Psychology 220 Second AssessmentDate: 21st March, 2013Time: 1-2pmPlace: FoM: Reading Room and ARLTLectures From : 14/2 (Properties of Different Memorycovered: Processes) To: 14/3 (Psychological Development of Children)
How to write and shade student ID in thecomputer sheet given for the exam - For 2008, 2009, 2010 students – Year and last 4 digits2008 – 0824562009 – 0945362010 – 105567 For 2011 students – Year and last 5 digits 2011 – 1115212
What is “cognition”? Cognition refers to thinking, including language, learning, memory, and intelligence. Jean Piaget (born 1896) was a pioneer in studying cognitive development in humans. More recent research has both validated and extended Piaget’s ideas about infant’s cognitive abilities.
Cognitive Theory• Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental balance.• If threatened, how do we achieve equilibrium again?• Assimilation: taking new information in by incorporating it into previous “schemas” ▫ Schemas: theories about how the physical and social worlds operate (categories)• Accommodation: requires an adjustment of previous schemas upon new information
Cognitive Theory (cont.) Example: A 10 month old learns that a red ball bounces. If given a blue ball, he will bounce it too (assimilation). If given a red tomato (which looks like a red ball), he may try to bounce it. He needs to accommodate his schema of round, red things.
Cognitive Theory• Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages ▫ sensorimotor ▫ pre-operational ▫ concrete operational ▫ formal operational YVES DEBRAINE / BLACK STAR
Sensorimotor Intelligence (Birth-2yrs) Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, characterized by learning through senses and motor actions. PHOTODISC
Sensorimotor Intelligence (Cont.) Infants are busy discovering the relationship between their actions and the consequences of those actions. Reflexes- sucking, grasping, staring, listening birth to 1 month.
Assimilation and coordination of reflexes (1-4 months). Example: An infant sucks a bottle differently than the mother’s nipple. Awareness of things-responding to people and objects (4-8 months). Example: clapping hands when mother says “patty cake”
Object Permanence (~8 months): the understanding that an object continues to exists even if it is not present. Active experimentation (12-18 months). Example: putting a teddy bear in the toilet and then flushing it. Mental combinations (18-24 months) Infants can think before taking action, for example, wondering before flushing remembering that the toilet overflowed the last time.
Preoperational Thought (2-6 yrs)• Preoperational thought is characterized by: ▫ Egocentrism ▫ Centration ▫ Focus on appearance ▫ Static reasoning ▫ Irreversibility ▫ Lack of conservation
Egocentrism Egocentrism is the tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective. Example: A child tries to comfort his upset father by giving him a teddy bear.
Centration Centration is the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of others. Example: A child insists that lions and tigers are not “cats”! Example: Insist that “daddy” is a father, not a brother. This is a type of egocentrism.
Focus on Appearance When looking at something, young children tend to focus only on what is apparent, ignoring other relevant attributes. Example: A girl with a short haircut “must” be a boy. Or the “taller” child must be “older.”
Static Reasoning Young children assume the world is unchanging. Example: A boy is surprised to learn that “his” teacher is also someone’s mother! If things DO change, they occur totally and suddenly (e.g., a child “wakes up” tall).
Irreversibility Irreversibility is the idea that nothing can be undone. It is the failure to recognize that reversal of a process can sometimes restore something to its original state. Example: A child refuses to eat a hamburger that is “contaminated” by lettuce, even after the lettuce is removed.
(Lack of) Conservation Conservation is the idea that the amount of a substance remains the same, despite changes in its appearance. Piaget found that most preoperational thinkers lack conservation. Example: Break a cookie in half, and a young child might think there are 2 cookies!
A Critique of Piaget’s Theory Many of the tasks designed to test stage theories requires several skills.Example 1. Object permanence : the infant might know the object still exists but is unable to show this knowledge through searching behaviorExample 2. Conservation: When you ask children about the “aggregate” or collection rather than the individual items, they are less likely to be influenced by visual appearance.
Piaget’s Third Stage (6-11yrs) Concrete operational thought is the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions. Children in this stage become more systematic, objective, and scientific thinkers–but only about tangible, visible things.
Logical Principles Classification: organization into groups according to common property Example: Show 5 roses and 2 tulips. Ask, “Are there more roses or flowers?” Kids in middle childhood know that roses are a subcategory of “flowers.”
Essence and Change Identity: certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change Examples: frozen water is still water; a butterfly was once a caterpillar; liquid in smaller glass is the same liquid
Essence and Change (cont.) Reversibility: reversing the process by which something was changed brings the original conditions Example: if 5 + 9 = 14, then 14 – 9 must equal 5! Also, imagine pouring water back in conservation task.
Essence and Change (cont.) Reciprocity is the principle that things may change in opposite ways, and thus balance each other out. Example: A child states that the decreased height in the shorter glass is balanced out by its increased width.
Piaget’s Highest Stage (12yrs- adulthood) Adolescents are in Piaget’s 4th stage, formal operational thought, characterized by: logical thought hypothetical thought abstract thought deductive reasoning
Inductive Reasoning Specific General It consists of making observations and then drawing conclusions based on those observations (“bottom-up” thinking). Example: All of the swans I have seen in my life are white in color, therefore, all swans are white.
Deductive Reasoning General specific You we start with the conclusion and then see if the evidence for that conclusion is valid. Generally, if the evidence is valid, the conclusion it supports is valid as well (“top-down” thinking). Example: All oranges are fruits All fruits grow on trees Therefore, all oranges grow on trees
Formal Operational Tasks The Balance Scale Problem Mixing Chemicals
Formal Operational Thought Adolescents can think about possibilities and about the future. They often question adult values, practices. They love to think and discuss life, and are often idealists.