Lecture7: Emotion. DrNaif

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Emotion
Date: 21/2/2013
Dr> Naif

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Lecture7: Emotion. DrNaif

  1. 1. Chapter 11 EmotionUse with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  2. 2. Motives and Emotions• Emotions are triggered from the outside whereas motived are triggered from inside. Emotional reactions are directed towards external circumstances whereas motives are directed at homeostatic balance.• Motives are elicited by specific needs, but emotions are elicited by a range of things (think of all the things that make you Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition happy!) Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  3. 3. Components of Emotion• An emotion is a complex, multi-component episode that creates a readiness to act Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  4. 4. Components of Emotion• Emotions are distinct from moods in several ways: – Emotions tend to have a clear cause (about something or someone), are typically brief (last seconds or minutes), and implicate multiple component systems (moods are only salient at the subjective experience level) – In research there is much interest in the detailed nature of components of emotion, and the mechanisms by which they influence each other Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  5. 5. Cognitive Appraisal & Emotion• Cognitive appraisal – It is the interpretation of the personal meaning of current circumstances (person-environment relationship) that results in emotion – Cognitive appraisal is largely responsible for differentiating emotions• Discovery of appraisals – Two-factor theory of emotions – emotions are the result of a combination of an initial state of unexplained arousal & cognitive appraisal for that arousal – mixed support- Schacter & Singer – Misattribution of arousal – physiological arousal can be erroneously attributed to subsequent event (Running up stairs) Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  6. 6. Cognitive Appraisal & Emotion• Themes & dimensions of appraisals – People’s appraisals of situations lead to subjective experience of emotions, associated arousal & other components of emotional response • Minimalist appraisal theories – reduce number of appraisal dimensions to a minimum, often based on fundamental themes – emphasises importance of emotion-specific core relational themes (e.g. irrevocable loss for sadness) • Dimensional appraisal theories – identify a range of appraisal dimensions thought sufficient for differences among emotions (e.g. desirability of event & whether it occurs) Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  7. 7. Cognitive Appraisal & Emotion• Conscious & unconscious appraisals – Appraisals can occur at unconscious levels – people experience emotion without understanding why – Cognitive appraisals in emotion processes similar to other types of cognition - resulting in part from automatic processing & in part from controlled processing• Appraisals in the brain – Amygdala (in the lower brain) – key role in automatic appraisals which supports idea of appraisals occurring both unconsciously & consciously Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  8. 8. Subjective Experiences & Emotion• Subjective experience of emotion – This feeling component is, by definition, within awareness – One output of the appraisal process is change in subjective experience• Feelings modify attention & learning – Current feelings direct attention to events that match our feelings, as a result we learn more about those events – Feelings influence which memories are more accessible & those memories influence what is easy to learn at the moment (Hypnosis experiment-happy or sad-story- identification with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introductionone day later) Use and recollection to Psychology 15 edition th Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  9. 9. Subjective Experiences & Emotion• Feelings modify evaluations & judgements – Our feelings can affect evaluations of other people, and of inanimate objects (My pseudo prosopagnosia) – Feelings also affect our judgements of risk – if we are fearful, more likely to see world as uncertain & uncontrollable; if feeling angry/happy, more likely to see world as certain & controllable – Positive emotions broaden our habitual modes of thinking which makes it more likely to find that silver lining in a cloud Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  10. 10. Thought & Action Tendencies & Emotion• Thought-action tendencies – Refers to urges – one way that feelings guide behavior & information processing • With most negative emotions, people’s thought-action tendencies become narrow & specific • With most positive emotions, people’s thought-action tendencies become broad & more open to possibilities Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  11. 11. Positive Emotions• Positive emotions broaden our thinking & actions – They expand our typical ways of thinking & being in the world, pushing us to be more creative & curious etc.• Positive emotions build our personal resources – Emotions are short-lived but can have lasting effects – Positive emotions broaden our thinking & actions – over time this leads to a store of resources to draw on in times of trouble – broaden-and-build theory – which may optimiseAtkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15 edition Use with long-term health & well-being th Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  12. 12. Bodily Changes & Emotion• Bodily changes & emotion – Intense negative emotions involve physiological arousal caused by activation of sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system: prepares for energy output – Positive emotions have undoing effect on lingering arousal from negative emotions• Intensity of emotions – People with spinal chord injuries (limit feedback from autonomic nervous system) report less intense emotions – Visceral perception plays a role in intensity of emotions Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  13. 13. Bodily Changes & Emotion• Differentiation of emotions – James-Lange theory holds that autonomic arousal differentiates the emotions Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  14. 14. Facial Expression & Emotion• Communications of emotion through facial expressions – Certain facial expressions seem to be universal in meaning, regardless of culture – Facial expressions of one person can change behavior of another (e.g. mother/child & visual cliff) – Certain aspects of facial expression are learned – display rules specify types of emotions people should express in certain situations and appropriate behavior for particular emotions Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  15. 15. Facial Expression & Emotion• The facial feedback hypothesis – Facial feedback hypothesis – the idea that facial expressions, in addition to their communicative function, also contribute to our subjective experience of emotions Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  16. 16. Responses to Emotion: Emotion Regulation• Emotion regulation – Refers to people’s responses to their own emotions – Sometimes people have goal of intensifying emotion while other times people want to minimise emotion – ability to do so predicts social success – Suppressing facial expression increases autonomic arousal & amygdala activation, & also impairs memory Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  17. 17. Responses to Emotion: Emotion Regulation• People develop different strategies to control/regulate emotions Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  18. 18. Emotions, Gender & Culture• Emotions, gender & culture – We can conceptualise differences in emotion by gender & culture as either “front-end” (those that begin with appraisal process) or “back-end” (responses to emotion)• Gender differences – Men & women hold strong beliefs about gender differences in emotions (stereotypes) • Gender differences in reported emotion vanish when men & women are asked how they feel in the moment • Gender differences may stem mainly from back-end processes - ways in which men & women regulate & express emotions Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  19. 19. Emotions, Gender & Culture• Cultural differences – Cultural differences in emotion relate to how values associated with collectivism & individualism shape emotional experiences • Collectivist culture focuses more on relationships which affect both appraisal processes (front-end) and regulation strategies (back-end) in the experience of emotions • Emotions appear to bind people together in collectivist cultures, and define individual uniqueness in individualist cultures Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  20. 20. Aggression• Aggression as a drive – Psychoanalytic theory argues that when a person’s effort to reach a goal are blocked, this induces aggressive drive • Cause of aggression is frustration • Aggression has properties of basic drive (controversial) • Support for biological basis for aggression come from studies that show aggressive drive in some species. Also, stimulation of hypothalamus can produce aggressive behavior in some animals • In humans & certain other mammals, aggressive behavior mainly under cortical control & therefore environment & past experiences influence it Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  21. 21. Aggression• Aggression as a learned response – Social-learning theory proposes that aggression learned through observation or imitation & the more often it is reinforced, more likely it is to occur • Frustration provokes aggression in people who have learned to respond to adverse situations with aggressive behaviour • Support for social-learning theory from studies showing aggression can be learned through imitation. Also, children are more likely to express aggressive responses when they are reinforced for such actions rather than punished Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  22. 22. AggressionUse with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  23. 23. Aggression• Aggressive expression & catharsis – Catharsis – purging an emotion by experiencing it intensely – If aggression is a drive, expressing aggression should be cathartic, leading to reduction in intensity of aggressive feelings & actions. If aggression is learned, expressing aggression could lead to an increase in such actions – evidence favors learned-response view – Can also look at effects of indirectly (vicariously) expressing aggression, e.g. watching violence on TV Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  24. 24. Aggression• ...Aggressive expression & catharsis – To examine whether watching violence increases aggression or vice versa – longitudinal study Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  25. 25. Aggression• ...Aggressive expression & catharsis – Results of vicarious expressions of aggression also do not support idea of aggression as catharsis or aggression as a drive – Aggression may often occur when a person is frustrated, but it does not always follow frustration – many social conditions & cues either increase or decrease person’s tendency to act aggressively Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning

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