Options and opportunities in advanced electricity production from wastes
NNFCCOptions and opportunities in advanced electricity production from wastes Dr Geraint Evans Head of Biofuels and Bioenergy October 2012
NNFCC Content• UK Government’s recently published Bioenergy strategy• Opportunities for gasification – Waste – Heat – Advanced biofuels – Coal conversion
NNFCC Bioenergy Strategy - April 2012• Sets out the Governments approach to ensuring that the benefits from bioenergy are secured.• Four principles ensure: – Looking out to 2050, genuine carbon reductions are achieved – Bioenergy is cost effective – Regular assessment of potential unintended consequences• Uncertainty is not sufficient to justify inaction. Lower risk pathways have been identified: – Use of wastes – Heat (direct biomass and biomethane) – Transport, in particular advanced biofuels – Electricity, primarily coal conversion but also CHP – longer term, CCS becomes important.
NNFCCBioenergy strategyidentifies gasificationas a key opportunity –values its flexibility
NNFCC Flexible / “no regrets” technologies• Mitigate against inherent uncertainties of projecting deployment scenarios over long timescales (including the uncertainties around CCS) – Emerging analysis (TINA) suggests that the development of advanced conversion technologies, in particular reliable gasification and clean-up at scale, is crucial in allowing us to realise this “insurance”.• Crucial gasification variants identified are – Advanced biofuels (e.g. FT fuels) – Biopower – Heat (biomethane/bioSNG)• Technology innovation needed to reduce cost and increase efficiency to support the development of flexible bioenergy which can adapt to inherent uncertainties.
NNFCC Opportunities• Use of wastes• Heat (direct biomass and biomethane)• Transport, in particular advanced biofuels• Electricity, primarily coal conversion to biomass but also CHP – longer term, CCS becomes important (strong ETI interest in bioCCS).• Longer term opportunities in bio-based chemical production
NNFCC RO banding review – ROO 2013• Original half and two ROCs offering stalled developer interest – Arup report• NNFCC review of costs and performance• Recent response – All gasification is emerging and all need help – Unified ROC offering – 2 ROCs per renewable MWh with degression – No difference between (less risky) steam and engine systems – Syngas sampling? – Bio content deemed at 50% or measure (C14)• Should there be a drive in EMR to realise increased efficiencies and deliver flexibility?
NNFCCSurvey represented about 800 MWe.Most projects use steam; where power is produced using an engine or turbine, thegasifiers are either downdraft or use plasma in some way
NNFCCFurther innovation potential in gas clean-up to maximise efficiencies and opportunities
NNFCC• Close coupled gasifiers emerging slightly more quickly for processing wastes – now operating at low capacity• There is interest in using downdraft gasifiers for generating power.• Over the next 2 years gasifiers with steam cycles and gasifiers with plasma producing power via an engine or IGCC, are expected to grow at similar rates.• The use of non-plasma gasifiers to produce power via engines or gas turbines will remain limited until enhanced gas cleaning technologies become available.
NNFCC Gasification and heat - bioSNG air tars Char natural gas network combustion C0 Syngas CH4 Gasification H2 cooling & Methanation Purification cleaning (steam) H2O H2O CO2 heat wood (steam) UK electrical grid waterDual gasifier with steam, Syngas cleaning to Methanation at high Purification to and indirect heating remove tars and pressure, with ensure bioSNG from char combustion. other contaminants removal of excess meets network First plants plan to use to the ppb level heat to generate standards before only dried clean wood power and steam injection feedstock
NNFCC BioSNG – natural gas substitute produced by methanation of biosyngas and “identical” to biomethane from AD• The Bioenergy Strategy, Carbon Trust bioTINA, ETI and National Grid demonstrate increasing interest in bioSNG• RHI support for bioSNG injection into gas grid• Three key developers; use of indirect gasifier is most ideal – limited development on wastes• At a tariff level of 4p/kWh, plus the projected wholesale UK gas price in 2020, the sale price for bioSNG would be around 6.3p/kWh – This would give plant NPV and IRRs of £38.8M / 9.3% and £159.8M / 16.7% for the 30 and 100 MW cases Plant size (MWbioSNG) 30 (15 MWe equiv.) 100 (50 MWe equiv.) Capital costs (£m 2009) 46.0 100.4 Specific capex (£m / kWbioSNG) 1,500 1,000 Operating costs (£m/yr) 2.5 4.7 Feedstock costs (£m/yr) 4.0 21.8 Co-product revenues (£m/yr) 1.3 5.8
NNFCC BioSNG production costs are higher than 2020 natural gas prices• BioSNG production costs derived are between 4.8 and 5.2 p/kWh - much higher than wholesale UK natural gas prices of 1.2 – 3.3 p/kWh• Capital and feedstock costs dominate 30 MWbioSNG plant 7.0• Increasing plant capacity Cumulative bioSNG production cost (p/kWh) 6.0 from 30 to 100 MWbioSNG decreases the production 5.0 cost slightly. Economies of 4.0 scale are largely offset by the increase in the 3.0 feedstock cost from more 2.0 expensive imports 1.0 0.0 Capex Feedstock Staff Insurance Maintenance Other costs Electricity Heat sales Total cost sales
NNFCC• Biomass gasification to produce bioSNG is only at the demonstration stage, with limited experience in downstream fuel synthesis integration• Three developers now active: Developer Project Location Stage Size and start-up year 1 MWbioSNG unit built at the 8 MWth Güssing CHP plant in June BioSNG Güssing Austria Pilot 2009, as part of the EU Bio-SNG project. Previous 10kWbioSNG test-rig in 2003 EclépensREPOTEC-CTU Gazobois Commercial 21.5 MWbioSNG plant starting in 2012 Switzerland 20 MWbioSNG in 2012 + 80 MWbioSNG in 2015/6 with Goteborg Gothenburg GoBiGas Commercial Energi & E.ON Sweden Possible 200MWbioSNG plant with E.ON after 2015 Petten 25 kWth input test-rig started in 2004. Pilot Netherlands 800kWth CHP pilot plant (no bioSNG) in 2008 ECN ECN Not yet Plans for a 50MWth plant in 2016, after demonstrating CHP Demo determined plant at 10MWth with HVCAPP / Prog Eng Plans to convert existing APP pilot plant to produce bioSNG. 1st APP Swindon Pilot / Nat Grid on waste. 2013-15
NNFCC Biomass to Liquids• Ineos Bio Process to produce ethanol via gasification is about to be demonstrated at commercial scale in Florida; UK plant planned for Teesside.• This, UK plant along with the BA/Solena jet fuel plant, will leapfrog the UK in a world leading position with respect to BTL.
NNFCC Illustrative BA/Solena Jet Fuel Plant SchematicBA in partnership with Solena plan to build a waste to jet fuel plant in London (2015) Gas cleaning /polishing and conditioning Syngas cleaning Fischer WaxGasification & conditioning Tropsch upgrading
NNFCC Coal conversion to biomass and co-firingMetso are building a 140 MW fluidised bed wood gasifierin Vaasa, Finland to co-fire syngas with coal• €40 million• 25-40% coal replacement• Removes ash from combustion process Biomass can be brought on line during planned shutdown – commissioning due December 2012• Power station still can operate on 100% coal if necessary