1. Demystifying Energy ModelingWorkshop #1 of 4Introduction to EnergyModeling
2. Learning ObjectivesIdentify a range of building performance models and howthey are used to make sustainable design decisions.Recognize the benefits of using modeling analysis tooptimize sustainable design performance and meet aprojects sustainability goals.Learn how models can be used to win contracts bydemonstrating a firms commitment to performance-based sustainable design.Realize how building performance models can helpproject teams determine the best route for achievingLEED points on a project.
3. AgendaEngaging Energy Modelingin a ProjectModeling and ProjectPerformance GoalsModeling through Stagesof Design / Project PhasesModeling Tools
4. Engaging EnergyModeling in a Project
5. What is Energy ModelingModeling Purpose Code compliance Design tool LEED points Facility operationExpectations and ResultsModeling Schedule and ScopeModeling Assumptions and Deliverables
6. What is Energy Modeling // What is an Energy Model? Source: AIA Guide to Integrating Energy Modeling in the Design Process
7. What is Energy Modeling // What is an Energy Model?InputsArchitectural Building shape + orientation,massing + form Principal building function Total floor area, Number of floors + thermal zoning of floors, Floor-to-floor height + Floor-to-ceiling heightEnvelope Window dimensions (per elevation) Window sill and head height (above floor) Window to wall ratio Window characteristics External shading geometry Wall, roof + foundation makeup Interior mass and infiltrationInternal loads Anticipated building occupancy Lighting and plug load densities Daylight and occupancy sensorsInternal loads Hourly, daily, weekly and seasonal schedulesSchedules and capacities of useHVAC equipment System type, size, efficiency and operation+ schedules Source: AIA Guide to Integrating Energy Modeling in the Design Process
8. What is Energy Modeling // What is an Energy Model? Outputs Modeling results Space and building loads Input fuel consumption Plant use and circulation loop loads System loads hours Zone demand Space temperatures and humidity Fan and pump use Space and building loads Utility costs Life cycle calculations (HVAC) Hours for which loads not satisfiedSource: AIA Guide toIntegrating Energy Modeling inthe Design Process
9. What is Energy Modeling // Role Use modeling discussion to set project goals and define metrics Research design strategies and create a list of model iterations to explore Explore design options and model iterations concurrently Revise design based on early phase modeling Validate design based on late phase modeling Document and Certify Source: AIA Guide to Integrating Energy Modeling in the Design Process
10. What is Energy Modeling // RoleSource: AIA Guide to Integrating Energy Modeling in the DesignProcess
11. What is Energy Modeling // To Set Project GoalsSource: AIA Guide to Integrating Energy Modeling in the Design Process
12. What is Energy Modeling // To Compare Strategies Source: AIA Guide to Integrating Energy Modeling in the Design Process
13. What is Energy Modeling //A way to benchmark against a hypothetical:”baseline” building Source: AIA Guide to Integrating Energy Modeling in the Design Process
14. Modeling Purpose // Code Compliance
15. Modeling Purpose // As a Design tool Proposal Support Load Analysis Strategy and System Cost Benefit LEED Energy 6-24 hours 8-16 hours Recommendations/ Analysis Modeling Technical Analysis 70-85 hours 160 hours Climate Analysis 20-45 hours 4 hours 3 Design Alternates 30-42 hoursPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+M Daylight Daylight Analysis Analysis Draft Final Calibrated 12-16 hours 40-45 hours Modeling
16. Modeling Purpose // To calculate LEED points Proposal Support Load Analysis Strategy and System Cost Benefit LEED Energy 6-24 hours 8-16 hours Recommendations/ Analysis Modeling Technical Analysis 70-85 hours 160 hours Climate Analysis 20-45 hours 4 hours 3 Design Alternates 30-42 hoursPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+M Daylight Daylight Analysis Analysis Draft Final Calibrated 12-16 hours 40-45 hours Modeling
17. Modeling Purpose // For facility optimal operation Proposal Support Load Analysis Strategy and System Cost Benefit LEED Energy 6-24 hours 8-16 hours Recommendations/ Analysis Modeling Technical Analysis 70-85 hours 160 hours Climate Analysis 20-45 hours 4 hours 3 Design Alternates 30-42 hoursPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+M Daylight Daylight Analysis Analysis Draft Final Calibrated 12-16 hours 40-45 hours Modeling
18. Modeling Schedule and Scope by Task and Number of HoursPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+M Early Phase Energy Modeling Climate analysis 4.0 Loads analysis 4.0 Design iterations (typically 3) 40.0 Model review / coordination 4.0 Meetings / coordination 6.0 Report / presentation 4.0
19. Modeling Schedule and Scope by Task and Number of HoursPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+M Daylight Analysis Daylight analysis draft 16.0 Analysis review / coordination 4.0 Daylight analysis final 40.0 Report 4.0
20. Modeling Schedule and Scope by Task and Number of HoursPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+MComfort & Natural VentilationComfort analysis draft 32.0Analysis review / coordination 4.0Comfort analysis final 12.0Report 4.0
21. Modeling Schedule and Scope by Task and Number of HoursPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+MCost Benefit AnalysisAnalysis of 15 options 65.0Report 8.0General support and coordination 12.0
22. Modeling Schedule and Scope by Task and Number of HoursPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+MLEED Energy ModelingPreliminary energy model 60.0Model review / coordination 20.0Finalize Energy Model 60.0LEED Documentation 20.0
23. Expectations and ResultsNot intended to be a prediction, but an accurate comparisonClear documentation of inputs using standard termsIdentification of major variables/uncertaintiesMajor conclusions should not change as detail increasesConclusions should be consistent with existing dataWork could be shown to a client, a contractor or a code officialand be understood
24. Modeling Assumptions & DeliverablesEarly Design Modeling Assumptions Late Design Modeling Assumptions Provide site information, current drawings Complete drawings set and specifications,/ architectural models, and anticipated preferably electronicoccupancy patterns Selected envelope and system Review and verify critical energy modeling performance data sheetsassumptions prior to modeling Occupancy schedules, patterns and any This scope is not designed to support variationsLEED documentation Narrative of proposed mechanical systems with related product literature and performance specifications, if available, as well as proposed loads for heating, cooling and ventilation Mechanical zone floor plan diagrams Lighting power density schedules
25. Modeling Assumptions & DeliverablesEarly Design Modeling Deliverables Late Design Modeling Deliverables Presentation and discussion of climate and site Develop modeling scenarios estimating energyconsiderations (e.g. shading) and opportunities for performance and cost savings for the building aspassive design follows: Presentation of energy end use breakdown and One baseline (ASHRAE compliant) casediscussion of the implications, efficiency One proposed (design) caseopportunities, and subsequent analysis Two additional modeling iterations of alternative design cases based on design HVAC analysis to compare system types and revisions,zoning options to maximize energy efficiency Including architectural or system change alternatives such as envelope, HVAC, Electric lighting analysis to compare alternative lighting, or controlslighting options to maximize for efficiency Present the results or each round of design Modeling the entire building in distinct iterations review to the design team for discussion (two, 1-2through SD. Iterations can be an architectural or hour calls or meetings), along with a writtengeometry change, or a bundle of efficiency summary of the results and recommendationsmeasures to evaluate within a given geometry. Theresults of each iteration will be presented to the The final model iteration will include LEEDdesign team for discussion along with anticipated documentation for EAp2/EAc1energy savings for each
26. Modeling and ProjectPerformance Goals
27. Performance Goals Energy (kBtu/kWh) Cost ($) Carbon (lbs. CO2-eq.) ENERGY STAR Code Compliance AIA 2030
28. Performance Goals // Energy (kBtu/kWh)
29. Performance Goals // Cost ($)
30. Performance Goals // Carbon (CO2-eq)
31. Performance Goals // ENERGY STAR ENERGY STAR Target Finder Scores 100 93 80 80 75 60 40 50 20 0 Proposed Alt 1 Proposed Alt 2 Target Median
32. Performance Goals // Code Compliance
33. Performance Goals // AIA 2030 Commitment
34. Modeling throughStages of Design/ Project Phases
35. Modeling for each Project Phase:Early Design Phase Modeling, LateDesign Phase Modeling,Facility/Operations ModelingModeling Inputs: Compiling BuildingInformation for Energy ModelingModeling Outputs: Type of informationand level of detail by Project Phase
36. Modeling for each Project Phase //Early Design PhaseWalk through PDF report, Q&A
37. Modeling for each Project Phase //Late Design PhaseWalk through PDF report, Q&A
38. Modeling for each Project Phase //Facility/Operations Phase
39. Modeling Inputs: Compiling Building Informationfor Energy Modeling Input Sources Input Checks Input Refinement Design Documents, Assumptions pro- Understand which Team Input, Project actively checked with inputs: Goals, Building entire team, check for have the least Codes & Standards, fit with design, cost, certainty Reasonable constructability, can still be Assumptions performance issues changed in the → What will happen if design inputs change? are key drivers of energy use
40. Modeling Inputs: Compiling Building Information for Energy Modeling Most Fewest assumptions Assumptions PD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+MSame # of Same # ofmodel inputs model inputs
41. Modeling Outputs: Type of information andlevel of detail by Project Phase RELATIVE COMPARISONS, SENSITIVITY, SYSTEM/ASSEMBLY TYPE, SYSTEM SIZING IMPACTSPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+M
42. Modeling Outputs: Type of information andlevel of detail by Project Phase RELATIVE COMPARISONS, SENSITIVITY, SYSTEM/ASSEMBLY TYPE, SYSTEM SIZINGPD Pre-Design SD Schematic Design LD Late Design O+M QUANTIFIED COMPARISONS, ECM IMPACT, CONTROL STRATEGIES, EQUIPMENT/ASSEMBLY SELECTION
43. Modeling Tools
44. Types of Modeling Tools Commonly UsedEcotect DOE-2 / eQUEST Continued use ofVasari (Solar & Wind) EnergyPlus / Simergy Building EnergyDaysim & Diva Trane Trace Modeling Tool;Weather Tool IES VE / ApacheHVAC Calibrate design modelSource: AIA Guide to Integrating Energy Modeling in the Design Process
45. Major Energy Modeling Softwareused in the U.S.Publicly Developed DOE-2 EnergyPlus (DOE-3)Privately Developed Trane Trace 700 IES VE ApacheHVAC
46. ASHRAE 140 Tested Energy Modeling Tools //Graphic User Interfaces and Geometry Input DifferencesDOE-2 EnergyPlus Trace 700 ApacheHVACeQUEST IDF Editor Trace 700 IES VE SuiteVisual Geometry Text-based Editor No Visual Geometry2D CAD import No visual geometry Full HVAC of ModulesFull HVAC Full HVAC ModelIT for 3D geometry ApacheHVAC for full HVACVasari OpenStudio3D Geometry SketchUp geometryExport to eQUEST for Export to IDF editor fordetailed HVAC detailed HVACEnergyPro SimergyFor California Code 3D geometryCompliance Use Full HVAC In Beta-testing Version
47. Publicly Developed // DOE-2
48. Publicly Developed // EnergyPlus (DOE-3)
49. Privately Developed // Trane Trace 700
50. Privately Developed // IES VE ApacheHVAC
51. ASHRAE 140 Tested Energy Modeling Tools //Differences in HVAC/Thermodynamic CapabilitiesCurrent Generation: Next Generation:DOE-2, Trace 700 EnergyPlus, ApacheHVAC Models Constant and Variable Includes validated models for Air Volume systems well high performance systems Does not natively model high Integrated natural ventilation performance systems without and modeling approximations, such as Under-floor Air Distribution, Calculates convection, allows Variable Refrigerant Flow, for modeling strategies like Dedicated Outdoor Air, Thermal double skin facades and atria Displacement Ventilation, Chilled Ceilings, Chilled Beams, Advanced daylight and complex Thermal Labyrinths, etc. façade modeling possible
52. Next Workshop:3:00 PM - 6:00 PM, Friday, October 12Bring your laptops with all software installed per technologypreparation instructions.Performance Analysis & Tools I: Concept Design Phase1. Analyze climate and site conditions2. This will include the effects of adjacent buildings, building shape and orientation, massing, shading devices and self-shading3. Design alternates will be assessed for relative performance attributes
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