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Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
Head and neck  rs
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Head and neck rs

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  • 1. HEADAND NECK
  • 2. Fontanels • Fontanels are mesenchyme-filled spaces between cranial bones that are present at birth.• The unpaired anterior fontanel• The unpaired posterior fontanel• The paired anterolateral fontanels• The paired posterolateral fontanelsAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 3. Fontanels • The unpaired anterior fontanel, the largest fontanel, is located at the midline between the two parietal bones and the frontal bone, and is roughly diamond-shaped. • The unpaired posterior fontanel is located at the midline between the two parietal bones and the occipital bone. • The paired anterolateral fontanels, located laterally between the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones, are small and irregular in shape. • The paired posterolateral fontanels, located laterally between the parietal, occipital, and temporal bones, are irregularly shaped.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 4. ANTERIOR PART OF SKULL
  • 5. LATERAL PART OF SKULL
  • 6. POSTERIOR PART OF SKULL
  • 7. The Skull• The skull consists of the cranium and the facial skeleton.• The cranium is the bony container for the brain, and the foundation for the facial skeleton.• The cranium is made up of a number of originally separate bones.• These lines of fusion are known as sutures.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 8. The Skull • Formed by cranial and facial bonesAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 9. The Cranium • The cranium serves to: • Enclose brain • Provide attachment sites for some head and neck musclesAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 10. The Face • Facial bones serve to: • Form framework of the face • Form cavities for the sense organs of sight, taste, and smell • Provide openings for the passage of air and food • Hold the teeth • Anchor muscles of the faceAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 11. Overview of Skull Geography • Facial bones form anterior aspect • Cranium is divided into cranial vault (chamber) and the base • Internally, prominent bony ridges divide skull into distinct fossaeAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 12. Overview of Skull Geography • The skull contains smaller cavities • Middle and inner ear cavities – in lateral aspect of cranial base • Nasal cavity – lies in and posterior to the nose • Orbits – house the eyeballs • Air-filled sinuses – occur in several bones around the nasal cavityAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 13. Overview of Skull Geography • The skull contains approximately 85 named openings • Foramina, canals, and fissures • Provide openings for important structures • Spinal cord • Blood vessels serving the brain • 12 pairs of cranial nervesAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 14. Cranial Bones • Formed from eight large bones • Paired bones include • Temporal bones • Parietal bones • Unpaired bones include • Frontal bone • Occipital bone • Sphenoid bone • Ethmoid boneAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 15. Frontal Bones • Forms the forehead and roofs of the orbits • Forms superciliary arches • Internally, it contributes to the anterior cranial fossa • Contains frontal sinuses • Soon after birth, the left and right sides of the frontal bone are united by the metopic suture, which usually disappears between the ages of six and eight.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 16. Parietal Bones and Sutures • Parietal bones form superior and lateral parts of skullAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 17. Parietal Bones and Sutures • A suture is an immovable joint in mostcases in an adult skull that holds most skull bones together. 1. The coronal suture unites the frontal bone and both parietal bones. 2. The sagittal suture unites the two parietal bones on the superior midline of the skull 3. The lambdoid suture unites the two parietal bones to the occipital bone. 4. The squamous sutures unite the parietal and temporal bones on the lateral aspects of the skull.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 18. The Skull – Posterior ViewAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 19. The Skull – Posterior ViewAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 20. Occipital Bone • Forms the posterior portion of the cranium and cranial base • Articulates with the temporal bones and parietal bones • Forms the posterior cranial fossa • The most striking feature of the occipital bone is this large opening, the foramen magnum, located at its base, through which the spinal cord and its accompanying structures pass.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 21. Occipital Bone • The part of the occipital bone in front of the foramen magnum is called the basilar part, often referred to as the base of the occiput. • The two temporal bones converge on it from each side. • The occipital bone thats behind the foramen magnum, the squamous part.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 22. Occipital Bone• Features and structures • Occipital condyles • Hypoglossal foramen • External occipital protuberance • Superior nuchal lines • Inferior nuchal lines Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 23. Occipital Bone• Features and structures • Occipital condyles:The occipital condyles are the joint surfaces which articulate with the atlas vertebra to form the atlanto-occipital joints. • Hypoglossal foramen • External occipital protuberance: Thelump in the middle is the external occipital protuberance. • Superior nuchal lines • Inferior nuchal lines • (faint ridge, leading out toward the mastoid process) Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 24. Inferior Aspect of the SkullAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 25. Temporal Bones • Lie inferior to parietal bones • Form the inferolateral portion of the skull • Specific regions of temporal bone • Squamous, temporal, petrous, and mastoid regions • Its easy to feel the mastoid process behind and below the ear.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 26. Lateral Aspect of the SkullAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 27. The Temporal BoneAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 28. Temporal Bones • The zygomatic arch is formed largely by the temporal bone, and partly by the adjoining zygomatic bone. • At the underside of the root of the zygomatic arch, there is a complex curved surface that articulates with the condyle of the mandible to form the temporomandibularjoint.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 29. Temporal Bones • Also note the external auditory meatus, leading to the middle ear, the sharp projection, the styloid process. • At the base of the styloid is the little stylomastoid foramen, through which the facial nerve passes. • Medial to the styloid process are two major openings for blood vessels - the carotid canal, passing forwards, for the internal carotid artery, and the jugular foramen,Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 30. Inferior Aspect of the SkullAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 31. The Sphenoid Bone • Spans the width of the cranial floor • Resembles a butterfly or bat • Consists of a body and three pairs of processes • Contains five important openingsAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 32. The Sphenoid BoneAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 33. The Ethmoid Bone • Lies between nasal and sphenoid bones • Forms most of the medial bony region between the nasal cavity and orbitsAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 34. Facial Bones • Unpaired bones • Mandible and vomer • Paired bones • Maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, and inferior nasal conchaeAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 35. Mandible • The lower jawbone is the largest and strongest facial bone • Composed of two main parts • Horizontal body • Two upright ramiAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 36. MandibleAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 37. Maxillary Bones • Articulate with all other facial bones except the mandible • Contain maxillary sinuses – largest paranasal sinuses • Forms part of the inferior orbital fissureAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 38. Maxillary BonesAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 39. Maxillary BonesAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 40. Other Bones of the Face • Zygomatic bones – form lateral wall of orbits • Nasal bones – form bridge of nose • Lacrimal bones – located in the medial orbital walls • Palatine bones – complete the posterior part of the hard palateAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 41. Other Bones of the Face • Vomer – forms the inferior part of the nasal septum • Inferior nasal conchae • Thin, curved bones that project medially form the lateral walls of the nasal cavityAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 42. The Hyoid Bone • Lies inferior to the mandible • The only bone with no direct articulation with any other bone • Acts as a movable base for the tongueAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 43. FORAMINA OF SKULL Various holes, or foramina are found in the base of the skull. * 1 Foramen Caecum * 2 Optic Canal * 3 Superior orbital fissure * 4 Foramen rotundum * 5 Foramen ovale * 6 Foramen Spinosum * 7 Foramen Lacerum * 8 Carotid Canal * 9 Foramen magnum * 10 Hypoglossal Canal * 11 Jugular Foramen * 12 Internal acoustic meatusAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 44. The Scalp The skin of the scalp continues from the front and lateral side of the face into the occipital region of the skull posteriorly. The makeup of the scalp is important clinically because trauma to the scalp is frequent The scalp is made of 5 layers and they spell scalp: S -- skin C -- dense Connective tissue A -- aponeurosis L -- loose connective tissue P -- periosteumAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 45. The Scalp S -- skin C -- dense connective tissue A -- aponeurosis L -- loose connective tissue P -- periosteumAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 46. The Aorta • Ascending aorta – arises from the left ventricle • Branches – coronary arteries • Aortic arch – lies posterior to the manubrium • Branches • Brachiocephalic trunk • Left common carotid • Left subclavian arteriesAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 47. GREAT VESSELS
  • 48. The Aorta(AORTIC BRANCHES:ABCSAortic arch gives off the Bracheiocephalic trunk, the left Common Carotid, and the leftSubclavian arteryAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 49. Arteries of the Head and Neck Branches of the External Carotid Artery (ECA) STAPLe OF PAM ST Superior Thyroid Ascending Pharyngeal Lingual Occipital Facial Posterior Auricular Maxillary Superficial TemporalAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 50. Arteries of the Head and Neck Branches of the Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) OPAAM Ophthalmic Posterior Communicating AChor ACA MCAAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 51. Arteries of the Head and Neck Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occiptal Posterior auricular Maxillary Superficial temporalAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 52. Major Arteries Serving the BrainAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 53. The Parotid Region The parotid gland is a superficial structure located in the upper neck above the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. It is a salivary gland that has a large duct (pd) which crosses the masseter muscle to pierce the buccinator muscle opposite the upper 2nd molar tooth. Facial nerve appearing at the upper and anterior edges of the gland are shown in yellow.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 54. The Parotid Region If the parotid gland is carefully removed, you can identify the structures located within it. The first plane is the venous plane and consists of the retromandibular vein (rm) and its tributaries and branchesThe common facial vein empties into the internal jugular vein and the externaljugular into the subclavian vein near its junction with the internal jugular.Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 55. The Parotid Region When the venous plane is removed we reach the important nervous plane. The importance of this plane is the presence of the facial (VII) nerve. The facial nerve leaves the skull through the stylomastoid foramen and immediately enters the deep part of the parotid gland where it gives off its branches. Deep to the nerves lies the arterial plane which includes terminal parts of the external carotid artery and its branches:external carotid artery (EC)occipital artery (oc)maxillary artery (m)transverse facial artery (tf)superficial temporal arteryAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 56. The infratemporal fossa The infratemporal fossa is a small space between the ramus of the mandible and the lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid.The lateral wall of theinfratemporal fossa consistsof theramus (4) coronoid process (1) head of condyle (2) neck of condyle (3)body (5)angle (6)Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 57. The infratemporal fossaMedial wall:lateral pterygoid plate (1)Roof;greater wing of sphenoid (3)includes foramen ovale &foramenspinosumPosteriorly:styloid process (4)Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 58. The infratemporal fossaThe artery entering the infratemporal fossa isthe maxillary branch of the external carotidartery.It has many branches (11 in all).Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 59. Anterior Neck Common carotid artery (cc) Internal carotid artery (ic) External carotid artery (ec) Carotid sinus (cs)Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 60. NeckReflection ofsternomastoid andremoval of commonfacial veincca-common carotidarteryeca-external carotidarterysta-superior thyroidarteryoa-occipital arteryla-lingual arteryfa-facial arteryica-internal carotid arteryAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 61. NeckThyroid gland and itarterial supplyWhen the strap musclesare reflected, we cansee the thyroid gland (tg)with its arteries (superiorthyroid artery from theexternal carotid (sta) andthe inferior thyroid arteryfrom the thyrohyoid trunkfrom the subclavian (ita).Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 62. Structures Found AT the Root of the NeckThe root of the neck is bounded by the manubrium of the sternum anteriorly, the first riblaterally and the first thoracic vertebra posteriorly. All structures passing from the headthrough the neck to lower regions pass through this area as well as structures arising inthe thoracic cavity and passing out through this region. The following description of theroot of the neck starts with the most anteriorly placed structures and proceeds to themost posteriorly placed ones.Most anterior structures:1. brachiocephalic vein2. vertebral vein3. internal jugular vein4. subclavian vein6. thoracic duct7. thymus glandAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 63. Structures Found AT the Root of the NeckThe next layer can be considered the artery-nerve layer:1. lung2. vagus nerve3. common carotid artery4. subclavian artery5. ansa subclavius6. thyrocervical trunk7. vertebral artery8. internal thoracic artery9. trachea10. esophagusAnatomy of the Head and Neck
  • 64. THANK YOU

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