molecular biology laboratory is a place where work is being done to advance understanding of biological processes at the molecular level providing the knowledge needed to solve key problems in human health .
  4. 4. Biosafety  The application of knowledge, techniques and equipment to prevent personal, laboratory and environmental exposure to potentially infectious agents or biohazards.
  5. 5. Principles of Biosafety  A fundamental objective of any biosafety in molecular biology laboratory program is the containment of potentially harmful biological agents.
  6. 6. Principles of Biosafety Containment The term “containment” is used in describing  safe methods  facilities  equipment for managing infectious materials in the laboratory environment where they are being handled or maintained
  7. 7. Principles of Biosafety  Purpose The purpose of containment is to reduce or eliminate exposure of laboratory workers, other persons, and the outside environment to potentially hazardous agents.
  8. 8. Laboratory Practices and Technique Persons working with infectious agents or potentially infected materials must be  aware of potential hazards,  must be trained and  proficient in the practices and techniques required for handling such material safely
  9. 9. Work and Risk Assessment  The work scope must be defined and the hazards and risks must be assessed before work begins.  risk group classification is to be used for laboratory work only.
  10. 10. Risk group classification  Risk Group 1(no or low individual and community risk)  Risk Group 2 (moderate individual risk, low community risk  Risk Group 3 (high individual risk, low community risk)  Risk Group 4 (high individual and community risk)
  11. 11. Standard Microbiological Practices
  12. 12. Bags, lab coats, books etc. should be placed at specified locations
  13. 13. Food Facilities and Eating  Eating, drinking, smoking, handlin g contact lenses, applying cosmetics, and storing food for human consumption are not permitted in laboratory areas. Food must be stored outside the laboratory area in cabinets or refrigerators designated and used for this purpose.
  14. 14. Prohibited Mouth Pipetting  Mouth pipetting is prohibited; mechanical pipetting devices must be used.
  15. 15. Washing hands  Persons must wash their hands after working with potentially hazardous materials and before leaving the laboratory
  16. 16. Safe handling of sharps  Policies for the safe handling of sharps, such as needles, scalpels, pipettes, and broken glassware must be developed and implemented. Whenever practical, laboratory supervisors should adopt improved engineering and work practice controls that reduce risk of sharps
  17. 17. Precautions  Careful management of needles and other sharps are of primary importance. Needles must not be bent, sheared, broken, recapped, removed from disposable syringes, or otherwise manipulated by hand before disposal.  Used disposable needles and syringes must be carefully placed in conveniently located puncture-resistant containers used for sharps disposal.  Non-disposable sharps must be placed in a hard walled container for transport to a processing area for decontamination, preferably by autoclaving.  Broken glassware must not be handled directly. Instead, it must be removed using a brush and dustpan, tongs, or forceps. Plastic ware should be substituted for glassware whenever possible.
  18. 18. Surface and Equipment Decontamination
  19. 19.  The work area should be cleaned and maintained in a sanitary condition. • Surfaces or equipment where work with biological materials is conducted should be routinely decontaminated.
  20. 20. Waste Decontamination and Disposal  Dispose of all biological waste into appropriate receptacles (Orange Biohazard bags).
  21. 21. Continued…  Live cultures can be treated with Clorox bleach or autoclaved.  Do not toss out into regular trash or down drains without autoclaving.
  22. 22. Autoclave Sterilization and Safety sterilize materials or equipment and ensure operator safety
  23. 23. Electricity  The voltages used for electrophoresis are sufficient to cause electrocution. Cover the buffer reservoirs during electrophoresis. Always turn off the power supply and unplug the leads before removing a gel.
  24. 24. Laboratory Facilities
  25. 25. Sink for hand washing  Laboratories must have a sink for hand washing
  26. 26. Emergency Eyewashes  An eyewash station must be readily available in the laboratory
  27. 27. Biosafety manual  Laboratory-specific biosafety manual must be prepared and adopted as policy. The biosafety manual must be available and accessible.
  28. 28. Labels and Signs  Biological materials, agents, waste, potentially contaminated items, and laboratory rooms must be properly identified with labels, signs, or colors. Identification is needed so that responsibilities, material identities, hazards, or controls are communicated to workers, visitors, and others.
  29. 29. Pest Management  Biosafety level require a program to control pests such as insects and rodents.
  30. 30. Labeled Apparatus  Since you will use common facilities, all solutions and everything stored in an incubator, refrigerator, etc. must be labeled
  31. 31. Material Safety Data Sheets for chemicals A number of chemicals used in any molecular biology laboratory are hazardous. MSD’s contains information  chemical name,  health hazard data,  including first aid treatment,  physical data  fire explosion hazard data  reactivity data,  spill or leak procedures  any special precautions needed when handling this chemicals.
  32. 32. Doors for access control  Laboratories should have doors for access control
  33. 33. Drains and Disposal  The laboratory should be designed so that it can be easily cleaned. Carpets and rugs in laboratories are not appropriate
  34. 34. Control Access  The laboratory supervisor must enforce the institutional policies that control access to the laboratory.  Animals and plants not associated with the work being performed must not be permitted in the laboratory
  35. 35. Security  Laboratory doors should be self- closing and have locks  the hosting of visitors and the issuance of gate passes, badges, and/or keys to control access to the site, building, and/or room based on each individual’s business needs
  36. 36. Storage of infectious material Potentially infectious materials must be placed in a durable, leak proof container during  collection  handling,  processing  storage  transport within a facility.
  37. 37. Safety Equipment
  38. 38. Safety Equipment  Personal protection  safety cabinets  Facility Security Plans
  39. 39. Personal protection
  40. 40. Protective laboratory clothing Protective laboratory clothing is a garment such as a  lab coat  Gown  smock  uniform.
  41. 41. Face protection  Face protection is a safety device such as a face mask, face shield, or other splatter guard worn over all or part of the face to protect the face from injury or exposure to biological agents.
  42. 42. Hand Protection  Hand protection is a glove or other safety device used on the hand to prevent injury to the hand or direct skin contact with biological materials.
  43. 43. EYE PROTECTION  Exposure to ultraviolet light can cause acute eye irritation. Since the retina cannot detect UV light, you can have serious eye damage and not realize it until 30 min to 24 hours after exposure. Therefore, always wear appropriate eye protection when using UV lamps.  Use UV goggles and common sense when working with the UV light box.
  44. 44. Vaccination  The use of vaccines may provide an increased level of personal protection  Laboratory personnel receive appropriate immunizations or tests for the agents handled or potentially present in the laboratory (e.g., hepatitis B vaccine or TB skin testing)Cultures, tissues, specimens of body fluids, or potentially infectious wastes
  45. 45. Biosafety Cabinets All manipulations of infectious materials within the laboratory must be conducted in the biological safety cabinet.
  46. 46. Class I  inward airflow protects worker  exhaust to outside (w/wo HEPA filter)
  47. 47. Class II Protects worker, product, environment used with aerosol- transmissible microorganisms, tissue culture
  48. 48. Class III totally enclosed, ventilated, air-tight suitable for work with BSL3/4 agents
  49. 49. Facility Design  The design of a facility is important in providing a barrier to protect people working inside and outside the laboratory, and to protect people or animals in the community from infectious agents which may be accidentally released from the laboratory.
  50. 50. Design features  specialized ventilation systems to assure directional airflow, air treatment systems to decontaminate or remove agents from exhaust air  controlled access zones
  51. 51. Design features  airlocks at laboratory entrances  separate buildings or modules for isolation of the laboratory.
  52. 52. Facility Security Plans
  53. 53. Incident, Accident, and Emergency Response  This guide provides both emergency and nonemergency telephone numbers
  54. 54. First-aid boxes  first-aid boxes provided at strategic locations
  55. 55. Spill kits  spill kits should be provided
  56. 56. Fire prevention and fire protection  fire alarm system  fire detection system  fire doors in good order
  57. 57. Transportation and Transfer of Biological Agents
  58. 58. Transportation  Transportation refers to the packaging and shipping of these materials by air, land, or sea, generally by a commercial conveyance.
  59. 59. Transfer  Transfer refers to the process of exchanging these materials between facilities
  60. 60. Protection Protection is achieved by:  Rigorous packaging  appropriate labeling  documentation of the hazardous contents  training of workers
  61. 61. Working With Human and Other Primate Cells and Tissues  reported as resulting from the handling of human and other primate cells, there is a more significant risk to acquiring infection with HBV or HIV from exposure to human blood and other body fluids
  62. 62. Potential Laboratory Hazards.  chemical agents (e.g. solvents and staining reagents),  physical agents (e.g. radioisotopes),  biological agents (e.g. viruses and bacteria). Many of these substances are hazardous (toxic, irritant, infectious, and allergenic) and they also include known or suspected carcinogens.
  63. 63. Diseases caused by Potential Laboratory Hazards certain cancers in  lymphoma  brain  thyroid among women  Leukemia  skin  lung
  64. 64. Guidelines for Work With Toxins or hazards  The laboratory facilities, equipment, and procedures appropriate for work with toxins of biological origin must reflect the intrinsic level of hazard posed by a particular toxin as well as the potential risk s inherent in the operations perform ed. If both toxins and infectious agents are used, both must be considered when containment equipment is selected and policies and procedures are written. If animals are used, animal safety practices must also be considered
  65. 65. CONCLUSION The objective of containment is to confine biohazards and to reduce the potential exposure of the laboratory worker, persons outside of the laboratory, and the environment to potentially infectious agents.