AIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE

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In this, the sixth webinar, we will be Comparing GSM, UMTS & LTE

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  • My name is Adam and I am the learning and development manager here at Aircom. My expertise lies in the transfer of knowledge and ensuring our customers have the right knowledge and skills to use our products and improve their networks.

    If you have as training need or knowledge gap please get in touch with me as we a large range RAN portfolio which we can deliver through a number of different training methods which suit your needs best.

    Graham is our lead LTE trainer and has been developing and delivery training for Aircom for a number of years and the will be the main speaker.
  • Here is the LTE training portfolio, please get in touch if you would like more information on any of the courses.
  • Dedicated HSDPA carrier
  • [CL] 16QAM3/4 is the least robust, it’ll only happen if channel quality supports it.
  • AIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE

    1. 1. © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd AIRCOM LTE Webinar Series: Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE The webinar will start shortly.
    2. 2. 2 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd About the Presenters Graham Whyley – Lead Technical Trainer  AIRCOM Technical Master Trainer since 2005  Currently responsible for all LTE training course creation and delivery  Over 20 years of training experience at companies including British Telecom and Fujitsu Contact us at training@aircominternational.com Paul Raby –  Paul Raby Ph.D, B.Sc(ENG), MIET, MIEEE  RAN Planning Expert at Aircom since 2001  Over 17 years at LJMU Principal Lecturer Telecommunications
    3. 3. 3 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd RAN Optimization SON Fault Management Performance Management Service Quality Management Backhaul Planning Small Cell Planning Automated Cell Planning Capacity Planning Network Lifecycle Solutions Plan AssureOptimize Analyze Radio Planning Automated Freq. Planning Spectrum Refarming Geo-location Geo AnalyticsRAN Analytics
    4. 4. 4 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd LTE PORTFOLIO ACCREDITATION COURSES A202 AIRCOM Accredited LTE Planning and Optimisation Engineer (5 days inc exam)
    5. 5. 5 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Agenda- Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE Comparison  Base Station Identity Code, Scrambling code & Physical Cell Identity  Frequency re-use  UMTS REL’99  UMTS REL’5  Comparison Rel’99 /Rel’5  3GPP Release 8/9/10
    6. 6. 6 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) The first cellular systems avoided interference between the cells by assigning a particular operating frequency to each cell; cells in the same vicinity were assigned different frequencies. The total number of frequencies used is termed the frequency reuse factor. A high frequency reuse factor gives good isolation between cells Same Frequency F2 F1 F1 Low interference between the cells. Poor Capacity F1 F1 High interference between the cells 8 Timeslots/freq
    7. 7. 7 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) The Base Station Identity Code (BSIC), is a code used in GSM to uniquely identify a base station Each base-station has its own BSIC, this code is at all times transmitted on the broadcast channel, so the Mobile Stations can distinguish between base stations Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) GSM TRX 200khz Separation Frequency 1 Frequency 2 TRX One TRX 8 Timeslots CS traffic will take priority Very poor data rates CS1- Data Rate = 181 payload bits per 20mS sample = 9.05kbps CS2-Data Rate = 268 payload bits per 20mS sample = 13.4kbps CS3-Data Rate = 312 payload bits per 20mS sample = 15.6kbps CS4-Data Rate = 428 payload bits per 20mS sample = 21.4kbps
    8. 8. 8 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd C/I ratio CARRIER (f1) INTERFERER (f1) C I C/I = 10 log 100/10 =+10 C/I = 0dB C/I = 10 log 10/10 =0 C/I = 10 log 10/100 =-10 Co-channel Interfering Cell RATES DEPENDANT ON C/I RATIO CS1- Data Rate = 181 payload bits per 20mS sample = 9.05kbps CS2-Data Rate = 268 payload bits per 20mS sample = 13.4kbps CS3-Data Rate = 312 payload bits per 20mS sample = 15.6kbps CS4-Data Rate = 428 payload bits per 20mS sample = 21.4kbps CS1 CS4
    9. 9. 9 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Coding Scheme Performance C / I CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 CS-1 Average Data Throughput per TS vs Average Connection C/I Datathroughput4 levels of channel coding schemes (CS-1 to CS-4) Scheme selected according to interference level (C/I) Very poor data rates CS1- Data Rate = 181 payload bits per 20mS sample = 9.05kbps CS2-Data Rate = 268 payload bits per 20mS sample = 13.4kbps CS3-Data Rate = 312 payload bits per 20mS sample = 15.6kbps CS4-Data Rate = 428 payload bits per 20mS sample = 21.4kbps
    10. 10. 10 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Circuit/Packet Data Separation BTS BSC PCU Visited MSC/VLR Serving GSN Gateway MSC Gateway GSN HLR Circuit Switched Packet Switched PSTN PDN A Gb Gb interface LAYER TWO-FRAME RELAY NO QoS THIS IS NOT AN ALL IP NETWORK: Lots of SS7 links UMTS uses Ethernet or ATM (depends on Release) both give good QoS LTE is an ALL IP NEWORK. You can set QOS at Network layer(Layer) DSCP, or at Ethernet layer (Layer2) LTE DOES NOT SUPPORT CIRCUIT SWITCHED. But CS fallback
    11. 11. 11 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Frequency reuse The use of CDMA/LTE requires a fundamental change in cellular network planning and deployment strategies, largely resulting from the fact that it enables a frequency reuse factor of 1 to be used. GSM900/1800: 3G (WCDMA): WCDMA GSM Carrier spacing 5 MHz 200 kHz Frequency reuse factor 1 yes
    12. 12. 12 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Carrier Shared Between HSDPA and R99 f1 = R5 HSDPA = R99 DCH Can cause performance degradation to R99 users Will cause reduced capacity to R99 users SF = 128 SF = 256 SF = 64 SF = 32 SF = 8 SF = 16 SF = 4 SF = 2 SF = 1 Codes for the cell common channels Code for one HS-SCCH Codes for 5 HS-PDSCH's Common Channels Powerfor HSDPA Power for REL’99 Variable SF codes for REL’99 HS- DSCH Category max. No. of HS-DSCH Codes Modulation (16QAM supported) Peak Rate 1 5 YES 1.2 Mbps 2 5 YES 1.2 Mbps 3 5 YES 1.8 Mbps 4 5 YES 1.8 Mbps 5 5 YES 3.6 Mbps 6 5 YES 3.6 Mbps 7 10 YES 7 Mbps 8 10 YES 7 Mbps 9 15 YES 10 Mbps 10 15 YES 14 Mbps 11 5 NO 1 Mbps 12 5 NO 1.8 Mbps
    13. 13. 13 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Carrier Shared Between HSDPA and R99 SF = 128 SF = 256 SF = 64 SF = 32 SF = 8 SF = 16 SF = 4 SF = 2 SF = 1 Codes for the cell common channels Code for one HS-SCCH Codes for 5 HS-PDSCH's Variable SF codes for REL’99
    14. 14. 14 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd ONE PER CELL Max number of codes 15. Each code SF 16 2mS UE 1 2mS UE 2 2mS UE 3 Max Speed 14.4Mb/s 2mS UE 3 High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH, Downlink Data Channel) UMTS REL’5 On one 5Mhz BW – Can support REL’99 & REL’5(REDUCED BIT RATE FOR REL’5) OR one 5Mz for REL ’99, one 5Mz for REL ’5 5 MHZ modulation and coding scheme 16QAM 4bits/Hz QPSK 2bits/Hz
    15. 15. 15 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Dedicated HSDPA Carrier f1 f2 = R5 HSDPA = R99 DCH Can provide high HSDPA throughput HS- DSCH Category max. No. of HS-DSCH Codes Modulation (16QAM supported) Peak Rate 1 5 YES 1.2 Mbps 2 5 YES 1.2 Mbps 3 5 YES 1.8 Mbps 4 5 YES 1.8 Mbps 5 5 YES 3.6 Mbps 6 5 YES 3.6 Mbps 7 10 YES 7 Mbps 8 10 YES 7 Mbps 9 15 YES 10 Mbps 10 15 YES 14 Mbps 11 5 NO 1 Mbps 12 5 NO 1.8 Mbps
    16. 16. 16 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd CELL-DCH REL’99 HSDPA REL’5 Variable SF YES NO Fast Power Control YES NO Adaptive Modulation NO YES Soft handover YES NO TTI times 10,20,40,80 mS 2mS Maximum channel Rate 2 Mbps 14.4 Mbps Modulation QPSK QPSK/16-QAM Comparison Rel’99 /Rel’5
    17. 17. 17 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). Scrambling code UMTS Group 0 Code 0 Code Code 7 Group 63 Code 0 Code Code 7 S-SCH Identify the code group A cell must be allocated 1 of a possible 512 scrambling codes. (64x8) Cluster group 512 scrambling codes.
    18. 18. 18 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Scrambling code-UMTS Once the scrambling code for a CPICH is known, the channel can be used for measurements of signal quality, usually with RSCP and Ec/N0. • The 512 codes are divided into 64 groups with 8 codes in each group • The scrambling code is the pilot channel . Group 0 Code 0 Code 7 Group 63 Code 0 Code 7 64 X 8=512 The received quality of the CPICH is quantified by its Ec/Io and Received Signal Code Power (RSCP) Maximum power43dbm +33 dBm = 2W CPICH RSCP RSCP Ec/Io Ec/Io Common Pilot Channel CPICH Ec/Io = CPICH RSCP UTRA carrier RSSI
    19. 19. 19 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Scrambling code-UMTS +33 dBm = 2W CPICH RSCP Common Pilot Channel Ec Io OWNCELL INTERFERENCE RSCP Ec/Io Cell Selection Handover decisions Ec/Io (Own plus Other)
    20. 20. 20 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd CPICH Ec/Io
    21. 21. 21 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd HSDPA-Rel’5 RSCP Ec/Io HSDPA Maximum power43dbm +33 dBm = 2W CPICH Powerfor HSDPA Signal Strength for HSDPA Own cell Interference SINR ave = S I + N I = Iown + Iother Maximum power43dbm REL 99 – Circuit Switched PS Data –Typical 384kbit/s HSDPA-REL 5 Same Frequency F1- Shared Power/Share Codes
    22. 22. 22 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd HSDPA-Rel’5 Maximum power43dbm CPICH RSCP Ec/Io HSDPA Powerfor HSDPA HSDPA-REL 5 16 QAM QPSK Shared with Rel’99 – Typically 5 codes REL 99 – Circuit Switched PS Data –Typical 384kbit/s REL 99 – Circuit Switched PS Data –Typical 384kbit/s HSDPA-REL 5 Same Frequency F1- Shared Power/Share Codes REL 99 – Circuit Switched PS Data –Typical 384kbit/s Frequency F1 Frequency F2 HSDPA-REL 5 Different coding Rates The benefit of 16 QAM is that 4 bits of data are transmitted in each radio symbol as opposed to 2 bits with QPSK. Under good radio conditions, an advanced modulation scheme—16 QAM
    23. 23. 23 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time [number of TTIs] QPSK1/4 QPSK2/4 QPSK3/4 16QAM2/4 16QAM3/4 InstantaneousEsNo[dB] C/I received by UE Link adaptation mode C/I varies with fading BTS adjusts link adaptation mode with a few ms delay based on channel quality reports from the UE Fast Link Adaptation in HSDPA Mobile devices report the quality of the downlink channel via channel quality indicator (CQI) reports to the mobile network. Using these reports, the system continuously optimises performance (at 10% BLER) by choosing the best transmission speed for the next TTI. channel quality reports
    24. 24. 24 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd HSDPA-Rel’5 Maximum power43dbm CPICH RSCP Ec/Io HSDPA PowerforHSDPA HSDPA-REL 5 16 QAM QPSK Dedicated FrequencyHSDPA-REL 5 Max number of codes 15. Each code SF 16 2mS UE 1 2mS UE 2 2mS UE 3 Max Speed 14.4Mb/s 2mS UE 3 SINR ave = S I + N I = Iown + Iother You could get poor levels of Ec/Io and good SINR
    25. 25. 25 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd HSPA Evolution- HSPA+ Three main directions can be observed for this evolution: • Higher-order modulation (64 QAM, 16QAM, QPSK) • Advanced multiple-antenna techniques • Multi-carrier operation Dual-carrier HSDPA was introduced, whereby two adjacent 5-MHz radio channels can be used simultaneously to a single UE QPSK16QAM64QAM QPSK16QAM64QAM TX TX 5 MHz 41.00 Mbps
    26. 26. 26 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Poll Question What is the function of the RSCP? a. It is received quality of the CPICH . b. It changes with cell loading. c. It measures the coverage of a service (VoIP for example). d. It measures the signal strength of the pilot (CPICH) .
    27. 27. 27 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd • Bit Rates after accounting for the overheads generated by Reference Signals, Synchronisation Signals and other Physical Channels • . Coding rate hasn’t been included Resultant Bit Rates - Downlink Channel Bandwidth 1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz QPSK 1.61 4.27 7.23 14.63 22.03 29.43 16QAM 3.21 8.54 14.46 29.26 44.06 58.86 64QAM 4.82 12.81 21.69 43.89 66.09 88.29 64QAM (2+2 MIMO) 9.08 24.20 41.00 83.00 125.00 167.00 64QAM (4+4 MIMO) 17.07 45.58 77.26 156.46 235.66 314.86 Figures in Mbps Compare with the equivalent HSPA+ bit rate
    28. 28. 28 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Physical Cell Identity- LTE Physical Cell Identity 504 Physical Layer Cell Identities • Physical layer Cell Identity (PCI) identifies a cell within a network equivalent of UMTS scrambling code • There are 504 Physical Layer Cell Identities compared to 512 UMTS scrambling codes • PCI are organised in 168 groups of 3 codes compared to 64 groups of 8 for UMTS scrambling codes • RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power) • RSRQ (Reference Signal Received Quality
    29. 29. 29 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd PCI planning Physical layer Cell Identity = (3 × Group(0 to 167)) + Code 0-2 = (3 x 2) + 2 =8 Group(0 to 167) Code (0-2)
    30. 30. 30 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd RSRQ RSRQ = n x RSRP/RSSI RSRQ = 10 log 25 + (-102.77 –(- 82 .71) =13.97 + (-20.06) =-6.09 RSRP RSRQ LTE RSCP Ec/I0 3G
    31. 31. 31 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd 3GPP Release’s  3GPP Release 8  4x4 MIMO in the Downlink  1x1 MIMO in the Uplink  Home eNode B  Inter Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC)  SON – Self Establishment of eNode B  SON – Automatic Neighbour Releations  3GPP Release 9  MBMS  SON – Mobility Load Balancing  SON – Mobility Robustness Optimisation  SON – RACH Optimisation  SON – Energy Saving 20MHz 15MHz 10MHz 5MHz 3MHz 1.4MHz REL’8 CC Cell Edge CC Cell Edge Inter Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) MIMO in the Downlink
    32. 32. 32 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd 3GPP Release’s • 3GPP Release 10 – Carrier Aggregation – 8x8 MIMO in the Downlink – 4x4 MIMO in the Uplink – Relays Each aggregated carrier is referred to as a component carrier. The component carrier can have a bandwidth of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 MHz Component carriers can be aggregated. REL 10 20 MHz Optic Fibre cable into core REL 8 Relay
    33. 33. 33 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd Questions
    34. 34. 34 © 2013 AIRCOM International Ltd In Closing  Thank you for attending  Webinars webpage – keep up to date and register to receive email alerts on new webinars http://www.aircominternational.com/Web inars.aspx

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