Inner City Challenges in developed countries


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A ppt to help AS pupils complete notes on the challenges facing inner cities and the responses to these challenges

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Inner City Challenges in developed countries

  1. 2. <ul><li>Follow the instructions contained in this ppt. </li></ul><ul><li>Add annotation to the photos in your notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the timeline in your notes as instructed. </li></ul>
  2. 3. i. The historic advantages of the inner city
  3. 4. i. Economic Decline Read extract 1 in your handout and use it to add notes to the appropriate part of your timeline.
  4. 5. ii. Reasons for decline
  5. 6. Economic decline
  6. 7. i. Economic Decline Move between the following two photographs. Carefully compare the economic activities you can see in each. Add annotation to the appropriate diagram in your notes. Use the map found just after the two photos to make some suggestions about what the factories in the background of the older photo may be.
  7. 8. i. Economic Decline
  8. 9. i. Economic Decline
  9. 10. i. Economic Decline Note carefully the types of economic activities you can see here. Press the space bar to see the direction the previous photos are pointing in.
  10. 11. i. Economic Decline Finally, read the paragraph numbered 2 on p135 of the text book to get a sense of why this decline in inner city industry took place. Now complete summary notes on your timeline for Economic Decline in the 1960s.
  11. 12. Physical Decline
  12. 13. ii. Physical Decline Poor quality housing By the 1960s, the houses built in the 19 th Century to house the factory workers had fallen into bad disrepair. Study the following photographs to get a sense of the state of the physical environment in the inner cities in the 1960s and 1970s. Add annotation to the appropriate diagram in your notes.
  13. 14. ii. Physical Decline
  14. 15. ii. Physical Decline
  15. 16. ii. Physical Decline
  16. 17. ii. Physical Decline Industrial Pollution As well as a deterioration in the quality of housing, there was a legacy of industrial pollution from the manufacturing industries that were located in the inner cities. The next slide contains an example of this.
  17. 18. ii. Physical Decline It is a nightmare problem around the world. When old gasworks are decommissioned, they usually leave substantial amounts of toxic materials in the ground, often dangerous to local water courses and carcinogenic to humans. The solution is often to remove all the contaminated material and incinerate it or dump it in a special landfill site. It is possible to treat some of the soil and return it to use, but the costs are very substantial. Gasworks site, Belfast Nearby housing area
  18. 19. ii. Physical Decline Read the second paragraph on p136 of the text book. Based on these slides and your text book reading, make summary notes on Physical Decline on your timeline in your handout.
  19. 20. Social Decline
  20. 21. iii. Social Decline Out-migration from the inner cities The first response to the challenge of derelict houses in the inner cities was to knock them down and replace them with high- and mid-rise flats . Some of these were located on the land in the inner cities previously occupied by the terraced houses. However, it wasn’t possible to re-house all the people in the inner cities, so some edge of town estates were built in the suburbs. This obviously resulted in out-migration from the inner cities . However, the flats were not a great success. Study the following slides carefully to find out what the problems with them were.
  21. 22. iii. Social Decline The Divis Flats, mid- and high-rise flats in inner city Belfast (in the 1970s)
  22. 23. iii. Social Decline Get a sense of the quality of the living conditions shown in the following photographs of Divis from the 1970s.
  23. 24. iii. Social Decline Get a sense of the quality of the living conditions shown in the following photographs of Divis from the 1970s.
  24. 25. iii. Social Decline
  25. 26. iii. Social Decline Get a sense of the quality of the living conditions shown in the following photographs of Divis from the 1970s.
  26. 27. iii. Social Decline What would it have been like to have lived in environments like this? Watch the Divis video from the 1980s to get a feel for the sense of despair experienced by young people in the Divis area in the 1980s.
  27. 28. iii. Social Decline As we’ve previously mentioned, communities were displaced as a result of the clearance of houses to make way for the flats. Can you think of reasons for the opinion being expressed by the women in this cartoon? ‘ You’ll never get me up in one of those things…’
  28. 29. iii. Social Decline Now make some summary notes of the nature of the social decline onto your timeline.
  29. 30. iii. Consequences of decline
  30. 31. This out-migration had clear consequences on the population structure of inner city areas, as can be seen in this example from Belfast. Compare and contrast these pyramids (be careful when comparing the top of the pyramids!) Shankill 1991
  31. 32. iii. Social Decline Read the paragraph starting at the bottom of p135 of the text book and study Resource 39. What were the characteristics of the residents left in the inner cities and how would this lead to a ‘ self-perpetuating cycle of poverty ’? Watch the Brixton riots video to get a sense of the violence issues in inner city Britain in the 1980s. Shankill 1991
  32. 33. iv. Response to decline: UDCs
  33. 34. Urban Development Corporations Read the section in your notes on UDCs and then visit this website . Use it to recap on the historical developments of the growth, decline and revitalisation of the inner city, using London as an example. Add some summary notes based on Extract 2 onto the timeline in your notes.
  34. 35. Urban Development Corporations <ul><li>The UDCs have had a positive impact on many cities in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the internet to do some research for the following two terms mentioned on the spec: </li></ul><ul><li>reurbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>gentrification </li></ul><ul><li>Get definitions of the terms and find an example of each. Add notes in the appropriate place in your handout. </li></ul>