We now come to the last section of the AIMS framework: discovery and access. We’ve described this function for the purposes of the framework as “the systems and workflows that make processed or unprocessedmaterial and the metadata that support it available to users.”Discovery and access is also not possible without completion of many of the prior steps described in this model. The outcomes of those steps have a significant impact on what is either appropriate or achievable in terms of discovery and access. Given the impact of these prior steps on discovery and access it is crucial to consider the desired outcomes for discovery and access as early as possible — ideally during the Collection Development phase — and to continue to update and revise these plans are work on the collection progresses.
Discovery and access is also the only one of the functions that is really reactionary to a user request. The process of discovery and access requires some action on the part of individual users – for example carrying out a search. While we can and should create an accessible environment before users try to access material, many part of the process rely on them to initiate actions.This diagram is based on a figure from the OAIS model that describes the functions an archival information system should be able to support related to access. The user initiates the process by either making a query (or a search of metadata) or by making a dissemination request (or a request for the DIP)
Overall though, we have three major goals in discovery and access.The first is to make material available to user communities. This includes ensuring that the users can find the material, understand if it’s available, and get access to it if possibleHowever, that access must follow guidelines for access restrictions related to privacy, and intellectual property.An overarching goal of all three is to ensure that the significant properties of the material are inherent in whichever form the DIP takes.
To successfully achieve these goals, we have to first start with discovery. We identified two major types of discovery for the AIMS framework. The first is discovery via metadata, in the case shown here that is a collection guide.When you are creating metadata for access you have to consider whether or not the metadata is this suitable for discovery? This may be different than creating metadata for administrative or preservation purposes. Another important consideration is how the metadata is indexed and searched. Will that suit the level of access needed by the user audience?Most of us are pretty familiar with this concept so I’ll move on.
With born-digital materials we can also consider access to full text or content where it exists in searchable form. [click]When you are providing access in a system that can provision access to both metadata and full-text at the same time you may consider creating less metadata, or creating a different kind of metadata, or treating the index of full text differently than the index of metadata.
The other component is the access itself. While your discovery method may involve the text, that doesn’t mean you have to make the full-text itself available (think of Google snippets for example).The AIMS framework highlights a few questions to examine when thinking about how to provision access.Who are the "typical users"?What format is the material?What are the restrictions?What tools or infrastructure is available? These questions then lead to thinking about the generic access model
These questions then lead to thinking about the generic access model, which has several characteristics:In-person vs. Remote access (I, R)In-person means the research comes to the reading room to use the files, remote means they do not (this does not necessarily mean online access)Authenticatedor Not (A, N)Authenticated or not refers to whether or not the user has to show some kind of credential to see the material. Typically this is only an issue for online accessOnline (email, download) vs. "Physical" (disc) Transfer (O, P)Online access means the files are transmitted online via email, download or viewing on a website. Physical means the researcher is handed or mailed a diskStatic vs. Dynamic DIP Generation (S, D)Static DIP Generation means that a pre-fabricated DIP is stored … think of the pdf versions of articles in Institutional Repositories. Whereas, Dynamic DIP Generation just means that the DIP is created specfically for the user per their request…so they may want migrated files or not, for example. The combination of these characteristics then articulates the generic type of access you would be allowing to content. That doesn’t mean that this is the ONLY way you would provide access just that this would be your default option. You may change it based on the user, their request, or as your technological capabilities evolve.
The combination of these characteristics then articulates the generic type of access you would be allowing to content. That doesn’t mean that this is the ONLY way you would provide access just that this would be your default option. You may change it based on the user, their request, or as your technological capabilities evolve.Now not all of these combinations are possible, or even sensible, but thinking of the them as distinct parameters helps to think through the possibilities
So here are a couple of examples:Remote, Authenticated, Onlineand Static would be typified by an online database that is behind a loginWhereas In-person, non-authenticated, physical, and dynamic would be a model where a person must come to the reading room and be handed a disc created with the specific material they requested.Remote, Non-Authenticated, Physical, Dynamic could still have an online component if the researcher contacts the archive via email, but the transfer of material itself is done on a disc that is mailed to themFinally, In-person, Authenticated, Online, Static is somewhat implausible, but a researcher would have to physically visit the reading AND get some sort of permission to access a specific repository of files, locked down by IP for instance
So, when we combine a mode of discovery with an access option we see the full discovery and access model in practice. This image is of a researcher using the Salman Rushdie collection at Emory University. Although a large portion of the collection is born-digital, the researcher must physically come to the reading and use a specific computer with Rushdie’s emulated computer as well as a repository of his files, the text of which can be searched. They may not download or be emailed the material.
This example comes from my former employer ECU. In this case we have a collection guide with digitized and born digital material embedded within. In this case the full text, if it exists, is not searched through the finding aid search (although it can be searched in a separate repository search)
Finally, this is the planned interface for born-digital materials at the Bodleian Library in the UK. They are creating a repository to search the content and metadata of the born-digital materials held in personal papers. The access here is primarily through the repository, although there are also links out to objects in this repository through the collection guide.
So at this time, I’d like to introduce Erin O’Meara from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Erin is going to talk with us about how UNC is dealing with discovery and access to hybrid collections within EAD.
AIMS workshop pt. 4: Discovery and Access
Discovery & Access<br />Gretchen Gueguen<br />University of Virginia<br />
What is Discovery & Access<br />Discovery and Accessrefers to the systems and workflows that make processed or unprocessedmaterial and the metadata that support it available to users. <br />
Online (email, download) vs. "Physical" (disc) Transfer (O, P)
Static vs. Dynamic DIP Generation (S, D)</li></li></ul><li>Access Models<br />
Access Models<br />RAOS(Remote, Authenticated, Online, Static)<br />Institutional Respository with institutional login gain access<br />INPD(In-person, Non-Authenticated, Physical, Dynamic)<br />Researcher is handed a disc in the reading room with files specifically downloaded for them<br />RNPD(Remote, Non-Authenticated, Physical, Dynamic)<br /> <br />Researcher contacts the archive and is sent a disk of files migrated to pdf especially for them.<br />IAOS(In-person, Authenticated, Online, Static)<br />Researcher requests access and once granted visits reading room to access a specific repository of files<br />
Discussion<br />Read through the scenario given to your table group and come up with a plan addressing:<br />How you will survey the content<br />Copyright and privacy issues<br />Acquiring the content<br />Arranging and describing the content<br />How you might provide access<br />*this activity used with the permission of Matt Kirschenbaum and Naomi Nelson under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/<br />
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