"Water carbon conundrum" – integrating water and energy efficiency in Wales

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Presentation to the Chartered Institute of Water and Environmental Management in Wales, Cardiff University, 7 September 2011

Presentation to the Chartered Institute of Water and Environmental Management in Wales, Cardiff University, 7 September 2011

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  • 1. ―Water carbon conundrum‖ –integrating water and energyefficiency in WalesAaron BurtonWater Resources Advisor7 September 2011CIWEM
  • 2. OutlineWhy water and energy?Integrating policy and programmesCase studies – evidence base EST EU Life+ advice Housing Association Pilot Study LivingSmart – individualised marketing Other evidence Rainwater harvesting and SuDSFuture opportunities
  • 3. Why water and energyefficiency?
  • 4. Current pressure on the environment Water Resources Strategy for Wales
  • 5. Future pressures on water resources January February March April May June July Aug September October November December 10 to 15 per cent increase 5 to 10 per cent increase Percentage change in mean monthly flow 5 per cent increase to 5 per cent decrease between now and the 2050s using the 5 to 10 per cent decrease medium-high UKCIP02 scenario 10 to 20 per cent decrease 20 to 30 per cent decrease 30 to 50 per cent decrease 50 to 80 per cent decrease Water Resources Strategy for Wales
  • 6. PCC England Wales Linear (England) Linear (Wales) 160 155 Environment Strategy for Wales 150l/h/d 145 Future Water 140 135 130 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  • 7. Households Additional 200,000new homes by 2025 Additional 30,000new homes inCardiff by 2025 80% homes remainIn 2050
  • 8. Water and carbon connection 5% UK annual carbon 1% UK annual carbon Emissions emissions (~3% in Wales)
  • 9. Water and fuel poverty links 30% of households spend more than 3% of their income on water and sewerage bills; and 14% of households spend more than 5%. Compared to 23% and 11% in England. Across England and Wales 63% of those in fuel poverty are also in water poverty and 34% of those in water poverty are also in fuel poverty. Fuel poverty by WRZ *Hot water heating ~40% of energy bills
  • 10. Why is water different? Only a small proportion of the current 1.3 million homes in Wales have a full set of energy efficiency measures such as double glazing and cavity wall insulation. Approximately 73% of existing homes are privately owned and some of the stock is ‗hard to treat‘ (e.g. solid walls and off the gas network). Only 0.6% of the housing stock in Wales is replaced with new-build every year, making a focus on the existing stock essential. ―There is scope to improve the environmental sustainability of the 17% of all housing stock that is social housing. It is more efficient to address water efficiency now than in the future *Sustainable homes – A national housing strategy for Wales (WG, 2009)
  • 11. Integrating policy andprogrammes
  • 12. EA (2011) The potential for combining household water and energy retrofittinghttp://publications.environment-agency.gov.uk/dispay.php?name=GEHO0511BTSR-E-E Policy UK Energy Security and Green Economy Bill Market Transformation Flood and Water Programme Management Act WG Fuel Poverty WG Climate Change Strategy Action Plan WG Strategic Policy Position Statement on Water Climate Change Strategy CESP Regulation Energy Performance EU Water Framework Water Resources Certificates Building Regulations CERT Directive Management Plans (2013 Devolved) Eco-design of Energy labelling Energy Using Products Directive Home Energy Efficiency Water Industry Act 1991 Water Act 2003 Directive Scheme Regulations 2011 Water Supply Ofwat Periodic Review (Water fittings) Feed in Tariff Financial Incentives Regulations Green Deal Landlords‘ Energy 2012/13 Saving Allowance Renewable Heat Water efficiency Home Energy Efficiency Incentive Nest (new HEES) rebates Strategy (Wales) Retrofit programmes and labelling schemes arbed Water Efficient Product Labelling Scheme CESP Waterwise Marque Welsh Housing Quality Standard Home information and auditing schemes Energy Saving Trust WG Pathfinder Programme
  • 13. Outline of Welsh Government retrofitprogrammes• Nest Fuel Poverty Programme – advice service, referrals for insulation, Welsh Government improvement packages (c. 4,000 per year)• Arbed 1 – 6,000 hard to heat homes improved, mostly social housing. Led by housing associations.• Arbed 2 – similar number to be improved over next three years – 50/50 social/private housing. Scheme manager will be contracted by WG.• WHQS – improvements, amongst other things, to energy efficiency, bathrooms and kitchens
  • 14. What people want? Strongly agree 28% 25% 24% 26% 28% 30% 30% 29% 30% 29% 33% 34% 38% 39% Slightly 32% Neither nor 34% 35% 30% 30% 33% 37% 33% 38% 33% 41% 32% 26% 37% Slightly 30% 23% 29% 29% 26% Strongly disagree 25% 17% 25% 25% 23% 29% 20% 26% 3% 17% 4% 3% 2% 3% 3% 4% 3% 5% 3% Dont know 2% 3% 3% 2% 3% 1% 3% 2% 3% 2% 3% 4% 1% 11% 4% 11% 4% 2% 6% 5% 6% 7% 6% 7% 7% 6% 2% 5% 3% 4% 3% s s es SW W r SE l E d nd rn n d ta be id id an n o N N e alTo la la nd M M m st gl W Ire ot Hu t Ea Lo st En es Sc Ea rn W & e s th rk or Yo N―I‘d prefer to have water and energy efficient devices installed at the same time rather than separately‖ (67% of respondents slightly or strongly agree in Wales);
  • 15. Water Energy Model
  • 16. Modelling costs and benefits Nest OR arbed phase 2 Assumed number of homes targeted 5,000 Potential water and energy bill savings per household (home with £80-£120 / yr water meter) Potential energy bill saving per household (home with no water £25-43 / yr meter) Approximate investment required per household (advice and water £95 retrofit) Total potential bill savings £220,000/yr Total potential household CO2 580 tCO2/yr reduction Water supply benefits 96 mega litres water/yr (52.6 litres/property/day) Potential water company emissions 100 tCO2e/yr saving Estimated programme cost £475,000 Payback period 2.2 years
  • 17. ―I was very interested to see your figures onthe potential savings that can be achievedon energy bills and the potential reductionin greenhouse gas emissions through theprovision of water efficiency advice andretrofit measures‖ Response to EAW and EST LetterJane Davidson, Previous Minister for Environment, Sustainability and Housing
  • 18. Nest (& arbed 2) programmes The Home Energy Efficiency Scheme (Wales) Regulations 2011* Purposes for which a grant may be approved 6.—(1) An application for a grant may be approved if it relates to one or more of the following purposes— • …(N) THE PROVISION OF WATER-SAVING MEASURES; 15,000 households per year contact, 3-5,000 improved http://nestwales.org.uk/ Need for improved links between water and energy companies Training/ tools for energy providers to consider water (beyond SAP) *http://www.legislation.gov.uk/wsi/2011/656/regulation/6/made
  • 19. Welsh Housing Quality Standard 17% of households in Wales SAP rating for energy (space and water heating) 32% of households between now and 2014/15 OR ~70,000 homes! EAW & EST Guidance to support WHQS (based on pilot study & survey) WC partnerships Refurbishment Voids and maintenance
  • 20. Devolved building regulationsDevolved from 2013 –changes to energyefficiencyEnergy Saving Trustreport - 22% ofhomeowners are planningor anticipating a majorrefurbishment linked toenergy efficiency within 3years (UK)Potential water efficiencymeasures + broader watermanagement
  • 21. UK level – Green Deal & CERT Cost-benefit Green Deal Waterwise retrofit scenarios (showers, taps/ & toilet) • 300kw Energy Saving • 7.4-15m3 water • £26/yr energy saving • £25-51/yr water saving • 3yr payback energy • 1yr payback water EA detailed report Autumn 2011 (MACC etc.) CERT/ECO Large scale energy company schemes Proportion fuel poverty related
  • 22. Water efficiency in Wales There has been a consistent drop in energy and water demand; All new buildings are constructed to the WG highest standards of energy and water efficiency, and Policy are zero carbon. (One Wales: One Planet) Pilot programmes, evidence from similar WCs Developing the evidence base Arbed, Nest, WHQS, behaviours Water-energy group & partnerships Developing water and energy programmes Regulatory enablers - Walker Water and energy efficient Products and appliances Labelling and incentives
  • 23. Case Study 1 – EST &Waterwise EU Life+Renew
  • 24. Integrating water-energy advice London, Cardiff, Edinburgh need to move beyond top tips and general advice advice needs to educate as to why people need to save water, with a focus on awareness raising of the water-energy connection Water-energy model and flash calculator September dissemination
  • 25. Interim results Link between water and energy = 8.5% to 20% in a few months (Only 17% - energy is used to heat water). Behaviours Showers instead of baths (4% increase); Only fill kettle with sufficient water (10% increase); Only use WM/Dishwasher with full loads (3% increase); Water butt usage (6% increase) Most people claim they are doing these behaviours already in the baseline. 59% of Cardiff respondents had a meter Low uptake of installed measures: save a flush bag (5%); water efficient shower (5%); tap flow regulators (2.5%)
  • 26. Case Study 2 - Housingassociation water and energypilot
  • 27. Approach Initial design – Dec11-Mar12 Cardiff, Bridgend, Swansea and Merthyr 100hh behaviour change 100hh retrofit and behaviour change 100hh retrofit only Control group Savings calculated using WEM pre- and post Linking with energy providers for billing data Water meter readings prior to and during project Qualitative survey data and second visits Tonnes H2O Mega Tonnes CO2/yr H2O £/yr Energy £/yr Total £/yr CO2eq/yr litres/yr heatingTOTAL SAVINGS FROM PROJECT embodiedBehaviour Change (100 hh) 1.57 1352.50 4397.50 5749.99 1.65 20.02Retrofit & Behaviour Change (100hh) 4.18 3601.52 5264.28 8865.79 4.39 26.52Retrofit only (100hh) 2.77 2387.32 2950.34 5337.67 2.91 14.86TOTAL 8.52 £ 7,341.33 £ 12,612.12 £ 19,953.45 8.95 61.39Total water saved (liters) 8,522,850.41
  • 28. Approach In-home Evaluation Contact Uptake 101 2nd visit Household engagement: Behaviour only Qualitative 125 tenants • Aqualogic flash Appointment surveys (~5% uptake) presentation – By phone importance of water and water-energy Letter links Retrofit 55 • EST Water Energy Quantified Doorknocking homes Calculator outputs •Taken around home Retrofit and to discuss key water Water andBaseline metering data Behaviour 15 use areas/ Energy (~25% uptake) behaviours Meter/ Bill data *Initial outputs only – formal evaluation still in progress
  • 29. http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/watercalculator/flashcalculator
  • 30. Initial Results (surveys and WEM) Key behaviours 10 minute shower reduced to 7 minutes (32% of householders) Savings/ hh Water saving: 38 litres per person per day Bill saving: £126 per year (£94 water, £32 energy) CO2 saving: 0.2 tonnes per year Savings total Water saving: 1200 m3/year Bill saving: £4700 per year CO2 saving: 5.6 tonnes per year
  • 31. Case Study 3 - LivingSmartApproaches Water Transport LivingSmart Energy Waste
  • 32. Individualised marketing Changing forms of communication – ―pull‖ vs ―push‖ Individualised marketing based approaches Travelsmart – Australia and England WaterSmart – Australia (Perth and Melbourne) LivingSmart – Australia and England Quality vs quantity
  • 33. 60-80% Uptake rate REPEAT STAGES FOR WaterSmart and LivingSmart
  • 34. 63,000Cardiff andsurrounds
  • 35. WaterSmart – Australia (Perth, Melbourne)
  • 36. LivingSmart Programmes
  • 37. LivingSmart – ResultsProject Water Energy Transport Waste CarbonLivingSmart N/A – Defra Average 18% -10% single 16.6% increase Ipswich, Greener change in passenger in recycling England Living Fund key energy 10% increase in(1,000 didn‘t extend behaviours food waste households)* (washing recycling machine, lights, kettle)LivingSmart 8% saving 9% saving 5% saving reported 2% saving 1.2t CO2 per Perth, reported reported (3km/day/hh) reported househol Western [supported by [4% reduction on d Australia meter reading metered [10 year(15,000 data] sample , but abateme households)* kWh savings nt cost of * higher than $25/t] reported] LivingSmart Cardiff Project (1,000hh)
  • 38. Other evidence
  • 39. Waterwise Evidence Base Phase II Detailed analysis of large-scale water efficiency projects (projects not energy focussed) 0.031 to 0.187 kg CO2e per property per day £1.3 to £44.3 per property per year energy cost saving Predicted vs actual water savings Retrofit measures £45/hh Re:New London £166/yr fuel bills saving per home (+5 full time positions) Tap into Savings and Plug-In (large-scale projects Severn Trent Water) Partnerships with energy companies/ plumbers
  • 40. Water Resources Planning Option Range of costs (pence per cubic metre of water saved/ delivered) Social housing project (social housing provider and water company 1.2 to 170.2 (best partnership – retrofit toilets and taps & behaviour change) estimate 24.3) Energy Company (water company and energy company work -19.0 to 86.1 (best together installing water efficient showerheads, convert to dual flush estimate -15.0) toilets and install inserts/ fix leaking taps. CERT credits supports hot water savings. Combined water and energy engagement) Whole Town (water company retrofit whole town – water efficient -4.6 to 550.8 (best showers, tap inserts and dual flush conversions( estimate 52.5) Retail led retrofit (retailer partners with water company to make -6.4 to 230.1 (best water efficient products available in store at discounted price) estimate 14.9) Toilet amnesty rebate scheme (new dual flush replacements – -24.6 to 5.4 (best includes water efficient showers in Welsh Housing Quality Standard estimate 6.5) refurbishment) Piggyback on government retrofit (water company engages -24.6 to 50.4 (best existing energy/ refurbishment schemes) estimate -14.6) Universal metering 140 to 160 Leakage reduction 3.11 to 40.96 Ground water development 100 to 500 Surface water development 100 to 500 New reservoir 300 to 1000 Desalination plant 400 to 800
  • 41. RWH and SuDSCarbon Emissions –Scoping Study forWales*by Arup, peer-reviewed by Prof. Richard Ashley
  • 42. Time
  • 43. Flooding – Surface water Majority of surface water problem locations are in SE Wales
  • 44. Why EA (2010) Potential of SuDS in reducing water related GHG emissions Cost savings of £88/yr and carbon savings of 0.5t/wk but outweighed by construction and maintenance costs EA (2010) Energy and carbon implications of rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling RWH carbon emissions around 40% higher than mains water and 100% for greywater recycling Similar to Australian finding RWH intensity of 1.5kWh/kl vs 1 kWh/kl mains or 4 kWh/kl for desalination Questions Is this case across Wales? What are the implications of a larger scale implementation and combination with traditional SuDS? Does the DCWW gravity fed technology change this?
  • 45. Case Studies
  • 46. Carbonemissions –normal pumpvs. mains
  • 47. Carbonemissions –low powerpump vs.mains
  • 48. Carbonemissions –gravity fedRWH vs.mains
  • 49. 140Total emissions - water, sewerage, surface water, SuDS, 120 100 RWH embodied(tCo2e) 80 60 40 20 0 Baseline RWH with RWH with RWH with RWH with SuDS only SuDS + SuDS + SuDS + 300l SuDS + 100l Traditional traditional traditional traditional 1500l RWH 1500l RWH RWH RWH Solution solution solution solution new tech (new tech) Option NO14 (464 props) BY21 (278 Props) BP04 (1 school + 10 props) Broader costs and benefits? Maintenance, adoption, uptake rates etc…
  • 50. The Future
  • 51. Next Steps Housing Association Pilot summary Nest - water efficiency retrofit and advice arbed phase 2 - retrofit and advice Welsh Housing Quality Standard guidance – informed by survey and workshop (2011/12) Gather lessons from other projects (e.g. Tap into Water, Southern Water Universal Metering Programme, London Water Strategy) Water and energy sub-group to Water Industry Forum Wide ranging community engagement project
  • 52. Potential for Combined Heat and Power- DECC Heat Map WalesLinking water, water and energy sectorsRenewable Heat IncentiveNeed to balance with water availability(i.e. storm water for GSHP)
  • 53. Energy and heat exchange *New renewables and heat management
  • 54. Water and energy efficiency should be integratedConclusions Benefits include water and carbon saving as well as addressing fuel poverty Water is a key medium through Quality/ individualised which we will feel the effects of climate change as well as a key behaviour change driver through emissions from supply, use and disposal. programmes & partnership working Opportunities for innovative approaches – RWH and SuDS, WSUD, renewables
  • 55. Thanks, Questions? EST Life+ Webinar Combining water and energy efficiency Online:aaron.burton@environment-agency.wales.gov.uk Thursday 22 September live streamed event from 12.00 -13.30 (UK Time)
  • 56. 2.50 2.00Reported savings (Ml/d) 1.50 DCWW DVW STW 1.00 0.50 0.00 Household and Retrofit WC Outdoors Household Non-household Additional TOTAL non household devices audits audits activity cistern displacement devices Water Efficiency Measure Water efficiency activity in Wales 2009/10