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Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms
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Workshop 1 Case Study University Classrooms

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  • 1. University Classrooms and OfficesSoutheast United StatesEarly Design Analysis
  • 2. ContentsSolar Gain Analysisa. Basis of Analysisb. Analysis and Resultsc. Recommendations Page 2 of 12
  • 3. Solar GainBasis of AnalysisSite and OrientationThe proposed building is aligned withthe street grid and oriented +/-35degrees West of North.The sun path at the site location is laidover the proposed design below. Highand low daily sun paths for theacademic calendar are indicated for themonths of May and December. Thetable below shows major daily andseasonal sun angles. Solar Altitude (°) Time 21-May 21-Sep 21-Dec 9:00 48.9 39.6 21.5 12:00 79.9 60.9 36.5 3:00 47.7 37.2 21.1 Seasonal Sun Paths May Dec
  • 4. Annual Occupancy ScheduleThe typical academic year at TulaneUniversity begins in mid-August andends in mid-May. Summer months ofuniversity closure have been identifiedwith a diagonal hatch pattern in theannual average temperature chart to theright.Optimal shading design removes directsolar exposure from the facades onlyduring times of the day and year inwhich it would contribute to undesirableheat gains, increasing a demand formechanical cooling.Average outdoor ambient temperaturesare outside of a typical range of comfortin the times shown in red. These timesinclude May through September.Taking the schedule of operation intoconsideration, the upper bounds of Dry Bulb Temperaturediscomfort the shading design will be (°F)tailored to, will be the months of May,August and September.The analysis would support a full yearoccupancy schedule.View from Sun View from SunMorning Condition Afternoon Condition Page 4 of 12
  • 5. Building Exposures East North Elevation ElevationOne window of each unique type wasselected for shading analysiscorresponding with building exposure E1and window dimesions. Site exposureangles with reference to Plan North areprovided in the following table: Exposure Orientation (° W-of-N) Elevation Plan Site North 0 35 East 90 125 South 180 215 West 270 305The window types analyzed weretagged by elevation, as indicated in theillustrations to the right. The majority ofwindow types were dimensioned 4’-0” x West South7’-0” with the exception of half-sized Elevation Elevationwindows 2’-0” in width and the first levelstorefront/curtain wall system. Window Type S1 Tag Width Height E1 4’-0” 7’-0” S1 4’-0” 7’-0” W1 S2 S2 2’-0” 7’-0” S3 4’-0” 15’-0” W1 4’-0” 7’-0”Shading percentages for type S1 willapply to S3 with shade depth height-adjusted by a multiplier of x2. South Elevation S3 Page 5 of 12
  • 6. Analysis and Results [A] Spherical Sun Path ProjectionCooling LoadThe amount of energy used by themechanical cooling system in thebuilding is determined by the coolingdemand resulting from a combination ofinternal and external load components[C] of which envelope is a majorcomponent. One pathway to reducingcooling demand would be:1. Remove as much direct solar gain using exterior shading as possible2. Remove remainder of solar gain with glazing properties [B] Orthographic Sun Path Projection3. Reduce interior lighting and equipment power densitiesBoundary ConditionsThe curves highlighted in the sphericalsun path projection to the right [A]represents solar azimuth for months ofthe year. The particular month selectedas the shading design control curvemust be in the cooling season, have thelowest solar altitudes [B] beforereaching comfort conditions, and bewithin the building occupancy period.The month of September meets each ofthese conditions and was used toevaluate shading options. [C] Cooling LoadShading Configurations ComponentsThree main shading configurations weretested: horizontal shades (overhangs),vertical shades (fins) at either left orright window edge, and a brise soleil,boxing each window on left, top andright edges. For each shadingconfiguration, five depths were tested:0’-6”, 1’-0”, 1’-6”, 2’-0” and 2’-6”. Theshading effect of any vertical element ismutually equivalent, for example,aluminum fins and masonry saw tooth. Page 6 of 12
  • 7. East ElevationWindow E1The current sawtooth masonry wall iscomparable in its performance, to a 1’-0”left-vertical-shade.The combination of horizontal andvertical shades demonstratesperformance throughout the day.The current left-vertical-shade designprovides an average of 30% shading upto 60% when most effective. Anincrease in depth to 1’-6” and theaddition of a horizontal shade fullyshades the window at its maximumeffectiveness.A right vertical shade is not shown, as itwould provide no shade. Page 7 of 12
  • 8. South ElevationWindow S1The south elevation provides the largestarea of solar exposure and coolingliability due to its westerly orientation.The current shade design varies indepth between 1’-6” and 2’-6” andcomprises of a horizontal-shade and aleft-vertical-shade.Based on the analysis, the addition of aright-vertical-shade would increaseshading effectiveness in morning hoursto fully shading the window, whichreduces the amount of heat retained inthe building, lowering total coolingdemand during peak hours. Page 8 of 12
  • 9. South ElevationWindow S2Window S2 has half the width of windowS1. The narrow width increases verticalshading effectiveness particularly inafternoon hours. This narrow windowwindow renders shading strategies moreeffective for morning and afternoonhours. Shading performance in themiddle of the day can be furtherimproved by adding a horizontal shadinga window mid-height. Page 9 of 12
  • 10. West ElevationWindow W1The northwest exposure of the westfaçade intrinsically provides shadinguntil 2pm in each of the cases. Rightvertical shades are most effective andcan fully shade the window(s).A left vertical shade case is not shownas provides no shading. Page 10 of 12
  • 11. Recommendations H VL VR dShading strategy recommendations areby exposure. A number of shading East Elevation E1 Y Y N 1-6"+options are available to provide similarlevels of shading.The table to the right shows which South Elevation S1 Y Y Y 2-0"+combination of horizontal and verticalshading elements and shading depthare recommended by window type andexposure based on the analysis South Elevation S2 Y Y Y 1-6"+previously presented.Exterior shades and glazing propertiesshare a symbiotic relationship in which West Elevation W1 N N Y 1-0"+the effectiveness of exterior shadesdetermines allowable clarity of glazing.For example, a fully shaded window can H Horizontal Shadesupport a clear glass specification,whereas the absense of exterior VL Left Vertical Shadeshading results in dark, tinted glass with VR Right Vertical Shadelow daylight potential. d Shade DepthIn the five shading strategies shown r Window Recessbelow, the depth of shades can bereduced if the number of shades Exampleprovided per window increases. Thedepth of any window recess can be Choosing strategy ‘E’ below for window S1, adding a wallsubtracted from recommended exterior recess ‘r’ of 0’-6” and placing an additional center verticalshade depth. This allows for a narrow shade, the shade depth can be reduced from ashade depth as desired while maintain recommended 2’-0” to 0’-6”, using the d / 2 - r calculationcomparable cooling load reduction. shown below. This provides equivalent performance. Page 11 of 12
  • 12. Case StudiesThe rotation of the building withreference to site north as well as thelarge range of sun paths in the project’sgeographic location, create a situation inwhich shading from more than onewindow edge is most effective.Since shading depths greater than 1’-6”are often constrained by physical andcost limitations, one alternative issegmented shading as seen in thePostdamer Platz project example to thetop right. The 1:1 ratio between shadingelement depth and bays betweenelements is equivalent to a 7’-0” shadedepth if only a single horizontal shade isprovided at the window head.The Torre Agbar project providesanother such example to the middleright.The performance of the narrow width S2windows exceeded the S1 windowsusing the same shade depths. Anexample of this approach is the USCZilkha Neurogenetic Institute below,which uses a similar narrow verticalwindow portion in conjunction with deeprecesses to provide multi-edge shade,with a southward rotation of each bay. Page 12 of 12

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