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Economics of Time & Leisure
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Economics of Time & Leisure

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Tradeoffs

Tradeoffs

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  • 1. Bisnis Industri Media TV ekonomi informasi, ekonomi hiburan: income-substitution effect Amelia Day Pertemuan Ke-4 29 September 2010
  • 2. Sita Paryono: Mikroekonomi
    • The Themes of Microeconomics
    • What Is a Market?
    • Real versus Nominal Prices
    • Why Study Microeconomics?
    • Supply and Demand
    • The Market Mechanism
    • Elasticities Supply and Demand
    • Measuring Cost
    • Economies and Diseconomies of Scale
    • Consumer and Producer Surplus
    • Efficiency of a Competitive Market
    • Market Failure
    • Monopoly
    • The Antitrust Law
    MINGGU LALU
  • 3.
    • MIKROEKONOMI:
    • Trade Offs
    • Definisi Pasar
    • Natural monopoly
    Fokus kelas ini:
  • 4. Ekonomi Waktu
  • 5. WAKTU
    • 24 jam per hari
    • 7 hari per minggu
    • 52 minggu per tahun = 365 hari per tahun
    UMUR RATA-RATA MANUSIA 70 TAHUN
  • 6. WAKTU: Trade Offs
    • 24/7
    TRADE OFF
  • 7. WAKTU: Trade Offs
    • 24/7
    TRADE OFF
  • 8. Activities by age and gender (UK)
  • 9. Activities by age and gender (UK)
  • 10. Activities by age and gender (UK) WEEKDAYS
    • weekdays: , 77% of adults are awake and up by 8am. By 9am 36% of adults are at work or study increasing to a high of 43% at 11am. After 4pm housework and free time are the largest categories, with an evening peak in free time of 63% at 9pm. Main meals tend to be around 8am, 1pm and 6pm. At midnight 80% of adults are asleep. (www.statistics.gov.uk)
  • 11. Activities by age and gender (UK) WEEKENDS
    • weekend days: adults tend to get up later, work less and do more housework, travel and free time activities during the day. 9pm is still the peak time for free time activities although people tend to go to bed a little later with 73% of adults in bed at midnight. (www.statistics.gov.uk)
  • 12. Activities by age and gender (UK)
    • TV viewing - Up to the age of about 14 males and females watch a similar amount of television. Females aged 18 and 19 watch slightly more than males but otherwise male viewing time per day is higher than females right through to retirement. For both sexes TV viewing begins to increase from the late 50's onwards.(www.statistics.gov.uk)
  • 13. Activities by age and gender (UK)
    • Sport - Males spend more time on sporting activities at almost all ages than females. The largest differences are for 12 and 13 year olds where males spend over 30 minutes per day longer on sporting activities. (www.statistics.gov.uk)
  • 14. Activities by age and gender (UK)
    • Sleep - On the whole females sleep longer than males this is particularly true for the 30 to 60 age range. While 8 year olds sleep for on average nearly 11 hours a night this quickly reduces to under 10 hours by age 13 and by the time people reach their mid 20's sleep time is less than 9 hours. Sleep time then remains fairly steady until people get into their 60's and beyond when it begins to increase towards a 9 hour average. (www.statistics.gov.uk)
  • 15. Activities by age and gender (UK)
    • Wash and dress - Females spend more time washing and dressing than males at almost every age. The biggest differences are for teenagers and into the early 20's. On average 19 year old females spend 40 minutes more a day washing and dressing than their male counterparts. On average across all ages females spend 10 minutes more than males on this activity. (www.statistics.gov.uk)
  • 16. USA
    • On days that they worked, more than three-quarters of employed individuals age 15 and over worked between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. Less than 8.3 percent of employed individuals worked between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. (These data are averages for 2004 to 2008). www.bls.gov
  • 17. USA
    • the chart above shows how employed persons ages 25 to 54, who live in households with children under 18, spent their time on an average workday. These individuals spent an average of 8.8 hours working or in work-related activities, 7.6 hours sleeping, 2.6 hours doing leisure and sports activities, and 1.3 hours caring for others, including children. www.bls.gov
  • 18. USA
    • On an average day, individuals age 15 and over spent half of their leisure time watching TV. (Data are from the 2008 survey). www.bls.gov
  • 19. USA
    • Individuals age 75 and over spent more of their leisure time watching TV, reading, and relaxing and thinking than individuals ages 15 to 19. The younger age group spent more of its leisure time engaged in sports, exercise, and recreation and computer use. (Data are from the 2008 survey). www.bls.gov
  • 20. Economics of Time
    • The more hours you spend working, the fewer hours you have to watch TV, enjoy dinner with friends, or pursue your favorite hobby.
    • Microeconomics (William Boyes & Michael Melvin, halaman 337)
    TRADE OFF
  • 21. Economics of Time
    • 1 jam hiburan 1 jam kerja
    pengeluaran pendapatan Rp Rp
  • 22. Economics of Time
    • Bekerja per jam Rp 20 ribu
    • Opportunity cost: Rp 20 ribu
    • Kenaikan gaji
    • Opportunity cost
    • Anda tak dapat bekerja 24 jam penuh dalam sehari.
    • Apa yang terjadi adalah: orang ingin memperoleh uang lebih banyak, untuk kemudian ia bisa menghabiskan waktu senang-senang dengan menghabiskan uang lebih banyak lagi.
    Rp Rp
  • 23. Economics of Time
    • Masalahnya kemudian adalah:
    • Jika saya bekerja lebih banyak
    • saya akan mendapatkan uang lebih banyak
    • tapi saya memiliki waktu sedikit untuk menikmati uang saya
    • Jika saya bekerja sedikit untuk senang-senang lebih banyak
    • saya mendapat uang sedikit.
  • 24. Economics of Time
    • URBAN LIFESTYLE…
    • WORK HARD
    • PLAY… HARDER?
    • NO SAVINGS AT ALL!
    time for work time for play
  • 25. Economics of Time
    • Manusia itu irasional
    • Manusia memaksimalkan waktunya untuk kepuasan
    • Manusia [modern] cenderung tak mampu mengukur k emampuannya
  • 26. Economics of Time
    • … investigations into the economics of time, including those of Becker (1965) and DeSerpa (1971), have suggested that the demand for leisure is affected in a complicated way by the cost of time to both produce and consume.
    • Harold L. Vogel, “Entertainment industry economics: a guide for financial analysis”, halaman 5
  • 27. Harga Happy-happy
  • 28. Economics of Time SUPPLY SIDE
    • Leisure = licere (Latin)
    • = waktu luang, senang-senang
    • Leisure
      • Re-creation : Re- & create, waktu jeda untuk berkreasi lebih banyak lagi?
      • Entertainment = hiburan semata…?
  • 29. Entertainment
    • Entertain [en-ter-teyn]
    • The American Heritage Dictionary
        • To hold the attention of with something amusing or diverting
        • To extend hospotality toward (entertain friends at dinner)
        • To consider; contemplate (entertain an idea); to hold in mid (entertain few illusons)
    • Origin (etimology):
      • Middle English [entertinen]
      • Old French [entretenir]
      • Medieval Latin [intertenere]
        • prefix [inter] = between
        • [tenere] = hold, keep; comprehend; represent; support
  • 30. Karakteristik “Produk Hiburan”
    • Media of Transmission : simbol direkam atau disampaikan dalam satu bentuk pipa Uniqueness : setiap unit (bite-sized unit) memiliki pengaturan simbol khas, berbeda antara unit lainnya
    • High Fixed Costs : content (fixed costs) & pipe/media (variable costs)
    • The Incentive Problem : pembajakan adalah “free riding” dari content yang digemari
    • Intellectual Property : hak eksklusif untuk mengendalikan penggunaan atau menjual produk
  • 31. Hiburan pengeluaran Rp 2010 ONLINE PAPER “ FREE ACCESS” (informasi juga) 1990 SINGLE 1970 ON DEMAND 1900 BITE-SIZED UNIT
  • 32. Model Bisnis “Produk Hiburan” Buy 1 Get All physical product “ Buy” 1 Get All subscription Buy Only 1 download FREE
  • 33. Faktor Penentu
    • Bagaimana seseorang mengambil keputusan antara:
    • - “more work” v. “less work”
    • - “more leisure” v. “less leisure”
    Dua faktor penentu tidak bekerja atau bekerja lebih banyak adalah: - jumlah waktu dipakai dalam nilai rupiah - biaya per unit waktu (Rp 20 ribu/jam)
  • 34. Faktor Penentu
    • Biaya waktu dan ketegasan waktu konsumsi suatu barang atau jasa, biasanya lebih mahal membaca buku daripada membaca koran.
    Kira-kira begini… - membaca buku 2 hari - membaca koran 10 menit
  • 35. Horse-race effect
    • Pasar hiburan adalah “winner take all market” yang diproteksi oleh hak cipta
      • industri yang telah mencapai economies of scale adalah pemain monopoli alamiah (natural monopoly)
      • producers take the development costs beyond that point, making too much of a good thing a bad thing (McCain, 2006).
    • (produk) siapa yang dulu tiba di konsumen, secara fisik atau informasi awal (promo) adalah produk blockbuster, atau merupakan kemudian bisa “dijual” berkali-kali dalam berbagai format media.
  • 36. Labor-Leisure Tradeoff (substitution effect)
    • Alasan bekerja v. senang-senang
      • Perubahan selera (substitusi)
      • Kesempatan alternatif (substitusi)
      • Imigrasi (pekerja berkurang di satu daerah, di daerah lain bertambah)
  • 37. Labor-Leisure Tradeoff (income effect)
    • Alasan bekerja v. senang-senang
      • Perubahan kekuatan membeli (purchasing power)
        • Harga tiket bioskop tetap
        • Saya pengangguran
          • Menonton adalah mahal
  • 38. TRADE-OFFS
    • when I earn more money,
    • I want more time to enjoy what the money can buy…
    • if I work more, I have more money, but I have less time to enjoy what the money can buy;
    • if I work less so that I can have no time to enjoy what I purchase, I have less income.
  • 39. Pertemuan Ke-5
    • 6 Oktober 2010
    • Konvergensi (Platform, Layanan, Alat Perangkat, Industri)
    • ... dan perhitungan economics of abundance