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Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif
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Lecture6:Chapter10-Motivation.Dr.Naif

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Motivation …

Motivation
date: 2/13/2013

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  • 1. Chapter 10 MotivationUse with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 2. Motivation• Motivation – Motivation is a condition that energizes behavior and gives it direction – Arises from two sources – from internal drive factors (e.g. hunger) & external incentive factors (e.g. food) – Incentives • Primary reinforcers – able to act as rewards independently of prior experience • Secondary reinforcers – able to act as rewards at least partly through learning about their relationship to other events Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 3. Drives & Homeostasis• Drive factors are generally directed towards maintaining homeostasis• Homeostasis involves: – Set point – value homeostatic system tries to maintain – Sensory signal that measures internal state – Comparison between set point & sensory signal – Response that reduces difference between the two Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 4. Drives & Homeostasis• Body temperature & homeostasis – Control processes to maintain temperature include physiological responses (e.g. sweating & shivering), and psychological responses (e.g. find shade, remove clothing, cool drink) – Neurons in various parts of the brain (especially the hypothalamus) detect temperature changes & trigger physiological responses & sensations that lead to behavioral solutions Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 5. Drives & Homeostasis• Thirst as a homeostatic process – Two kinds of fluid reservoirs in the body – intracellular reservoir & extracellular reservoir – Loss of extracellular fluid detected by blood-pressure sensors, neurons in major veins & organs that respond to drop in pressure = thirst – Loss of intracellular fluid detected by osmotic sensors, neurons in the hypothalamus that respond to dehydration = thirst Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 6. Incentive Motivation & Reward• Incentive motivation – Wanting something associated with affect (full range of consciously experienced pleasure & displeasure) – Most incentives need to be learned – incentive salience (objects/events been linked to anticipated pleasurable affect) – Wanting – anticipation of pleasure whereas liking – pleasure experienced in the moment – Dopamine system in the brain appears to underlie experience of “wanting” Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 7. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders• Hunger – More complex than thirst – as we need to eat a balance of foods to be healthy – We have both basic taste preferences that we are born with & mechanisms for learning preferences & aversions• Interactions between homeostasis & incentives – Homeostasis is the dominant operating principle in control of hunger but incentive factors are important too • Oral stimulation & learning are both important parts of the interaction between physiological hunger signals & incentive stimuli of eating Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 8. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders• Physiological hunger cues – Related to glucose levels & other nutrients in the body – Neurons in the brain (especially brain stem & hypothalamus) sensitive to glucose levels – Peripheral signals – nutrient signals in the liver, stomach & intestines trigger satiety to the brain• Integration of hunger cues – Signals from hunger receptors in the brain & satiety signals from liver & stomach integrated in brain stem to detect overall need Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 9. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders• ...Integration of hunger cues – Hypothalamus - two key areas related to hunger • Lateral hypothalamus – destruction leads to undereating • Ventromedial hypothalamus – destruction leads to overeating – The idea that the two parts of the hypothalamus “hunger centre” too simplistic • Research on lesions in the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus suggests this more complex Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 10. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 11. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 12. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders• Obesity – Definition – 30% or more above ideal body weight. – People become obese mainly due to genetic predisposition or they overeat (psychological reasons) – Genetic factors – obesity more likely in families where one or more parents obese – Twin studies – research suggests identical twins gain weight in same way – Research suggests that genes affect number & size of fat cells, metabolic rate & set points Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 13. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders• ...Obesity – Overeating – psychological factors include breakdown of conscious restraints (e.g. end of diet) & emotional arousal (e.g. when tense or anxious) – Dieting & weight control • Limitations of dieting – extreme diets not successful because deprivation leads to binge eating & decreases metabolic rate • Weight control programs – to succeed people need to establish new set of permanent eating habits & exercise Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 14. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 15. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders• Anorexia & bulimia – Both these disorders involve pathological desire not to gain weight & mostly affect women – Anorexia nervosa – characterized by extreme, self- imposed weight loss – Bulimia – characterized by recurrent binge eating followed by purging excess through vomiting/laxatives – Variety of causes for these disorders, including social, biological or family factors with some combination of these probably necessary Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 16. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders• ...Anorexia & bulimia – Socio-cultural causes • Emphasis on thinness in women in Western culture • Objectification theory – claims that self-objectification (concerned more with how others see us than how we feel) causes range of psychological & emotional reactions – self- consciousness, increased anxiety & shame, & diminished positive emotions & sexual pleasure Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning
  • 17. Hunger, Eating, & Eating Disorders• ...Anorexia & bulimia – Biological causes • Biological vulnerabilities may increase tendency to develop eating disorder, e.g. malfunction of hypothalamus (anorexia) or deficiency in neurotransmitter serotonin or executive functioning (bulimia) – Familial causes • Many young women with eating disorders come from families that demand “perfection” & extreme self-control but do not allow expressions of warmth & conflict Use with Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 © 2009 Cengage Learning

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