This presentation will cover the basics of HIV and AIDS. By the end of this presentation, we hope that everyone will understand what HIV and AIDS mean, how the virus is transmitted, and Saskatchewan HIV statistics.
AIDS – Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome – final stage of HIV infection, a condition marked by low CD4 counts and the presence of certain opportunistic infections in humans, causing progressive failure of the human immune system’s ability to defend against these infections.
We said before that you can get serious diseases if HIV goes untreated long enough. Maybe you found out you have HIV in the first place because you had one of these diseases. There are too many to list here, and they tend to have tongue-twisting names like Pneumocystis jirovecii (or they go by mysterious short-forms like PCP and MAC). Don’t feel dumb if you haven’t heard of them (or can’t pronounce them)—they were uncommon until HIV showed up. Such diseases are rare because people with healthy immune systems can usually fight them off. However, these diseases can strike if they have the opportunity; that is, they infect people with weakened immune systems. For that reason, they are called opportunistic infections (OIs for short). A lot of HIV-positive people used to die from OIs, and some still do if they can’t get treatment. But OIs are much more rare than they used to be, simply because HIV treatments have gotten so much better. As long as you are diagnosed early and get proper treatment, you shouldn’t have to worry about OIs. If you found out about your HIV infection because you had an OI, you might consider learning more about the infection and what you can do to stop it from coming back.
HIV can only get passed when one of these fluids from a person with HIV gets into the bloodstream of another person
HIV cannot pass through healthy, unbroken skin.
The HIV in these fluids may cause infection if it enters the body of a sex partner. Most of the body’s surfaces are “dry” skin (for example, on the arms and legs)—these surfaces don’t allow HIV to enter the body unless a cut or sore is present. However, other parts of the body are covered by “wet” skin, also known asmucous membranes, which are more vulnerable to HIV. The mucous membranes involved in the sexual transmission of HIV include the: foreskin and urethra on the penis cervix and vagina anus and rectum mouth and throat
Breast feeding: Although research has shown that it is possible to reduce the amount of HIV in breast milk by heating it or by having the mother stay on anti-HIV drugs for 6 months after birth, these methods do not eliminate HIV and are therefore NOT safe and are NOT recommended in Canada.
Tattoo/Body Piercing: Be sure that only new needles, ink, and other supplies are used and that the person doing the procedure is properly licensed.
HIV TRANSMISSION EQUATIONBODY FLUID WITH HIGH LEVELS OF HIV ACTIVITY DIRECT ACCESS FOR THE VIRUS TO ENTER THE BLOODSTREAM blood (including menstrual blood) semen pre-cum rectal secretions vaginal fluids breast milk +unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse sharing needles mother to child +vagina anus urethra in the penis open cuts and sores (in theory) other mucosal membranes points of needle injection = RISK OF HIV TRANSMISSION
Break in the skin •Mucous membrane •Sore/lesion on mucous membrane http://www.aidsvancouver.org/get-informed/faq#t185n7701
CD4 – white blood cell, one of the cells which help the immune system, and a target cell for HIV to use in viral replication. CD4 cells are destroyed by HIV in the viral replication process, as well as by other mechanisms, such as when targeted by a CD8 cell. A reduction of CD4 cells in the blood is one marker of an immune system in decline.
The HIV antibody test is a blood test
HIV antibodies can usually be found in the blood within 12 weeks after you are infected with HIV
If the test is positive, you are infected with HIV and can pass the virus to others. The test does not tell when you became infected or when you will get sick.
A negative test means you are not infected. It usually takes up to 12 weeks for your body to make HIV antibodies. A test done before 12 weeks may not show correct results.
At the clinic you will have your CD4 and viral load levels assessed. Whatever support you need, the clinic will work
Our support services is built upon the understanding that the capacity to manage and maintain health while living with HIV/AIDS is determined, in part, by factors such as income level, housing, access to care, access to health services, access to quality health care, and individual coping skills.
In 2012: Male cases ranged in age from 14 to 78 years. Female cases ranged in age from 17 to 56 years.
World AIDS Day is held on 1 December each year and is an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV, show their support for people living with HIV and to commemorate people who have died. World AIDS Day was the first ever global health day and the first one was held in 1988.
HIV AIDS Presentation 2014
AIDS Programs South Saskatchewan is a
non profit organization serving southern
Saskatchewan. Our agency has been
around for over 27 years. We provide
programs and services to individuals
infected and affected by HIV/AIDS.
Our goal is to provide everyone with the
information and means to live
independently and with dignity.
On Site Programs & Services
Needle Exchange Program & Drop In Centre
Addictions Counsellor (Tuesday PM)
Housing Support (Wednesday PM)
Public Health Nurse (Thursday PM)
Anyone At Risk Support Group (Thursday PM)
Food Bank Referrals
Off Site Programs & Services
Circle of Courage
Education & Outreach
Client Care for HIV+ Individuals
Community Needle Pick Ups
Peer Support for HIV+ individuals
Counselling for HIV+ individuals
ANYONE can be at risk
for contracting HIV!
HIV does not discriminate. It’s not who you are that puts
you at risk, it’s what you do. Anyone can be infected with
HIV regardless of age, gender, economic back ground,
sexual orientation, race, religion, ethnic origin, etc.
Is HIV &
No. HIV is the virus
that gets passed
from one body to
the other. AIDS is
the disease that
later develops in
people with HIV.
Which bodily fluids
can carry the virus?
For an HIV exposure to
pose a risk of
bodily fluids from an HIV+
person need to come into
direct contact with the
bodily fluids of an HIV-
the virus to
Blood (menstrual fluid)
HIV cannot survive in air or
water. The virus must reside in a
human host in order to survive!
For HIV to be passed between people, fluid must get from
one person’s body directly into the other. This means there
has to be an “entry point” for the fluid to enter the body.
Our skin is a very strong barrier against the HIV virus.
HIV can survive inside the
barrel of the needle because
it’s protected from the air.
HIV may survive for up to four weeks in syringes
after HIV-infected blood has been drawn up into
the syringe and then flushed out
The Transmission Equation
(blood, semen (pre-cum), vaginal fluid, anal fluid or breast milk)
Direct Entry Point to the Blood System
(open cuts and sores, other mucus membranes, points of needle injection)
(unprotected sex, skin contact with needles, mother-to-baby transmission)
Possibility of Transmission
CD4 cells are the “bosses”
of the immune system.
They organize the battle
against invading germs
HIV prefers to take over
and multiply inside the
The amount of HIV in the bodily fluids of
someone living with the virus.
What is an undetectable viral load?
If you’re on treatment, your viral load is a way to
know whether the medication is working. If your
treatment is successful, your viral load will fall to
“undetectable”—too low for tests to measure.
This doesn’t mean you’re cured or that the virus
is gone, but it does mean it’s under control.
do for me?
Put the virus to sleep
Decrease the amount of HIV in
the blood (viral load)
Increase the white blood cells
Allow the immune system to
Reduce risk of serious infections
and HIV symptoms
Had anal or vaginal sex without a condom?
Given or received oral sex?
Used a needle that was used by someone else?
(for drugs, steroids, piercings, tattoos)
Used drug tools that were used by someone
else? (pipes, straws, spoons, filters, water)
Shared sex toys?
Been born vaginally?
Had a blood transfusion pre-1992?
If you answered ‘yes’ to any of these questions,
booking a test is just a phone call away.
There is no reason to feel shame or guilt by
answering 'yes' to any of these questions. Health
care providers are ready to support you at various
Blood drawn from a vein
Sample is sent to a lab
Results in two weeks
Point of Care or Rapid Test
Blood sample from an individual’s finger
Test takes 60 seconds
A standard test will confirm the results
You will be notified by a healthcare
Positive results are kept confidential
You will be offered information and
Your current and past sexual/drug use
partners will be offered a test for HIV
A public health nurse can discuss with
you the best way to tell your partners. If
you like, the nurse can inform them
without identifying you. The nurse can also
help you find ways to tell all future
Who do I
tell that I
In Canada, it is illegal for HIV+ people to
have sex without disclosing their status, in
some cases even if they use a condom and
even if no one gets infected.
Trevis Smith was found guilty of aggravated
sexual assault in February 2007. A judge
found Smith had unprotected sex with two
women and did not tell them he was
infected with HIV. "He was charged with one
count of aggravated sexual assault,'' Searle
said, noting aggravated assault "is the
highest level of assault just short of death.
So for a sexual assault to be aggravated in
nature it would have to be extremely
What if I
Your health care provider will
talk with you about when
you should have your next
routine test. You may also
want to talk about ways to
help you stay negative.
Infectious Disease Clinic
Regina General Hospital
Outpatient care for
patients in southern
with HIV and
Hepatitis and other
Acute Peer-to-Peer Program is a valuable part of
the RQHR work to engage more people in HIV care and
to help those newly diagnosed manage some of the
daily challenges that come with living with HIV.
The mentors share their experiences with mentees and
support those who might be feeling isolated or
intimidated. When a mentee feels ready, he or she can
graduate from the program and move on to become a
AIDS Programs South Saskatchewan Client Care
Coordinator works directly with people living with
HIV/AIDS. Working with individuals, they identify
personal needs and together design supportive plans.
This includes providing support on a one to one basis;
during home visits, hospital visits, social activities all
while meeting clients where they are at. She also assists
with transportation, attends appointments when
requested by clients and helps individuals who wish to
disclose their status do so.
Take A Guess:
Are the number of
people living HIV+
HIGH or LOW in
diagnosed with HIV
diagnosed with HIV
Fueling the Epidemic:
HIV-Related Stigma &
HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination
refers to prejudice, negative attitudes, abuse &
maltreatment directed at people living with HIV
STIG·MA: a mark of shame or discredit; an identifying mark or
characteristic; specifically : a specific diagnostic sign of a
SOCIAL STIGMA: the extreme disapproval of, or discontent
with, a person on the grounds of characteristics that
distinguish them from other members of a society.
HIV STIGMA: “HIV stigma” refers to the HIV-related shame,
fear, prejudice, discrimination, guilt, and lack of knowledge
that exist in the world at large. It affects the health and well-
being of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals.
Stigma and discrimination persists and many HIV-positive people
find that they are discriminated against on a daily basis.
Examples of Everyday Stigma
Referring to HIV as “AIDS.”
Presuming because someone is HIV-positive, they’re sick,
contagious, or dying.
Believing HIV can be contracted by casual contact or kissing.
Using the word “clean” when referring to a negative HIV
Not getting tested for HIV for fear of a positive result
Dismissing, judging, or rejecting someone who is HIV-positive
when they disclose their status.
Trusting that every sexual partner will be honest in disclosing
Perceiving HIV-positive people to be failures, promiscuous, or
that they “deserved” to become infected with HIV.
Discussing someone’s HIV status, whether it is rumor or
factual, without their consent or knowledge.
External stigmatization refers to
stigmatization of other people or
by other people.
Do not want to share dishes,
equipment or other objects with
Do not want to touch them or
be close to them
Do not want to spend time with
Pressure them to leave their
Pressure them to leave some
Think it is their own fault for
Judge them as being “immoral”
or “irresponsible” or “sinful”
Internal stigmatization refers to
ways that people stigmatize
Are guilty or dirty
Are a threat to other people’s
Need to withdraw socially to
Cannot have intimate
relations with someone else
Must work harder than other
people in order to prove
Facebook: AIDS Programs South Saskatchewan
Questions, Comments or