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Asdm presentation 5 14-14

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  • In 11 languages, including
    English - US
    English - Canada
    English – UK
    English - Ireland
    Spanish - US
    Spanish - Spain
    French - Canada
    French - France
    Italian
    Czech
    Japanese
  • Background Questionnaire: a core set of background questions that includes: age, gender, highest level of education, country of birth and, if applicable, native language, labor force status and occupation.

    Education and Skills Online Components
    Behavioral characteristics related to academic and workforce readiness
    Health and Subjective Well-Being
    Career Interest and Intentionality
    Work / Training History
    Skill Use

    Reporting Scores
  • Transcript

    • 1. U.S. Results From the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), 2012 May 14th, 2014 Daniel McGrath National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) U.S. Department of Education 1
    • 2. 2 Presentation overview What is PIAAC?1. Overview of U.S. results2. Literacy skill levels and other outcomes3. Low-skilled adults in the U.S.4. Education and Skills Online5. Questions and Discussion6.
    • 3. What is PIAAC? 3
    • 4. 4 About PIAAC International large-scale assessment administered in 2011-12 in 23 countries 16- to 65-year-olds, non-institutionalized, residing in the country, irrespective of nationality, citizenship, or language status Laptop computer or paper-and- pencil: In the U.S., 80% took the computer tests and 15% took the paper-and-pencil tests. Assessment subjects: Literacy Numeracy Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments or digital problem solving Conducted in English in the U.S.: Background survey in English or Spanish. About 4% could not complete the questionnaire because of language difficulties or learning or mental disabilities, and 1% could not complete it for other reasons.
    • 5. 5 Definitions of the assessment subjects Literacy is understanding, evaluating, using and engaging with written texts to participate in society, to achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential. Numeracy is the ability to access, use, interpret, and communicate mathematical information and ideas, in order to engage in and manage the mathematical demands of a range of situations in adult life. Problem solving in technology-rich environments involves using digital technology, communication tools and networks to acquire and evaluate information, communicate with others and perform practical tasks.
    • 6. Literacy item Level = 1 Literacy example – low difficulty
    • 7. Literacy item Level = 4 (low) Literacy example – moderate difficulty
    • 8. Numeracy item Level = 2 Numeracy example – low difficulty
    • 9. Problem Solving Level=2 [Note that PIAAC Problem Solving scale has the following levels--Below Level 1, Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3] Problem solving example – moderate difficulty
    • 10. 10 Participating countries 10 2012 2015 Australia Austria Belgium Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea, Rep of Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United Kingdom United States Chile Greece Indonesia Israel Lithuania New Zealand Singapore Slovenia Turkey
    • 11. What PIAAC reports Average Scores: Reported on a scale of 0-500 for all domains. Proficiency Levels: Reported as the percentages of adults scoring at six performance levels in literacy and numeracy and at four performance levels in problem solving in technology-rich environments. 11
    • 12. U.S. Results 12
    • 13. General patterns of U.S. results  Below international average in all subject areas  Ranked better in literacy than in numeracy or problem solving in technology-rich environments  Higher percentage at low proficiency levels than international average  Percentages of top performers similar to or slightly lower than international average, depending on the subject  Performance gap between young and older population smaller than the average gap internationally 13
    • 14. 14 U.S. average scores lower than the international averages
    • 15. Literacy proficiency levels Locate single piece of information in familiar texts. Read relatively short digital, print or mixed texts to locate single text. Make matches between text and information that may require low level para- phrasing and drawing low-level inferences. Identify, interpret, or evaluate one or more pieces of information and often require varying levels of inference. Perform multiple- step operations to integrate, interpret, or synthesize information from complex texts, and may require complex inferences. Integrate information across multiple, dense texts; construct syntheses, ideas or points of view; or evaluate evidence based arguments. Below Level 1 (0-175) Level 1 176-225 Level 2 226-275 Level 3 276-325 Level 4 326-375 Level 5 376+ 15
    • 16. Numeracy proficiency levels Perform basic tasks: counting, arithmetic operations with whole numbers. Perform one- step tasks: count; sort; arithmetic operations; understanding simple percent (ex. 50%). Perform 2 or more calculations, simple measurement; spatial representation; estimation; and interpret simple tables, graphs. Understand & work with mathematical patterns, proportions, basic statistics expressed in verbal or numerical form. Perform analysis, complex reasoning, statistics and chance; spatial relationships; and communicat- ing well- reasoned explanations for answers. Understand complex abstract mathema- tical and statistical ideas, embedded in complex texts, draw inferences; arguments or models; justify, reflect on solutions or choices. Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 16
    • 17. Problem solving in technology-rich environments (digital problem solving) proficiency levels Tasks are well- defined involving use of only one function within a generic interface. Tasks require little or no navigation, and only a few steps to access information for solving the problem. There are few monitoring demands. Tasks require some navigation across pages and applications for solving the problem. Evaluating the relevance, some integration and inferential reasoning may be needed. Task may involve multiple steps and operators, navigation across pages and applications. There are typically high monitoring demands, and evaluation of relevance and reliability of information. Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 17
    • 18. 18 Distribution of literacy skills in the U.S. and other countries
    • 19. 19 Distribution of numeracy skills in the U.S. and other countries
    • 20. 20 Distribution of digital problem solving skills in the U.S. and other countries
    • 21. Literacy skill levels and other outcomes 21
    • 22. 22 In literacy, U.S. gaps larger by educational attainment and skill level of job, but similar to international average by income and employment status
    • 23. 23 Source: Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012) - Low trust in others - Low levels of political efficacy - Low levels of volunteering - Poor health Adults at or below level 1 in literacy are more likely than those at level 4/5 to report:
    • 24. 24 Source: Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012) Participation rate in adult education by literacy proficiency levels Lower-skilled adults less likely to be in training… …Still, about 30% of U.S. adults at lowest level had training in last 12 months
    • 25. Low-skilled adults in the U.S. 25
    • 26. Literacy skill descriptions at the lower levels 26 Can read brief texts on familiar topics to locate a single piece of specific information. Only basic vocabulary knowledge is required, and the reader is not required to understand the structure of sentences or paragraphs. Can read relatively short digital or print continuous, non-continuous, or mixed texts to locate a single piece of information. Knowledge and skill in recognizing basic vocabulary determining the meaning of sentences, and reading paragraphs of text is expected. Can integrate two or more pieces of information based on criteria, compare and contrast or reason about information and make low-level inferences. Navigate within digital texts to access and identify information. 0 175 275225Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 27. 27 How many low-skilled adults in the U.S.? 33% at level 2 times 206 M adults 16-65 = ~68 million 14% at level 1 ~29 million 4% below level 1 ~8 million 4% literacy-related non-response ~8 million
    • 28. 28 Source: Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012) U.S. national dataset Race/ethnicity of adults with low literacy skills in the U.S. More than half of U.S. adult population below level 1 or at level 1 are black or Hispanic
    • 29. 29 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Employment status 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Employed full-time (52%) Employed part-time (12%) Unemployed (8%) In school (10%) Retired (4%)Permanently disabled (5%) Looking after family (6%) Other (3%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 30. 30 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Gender 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Men (49%) Women (51%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 31. 31 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Age 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 16-24 (18%) 25-34 (20%) 35-44 (20%) 45-54 (22%) 55-65 (19%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 32. 32 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Educational attainment 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Grad or prof. degree (10%) Bachelor’s degree (16%) Associate’s degree (9%) High school credential (50%) Below high school (15%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 33. 33 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? First language 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 English as first language (85%) Other as first language (15%) Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 34. 34 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Immigration status 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Born in U.S. (85%) Not Born in U.S. (15%) Percentageofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 35. 35 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Occupation 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Legislators, officials, and managers (10%) Professionals (21%) Technicians and associates (16%) Clerks (8%) Service workers/sales (21%) Crafts and trades workers (9%) Machine operators (6%) Elementary occupations (8%) Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 36. 36 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Industry 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Percentageofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 37. An online assessment tool for providers (and others): Education and Skills Online 37
    • 38. What is Education & Skills Online An assessment tool designed to provide individual level results linked to PIAAC Measures both cognitive and non-cognitive skills In the US it is available both in English and Spanish Will be downloadable on demand over the internet 38
    • 39. Education & Skills Online components Background Questionnaire Cognitive Items: • Literacy • Numeracy • Problem-solving in Technology rich environment (optional) • Reading Components (optional) Optional Non-Cognitive Module Reporting Scores: • Proficiency levels • Strengths and weaknesses • Summary information for each non-cognitive areas • Internationally comparative information 39
    • 40. Uses and benefits of Education & Skills Online Appropriate for use in both educational and workplace settings Can be used to evaluate classes, programs or any group of respondents Organizations will have access to their database for further analyses Tests cover a wide range of skills and domains Individuals and organizations have flexibility to determine which skills to assess 40
    • 41. Additional household sample (3,600) focusing on: • unemployed adults (ages 16–65) • two groups of young adults (ages 16–24 and 25–34) • older adults (ages 66–74) Separate sample of 1,200 incarcerated adults (ages 16– 74) Results should be available late 2015 or early 2016 Additional Data Collection: U.S. National Supplement
    • 42. For more information 42 Questions and Discussion NCES: http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/piaac/ or Eugene Owen: 202-502-7422 eugene.owen@ed.gov OECD: http://www.oecd.org/site/piaac/ PIAAC Data Explorer http://piaacdataexplorer.oecd.org/ide/idepiaac/ More: http://piaacgateway.com/
    • 43. 43 Tables behind the charts
    • 44. 44 U.S. Pop. 16-65 = approx. 200 million Percent of subpopulation Percent of populatio n Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 4 14 33 Employment status Employed full-time 52 4 12 31 Employed part-time 12 4 15 36 Unemployed 8 5 24 41 In school 10 2 10 35 Retired 4 3 16 36 Permanently disabled 5 14 29 40 Looking after family 6 3 14 38 Other 3 5 12 35 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Employment status
    • 45. 45 Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 4 14 33 Gender Men 49 4 14 31 Women 51 4 13 34 Age 16-24 19 2 12 37 25-34 20 4 12 30 35-44 20 3 14 31 45-54 22 6 14 32 55-65 19 5 16 34 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Gender and age
    • 46. 46 Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 4 14 33 Educational attainment Grad/professional degree 10 # 2 15 Bachelor’s degree 16 1 4 22 Associate’s degree 9 1 6 34 High school credential 50 3 17 41 Below high school 15 15 31 37 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Educational attainment
    • 47. 47 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Occupation Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 4 14 33 Occupation classification Legislators, officials, and managers 10 1 6 22 Professionals 21 # 3 20 Technicians and associates 16 2 8 32 Clerks 8 1 11 34 Service workers/sales 21 5 17 37 Crafts and trades workers 9 4 19 42 Machine operators 6 9 20 45 Elementary occupations 8 12 26 37 Estimates for occupations not shown do not meet reporting standards.
    • 48. 48 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Industry Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 4 14 33 Industry classification Manufacturing 11 4 13 35 Construction 7 5 22 41 Retail trade 12 4 14 39 Transportation 4 7 22 35 Accommodation and food service 7 9 21 33 Information and communication 4 * 3 19 Financial services 5 1 9 22 Professional and scientific 5 1 2 19 Administrative 6 8 17 43 Public administration 7 1 8 25 Education 9 1 4 23 Health 14 4 12 34 Arts and entertainment 2 2 12 28 Other 3 3 9 34 Estimates for industries not shown do not meet reporting standards.
    • 49. 49 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in literacy? Language, immigration status Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 4 14 33 Language English as first language 85 2 12 34 Other as first language 15 15 24 33 Immigration Status Born in U.S. 85 2 12 34 Not born in U.S. 15 15 25 31
    • 50. 50 U.S. Pop. 16-65 = approx. 200 million Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 9 20 33 Employment status Employed full-time 52 7 17 33 Employed part-time 12 9 22 36 Unemployed 8 18 32 34 In school 10 6 21 37 Retired 4 10 21 36 Permanently disabled 5 28 32 31 Looking after family 6 9 22 39 Other 3 10 18 34 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Employment status
    • 51. 51 Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 9 20 33 Gender Men 49 8 18 30 Women 51 10 21 35 Age 16-24 19 7 22 37 25-34 20 8 17 32 35-44 20 8 19 29 45-54 22 11 19 33 55-65 19 11 21 33 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Gender and age
    • 52. 52 Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 9 20 33 Educational attainment Grad/professional degree 10 1 4 20 Bachelor’s degree 16 1 8 27 Associate’s degree 9 3 13 42 High school credential 50 9 26 40 Below high school 15 30 33 28 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Educational attainment
    • 53. 53 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Occupation Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 9 20 33 Occupation classification Legislators, officials, and managers 10 2 9 25 Professionals 21 1 7 25 Technicians and associates 16 5 15 37 Clerks 8 4 16 44 Service workers/sales 21 13 25 36 Crafts and trades workers 9 8 23 39 Machine operators 6 14 27 41 Elementary occupations 8 20 30 32 Estimates for occupations not shown do not meet reporting standards.
    • 54. 54 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Language and immigration status Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 16 33 26 Language English as first language 85 7 20 35 Other as first language 15 23 26 28 Immigration Status Born in U.S. 85 7 20 35 Not born in U.S. 15 23 25 27
    • 55. 55 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Industry Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 All U.S. 16-65 100 Industry classification Manufacturing 1 7 16 34 Construction 7 9 25 39 Retail trade 12 8 23 37 Transportation 4 11 24 39 Accommodation and food service 7 16 26 33 Information and communication 4 1 6 24 Financial services 5 3 12 32 Professional and scientific 5 1 7 22 Administrative 6 13 25 40 Public administration 7 4 14 29 Education 9 2 8 33 Health 14 10 20 35 Arts and entertainment 2 7 16 30 Other 3 7 13 35 Estimates for industries not shown do not meet reporting standards.
    • 56. 56 U.S. Pop. 16-65 = approx. 200 million Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper & pencil All U.S. 16-65 100 16 33 26 16 Employment status Employed full-time 52 16 35 30 13 Employed part-time 12 17 37 26 16 Unemployed 8 25 30 18 25 In school 10 9 39 37 6 Retired 4 21 31 18 28 Permanently disabled 5 19 24 5 51 Looking after family 6 15 36 30 15 Other 3 16 34 28 17 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Employment status
    • 57. 57 Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper & pencil All U.S. 16-65 100 16 33 26 16 Gender Men 49 15 30 26 17 Women 51 16 36 26 15 Age 16-24 19 11 39 31 7 25-34 20 14 33 32 10 35-44 20 17 31 28 13 45-54 22 18 33 22 20 55-65 19 18 31 17 27 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Gender and age
    • 58. 58 Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper & pencil All U.S. 16-65 100 16 33 26 16 Educational attainment Grad/professional degree 10 5 31 48 3 Bachelor’s degree 16 8 34 42 5 Associate’s degree 9 14 42 32 6 High school credential 50 21 37 22 17 Below high school 15 19 26 12 41 Who are the low skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Educational attainment
    • 59. 59 U.S. Pop. 16-65 = approx. 200 million Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Literacy- related non-resp Took paper & pencil All U.S. 16-65 100 33 26 5 4 16 Employment status Employed full-time 52 35 30 7 # 13 Employed part-time 12 37 26 4 # 16 Unemployed 8 30 18 2 # 25 In school 10 39 37 8 # 6 Apprentice/intern # ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Retired 4 31 18 1 1 28 Permanently disabled 5 24 5 # # 51 Compulsory service ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Looking after family 6 36 30 4 # 15 Other 3 34 28 5 # 17 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Employment status
    • 60. 60 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Occupation Perc. of. pop. Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Lit. non- resp. Took P&P All U.S. 16-65 100 20 41 33 4 16 Occupation classification Legislators, officials, and managers 10 12 33 44 # 4 Professionals 21 8 33 46 # 3 Technicians and associates 16 15 45 35 # 8 Clerks 8 18 45 33 # 6 Service workers/sales 21 27 44 26 # 16 Crafts and trades workers 9 29 43 24 # 20 Machine operators 6 35 48 15 # 34 Elementary occupations 8 27 46 24 # 34 Estimates for occupations not shown do not meet reporting standards.
    • 61. 61 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Industry Percent of subpopulation Perc. of pop.Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Lit. non- resp. Took p&p All U.S. 16-65 100 16 33 26 4 16 Industry classification Manufacturing 11 18 42 32 # 17 Construction 6 34 41 23 # 24 Retail trade 12 25 42 30 # 14 Transportation 4 34 42 22 # 20 Accommodation & food service 6 24 45 27 # 21 Information and communication 5 4 32 46 # 6 Financial services 5 10 40 40 # 4 Professional and scientific 6 6 33 48 # 3 Administrative 5 26 45 25 # 18 Public administration 7 14 36 40 # 6 Education 10 10 39 42 # 4 Health 14 21 43 31 # 11 Arts and entertainment 3 12 40 37 # 6 Other 3 13 45 38 # 15 Estimates for industries not shown do not meet reporting standards.
    • 62. 62 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Language and Immigration status Percent of subpopulation Percent of population Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Literacy-related non-resp Took paper & pencil All U.S. 16-65 100 16 33 26 4 16 Language English as first language 85 16 36 29 # 13 Other as first language 15 22 24 15 1 36 Immigration Status Born in U.S. 85 18 42 34 # 13 Not born in U.S. 15 37 39 22 # 36
    • 63. U.S. average literacy score (270) lower than the international average (273) Lower than in 12 countries: Japan, Finland, Netherlands, Australia, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, Flanders-Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Canada, Republic of Korea Not significantly different than in 5 countries: England and Northern Ireland- U.K., Denmark, Germany, Austria, Cyprus Higher than in 5 countries: Poland, Ireland, France, Spain, Italy 63
    • 64. U.S. average numeracy score (253) lower than the international average (269) Lower than in 18 countries: Japan, Finland, Flanders-Belgium, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Slovak Republic, Czech Republic, Austria, Estonia, Germany, Australia, Canada, Cyprus, Republic of Korea, England and Northern Ireland- U.K., Poland Not significantly different than in 2 countries: Ireland, France Higher than in 2 countries: Italy, Spain 64
    • 65. U.S. average problem solving in technology-rich environments score (277) lower than the international average (283) Lower than in 14 countries: Japan, Finland, Australia, Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, Austria, Denmark, Czech Republic, Republic of Korea, Germany, Canada, Slovak Republic, Flanders-Belgium Not significantly different than in 4 countries: England and Northern Ireland- U.K., Estonia, Ireland, Poland 65
    • 66. 66 U.S. gaps in literacy scores larger than international average by parental education and nativity status
    • 67. U.S. gaps in literacy scores similar to international average by gender, smaller by age, and larger by health status 67
    • 68. U.S. gaps in numeracy scores larger than international average by parental education, not different by nativity status 68
    • 69. 69 In numeracy, U.S. gaps larger by educational attainment, income, and skill level of job, but similar to international average by employment status
    • 70. 70 In numeracy, U.S. gap similar to international average by gender, smaller by age, and larger by health status
    • 71. 71 In problem solving in technology-rich environments, U.S. gaps similar to international average by educational attainment, income, employment status, and skill level of job
    • 72. 72 In problem solving in technology-rich environments, U.S. gaps similar to international average by gender and health status, but smaller by age
    • 73. U.S. average literacy score in 2012 not significantly different from 2003, but lower than in 1994 73*p < .05. Average score is significantly different from PIAAC. IALS: 273* ALL: 268 PIAAC: 270 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 1994 2003 2012
    • 74. U.S. average numeracy score in 2012 lower than in 2003 74 *p < .05. Average score is significantly different from PIAAC. ALL: 262* PIAAC: 253 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 2003 2012
    • 75. 75 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Employment status 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Employed full- time (52%) Employed part-time (12%) Unemployed (8%) In school (10%) Retired (4%) Permanently disabled (5%) Looking after family (6%) Other (3%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 76. 76 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Gender 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Men (49%) Women (51%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 77. 77 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Age 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 16-24 (18%) 25-34 (20%) 35-44 (20%) 45-54 (22%) 55-65 (19%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 78. 78 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Educational attainment 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Grad or prof. degree (10%) Bachelor’s degree (16%) Associate’s degree (9%) High school credential (50%) Below high school (15%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 79. 79 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? First language 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 English as first language (85%) Other as first language (15%) Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 80. 80 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Immigration status 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Born in U.S. (85%) Not Born in U.S. (15%) Percentageofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 81. 81 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Occupation 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Legislators, officials, and managers (10%) Professionals (21%) Technicians and associates (16%) Clerks (8%) Service workers/sales (21%) Crafts and trades workers (9%) Machine operators (6%) Elementary occupations (8%) Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 82. 82 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in numeracy? Industry 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2
    • 83. 83 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Employment status 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Employed full-time (52%) Employed part-time (12%) Unemployed (8%) In school (10%) Retired (4%) Permanently disabled (5%) Looking after family (6%) Other (3%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper and pencil
    • 84. 84 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Gender 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Men (49%) Women (51%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper and pencil
    • 85. 85 Who are the low-skilled adults in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Age 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 16-24 (18%) 25-34 (20%) 35-44 (20%) 45-54 (22%) 55-65 (19%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper and pencil
    • 86. 86 Who are the level 1, 2, and 3 in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Educational attainment 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Grad or prof. degree (10%) Bachelor’s degree (16%) Associate’s degree (9%) High school credential (50%) Below high school (15%) Percentageofpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper and pencil
    • 87. 87 Who are the level 1, 2, and 3 in the U.S. in digital problem solving? First language 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 English as first language (85%) Other as first language (15%) Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper and pencil
    • 88. 88 Who are the level 1, 2, and 3 in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Immigration status 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Born in U.S. (85%) Not born in country (15%) Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper and pencil
    • 89. 89 Who are the level 1, 2, and 3 in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Occupation 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Legislators, officials, and managers (10%) Professionals (21%) Technicians and associates (16%) Clerks (8%) Service workers/sales (21%) Crafts and trades workers (9%) Machine operators (6%) Elementary occupations (8%) Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper and pencil
    • 90. 90 Who are the level 1, 2, and 3 in the U.S. in digital problem solving? Industry 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Percentofsubpopulation Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Took paper and pencil