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This presentation will cover the basics of HIV and AIDS. By the end of this presentation, we hope that everyone will understand what HIV and AIDS mean, how the virus is transmitted, and Saskatchewan …

This presentation will cover the basics of HIV and AIDS. By the end of this presentation, we hope that everyone will understand what HIV and AIDS mean, how the virus is transmitted, and Saskatchewan HIV statistics.

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  • AIDS – Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome – final stage of
    HIV infection, a condition marked by low CD4 counts and the
    presence of certain opportunistic infections in humans, causing
    progressive failure of the human immune system’s ability to
    defend against these infections.
  • We said before that you can get serious diseases if HIV goes untreated long enough. Maybe you found out you have HIV in the first place because you had one of these diseases. There are too many to list here, and they tend to have tongue-twisting names like Pneumocystis jirovecii (or they go by mysterious short-forms like PCP and MAC). Don’t feel dumb if you haven’t heard of them (or can’t pronounce them)—they were uncommon until HIV showed up.
    Such diseases are rare because people with healthy immune systems can usually fight them off. However, these diseases can strike if they have the opportunity; that is, they infect people with weakened immune systems. For that reason, they are called opportunistic infections (OIs for short).
    A lot of HIV-positive people used to die from OIs, and some still do if they can’t get treatment. But OIs are much more rare than they used to be, simply because HIV treatments have gotten so much better. As long as you are diagnosed early and get proper treatment, you shouldn’t have to worry about OIs.
    If you found out about your HIV infection because you had an OI, you might consider learning more about the infection and what you can do to stop it from coming back. 
  • HIV can only get passed when one of these fluids from a person with HIV gets into the bloodstream of another person

    HIV cannot pass through healthy, unbroken skin.

    The HIV in these fluids may cause infection if it enters the body of a sex partner. Most of the body’s surfaces are “dry” skin (for example, on the arms and legs)—these surfaces don’t allow HIV to enter the body unless a cut or sore is present. However, other parts of the body are covered by “wet” skin, also known asmucous membranes, which are more vulnerable to HIV. The mucous membranes involved in the sexual transmission of HIV include the:
    foreskin and urethra on the penis
    cervix and vagina
    anus and rectum
    mouth and throat

  • Breast feeding: Although research has shown that it is possible to reduce the amount of HIV in breast milk by heating it or by having the mother stay on anti-HIV drugs for 6 months after birth, these methods do not eliminate HIV and are therefore NOT safe and are NOT recommended in Canada.

    Tattoo/Body Piercing: Be sure that only new needles, ink, and other supplies are used and that the person doing the procedure is properly licensed.
  • HIV TRANSMISSION EQUATIONBODY FLUID WITH HIGH LEVELS OF HIV ACTIVITY DIRECT ACCESS FOR THE VIRUS TO ENTER THE BLOODSTREAM blood (including menstrual blood)
    semen
    pre-cum
    rectal secretions
    vaginal fluids
    breast milk
    +unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse
    sharing needles
    mother to child
    +vagina
    anus
    urethra in the penis
    open cuts and sores (in theory)
    other mucosal membranes
    points of needle injection
      =  RISK OF HIV TRANSMISSION


    Break in the skin
    •Mucous
    membrane
    •Sore/lesion on
    mucous
    membrane
    http://www.aidsvancouver.org/get-informed/faq#t185n7701
  • CD4 – white blood cell, one of the cells which help the immune
    system, and a target cell for HIV to use in viral replication. CD4
    cells are destroyed by HIV in the viral replication process, as
    well as by other mechanisms, such as when targeted by a CD8
    cell. A reduction of CD4 cells in the blood is one marker of an
    immune system in decline.
  • The HIV antibody test is a blood test

    HIV antibodies can usually be found in the blood within 12 weeks after you are infected with HIV

    If the test is positive, you are infected with HIV and can pass the virus to others. The test does not tell when you became infected or when you will get sick.

    A negative test means you are not infected. It usually takes up to 12 weeks for your body to make HIV antibodies. A test done before 12 weeks may not show correct results.

    You will be told if you need another test.

  • Hours: Monday to Friday, except Statutory Holidays 7:30 a.m. – 4 p.m.

    At the clinic you will have your CD4 and viral load levels assessed. Whatever support you need, the clinic will work
  • Our support services is built upon the understanding that the capacity to manage and maintain health while living with HIV/AIDS is determined, in part, by factors such as income level, housing, access to care, access to health services, access to quality health care, and individual coping skills.  
  • In 2012:
    Male cases ranged in age from 14 to 78 years.
    Female cases ranged in age from 17 to 56 years.

    http://www.health.gov.sk.ca/hiv-aids-annual-report-2012
  • World AIDS Day is held on 1 December each year and is an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV, show their support for people living with HIV and to commemorate people who have died. World AIDS Day was the first ever global health day and the first one was held in 1988.

Transcript

  • 1. AIDS Programs South Saskatchewan is a non profit organization serving southern Saskatchewan. Our agency has been around for over 27 years. We provide programs and services to individuals infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. Our goal is to provide everyone with the information and means to live independently and with dignity.
  • 2. On Site Programs & Services  Needle Exchange Program & Drop In Centre  Addictions Counsellor (Tuesday PM)  Housing Support (Wednesday PM)  Public Health Nurse (Thursday PM)  Anyone At Risk Support Group (Thursday PM)  Food Bank Referrals
  • 3. Off Site Programs & Services  Circle of Courage  Education & Outreach  Client Care for HIV+ Individuals  Community Needle Pick Ups  Peer Support for HIV+ individuals  Counselling for HIV+ individuals
  • 4. ANYONE can be at risk for contracting HIV! HIV does not discriminate. It’s not who you are that puts you at risk, it’s what you do. Anyone can be infected with HIV regardless of age, gender, economic back ground, sexual orientation, race, religion, ethnic origin, etc.
  • 5. Is HIV & AIDS the same? No. HIV is the virus that gets passed from one body to the other. AIDS is the disease that later develops in people with HIV.
  • 6. The journey of HIV begins with an exposure! Which bodily fluids can carry the virus? For an HIV exposure to pose a risk of transmission, specific bodily fluids from an HIV+ person need to come into direct contact with the bodily fluids of an HIV- person.
  • 7. Only five bodily fluids can contain enough of the virus to transmit  Blood (menstrual fluid)  Semen (pre-cum)  Vaginal Fluid  Anal Fluid  Breast Milk
  • 8. HIV cannot be transmitted through:  Spit/Saliva  Tears  Urine  Sweat  Insect Bites  Animal Bites  Bed Sheets & Towels  Dishes & Cutlery  Cuddling  Sneezing  Coughing  Toilet Sheets  Food  Kissing  Hugging  Shaking Hands
  • 9. HIV cannot survive in air or water. The virus must reside in a human host in order to survive! For HIV to be passed between people, fluid must get from one person’s body directly into the other. This means there has to be an “entry point” for the fluid to enter the body. Our skin is a very strong barrier against the HIV virus.
  • 10. HIV can survive inside the barrel of the needle because it’s protected from the air. HIV may survive for up to four weeks in syringes after HIV-infected blood has been drawn up into the syringe and then flushed out
  • 11. The Transmission Equation Body Fluid (blood, semen (pre-cum), vaginal fluid, anal fluid or breast milk) + Direct Entry Point to the Blood System (open cuts and sores, other mucus membranes, points of needle injection) + Activity (unprotected sex, skin contact with needles, mother-to-baby transmission) Possibility of Transmission
  • 12. CD4 Cells  CD4 cells are the “bosses” of the immune system. They organize the battle against invading germs and viruses.  HIV prefers to take over and multiply inside the CD4 cell
  • 13. Viral Load The amount of HIV in the bodily fluids of someone living with the virus. What is an undetectable viral load? If you’re on treatment, your viral load is a way to know whether the medication is working. If your treatment is successful, your viral load will fall to “undetectable”—too low for tests to measure. This doesn’t mean you’re cured or that the virus is gone, but it does mean it’s under control.
  • 14. What can HIV medication do for me?  Put the virus to sleep  Decrease the amount of HIV in the blood (viral load)  Increase the white blood cells (CD4 count)  Allow the immune system to rebuild  Reduce risk of serious infections and HIV symptoms
  • 15. Why Should I Get Tested? Have you:  Had anal or vaginal sex without a condom?  Given or received oral sex?  Used a needle that was used by someone else? (for drugs, steroids, piercings, tattoos)  Used drug tools that were used by someone else? (pipes, straws, spoons, filters, water)  Shared sex toys?  Been born vaginally?  Had a blood transfusion pre-1992? If you answered ‘yes’ to any of these questions, booking a test is just a phone call away. There is no reason to feel shame or guilt by answering 'yes' to any of these questions. Health care providers are ready to support you at various locations!
  • 16. Standard Testing  Blood drawn from a vein  Sample is sent to a lab  Results in two weeks
  • 17. Point of Care or Rapid Test  Blood sample from an individual’s finger  Test takes 60 seconds  A standard test will confirm the results
  • 18. What if I test positive for HIV?  You will be notified by a healthcare professional  Positive results are kept confidential  You will be offered information and supports  Your current and past sexual/drug use partners will be offered a test for HIV  A public health nurse can discuss with you the best way to tell your partners. If you like, the nurse can inform them without identifying you. The nurse can also help you find ways to tell all future partners
  • 19. Who do I have to tell that I am HIV+? In Canada, it is illegal for HIV+ people to have sex without disclosing their status, in some cases even if they use a condom and even if no one gets infected. Trevis Smith was found guilty of aggravated sexual assault in February 2007. A judge found Smith had unprotected sex with two women and did not tell them he was infected with HIV. "He was charged with one count of aggravated sexual assault,'' Searle said, noting aggravated assault "is the highest level of assault just short of death. So for a sexual assault to be aggravated in nature it would have to be extremely serious.”
  • 20. What if I test negative for HIV? Your health care provider will talk with you about when you should have your next routine test. You may also want to talk about ways to help you stay negative.
  • 21. Care and Support for HIV+ Individuals in Southern Saskatchewan
  • 22. Infectious Disease Clinic Regina General Hospital Outpatient care for patients in southern Saskatchewan living with HIV and Hepatitis and other complex infectious diseases 306-766-3915 Multidisciplinary team includes:  Physicians  Nurses  Social Worker  Pharmacist  Dietitian
  • 23. Peer Support 306-766-6857 Acute Peer-to-Peer Program is a valuable part of the RQHR work to engage more people in HIV care and to help those newly diagnosed manage some of the daily challenges that come with living with HIV. The mentors share their experiences with mentees and support those who might be feeling isolated or intimidated. When a mentee feels ready, he or she can graduate from the program and move on to become a mentor.
  • 24. Client Care 306-924-8420 AIDS Programs South Saskatchewan Client Care Coordinator works directly with people living with HIV/AIDS. Working with individuals, they identify personal needs and together design supportive plans. This includes providing support on a one to one basis; during home visits, hospital visits, social activities all while meeting clients where they are at. She also assists with transportation, attends appointments when requested by clients and helps individuals who wish to disclose their status do so.
  • 25. Take A Guess: Are the number of people living HIV+ HIGH or LOW in Saskatchewan?
  • 26. Youngest individual diagnosed with HIV in 2012 14 Oldest individual diagnosed with HIV in 2012 78
  • 27. Fueling the Epidemic: HIV-Related Stigma & Discrimination HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination refers to prejudice, negative attitudes, abuse & maltreatment directed at people living with HIV and AIDS.
  • 28.  STIG·MA: a mark of shame or discredit; an identifying mark or characteristic; specifically : a specific diagnostic sign of a disease  SOCIAL STIGMA: the extreme disapproval of, or discontent with, a person on the grounds of characteristics that distinguish them from other members of a society.  HIV STIGMA: “HIV stigma” refers to the HIV-related shame, fear, prejudice, discrimination, guilt, and lack of knowledge that exist in the world at large. It affects the health and well- being of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. Stigma and discrimination persists and many HIV-positive people find that they are discriminated against on a daily basis.
  • 29. Examples of Everyday Stigma  Referring to HIV as “AIDS.”  Presuming because someone is HIV-positive, they’re sick, contagious, or dying.  Believing HIV can be contracted by casual contact or kissing.  Using the word “clean” when referring to a negative HIV status  Not getting tested for HIV for fear of a positive result  Dismissing, judging, or rejecting someone who is HIV-positive when they disclose their status.  Trusting that every sexual partner will be honest in disclosing their status.  Perceiving HIV-positive people to be failures, promiscuous, or that they “deserved” to become infected with HIV.  Discussing someone’s HIV status, whether it is rumor or factual, without their consent or knowledge.
  • 30. External stigmatization refers to stigmatization of other people or by other people. Some examples:  Do not want to share dishes, equipment or other objects with them  Do not want to touch them or be close to them  Do not want to spend time with them  Pressure them to leave their home  Pressure them to leave some social setting  Think it is their own fault for contracting HIV  Judge them as being “immoral” or “irresponsible” or “sinful”
  • 31. Internal stigmatization refers to ways that people stigmatize themselves. Some examples:  Are guilty or dirty  Are a threat to other people’s health  Need to withdraw socially to protect themselves  Cannot have intimate relations with someone else  Must work harder than other people in order to prove themselves
  • 32. Email: educationcoordinatorapss@sasktel.net Facebook: AIDS Programs South Saskatchewan Twitter: @aidsprograms Instagram: @aidsprogramssouthsask Questions, Comments or Concerns?
  • 33. http://www.mtv.ca/shows/losing- it/video/extras/mtv-presents-being- positive/1718266/0/0