Leaders Of The Civil
 Rights Movement
SSUSH22: The student will identify dimensions of
    the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1970.

   b. Identify Jackie Robinson...
Playing for the Dodgers
  Branch Rickey, president and General Manager
  of the Brooklyn Dodgers, noticed Robinson‟s
  exc...
A Strange Choice
      Jackie Robinson was not exactly a
      logical choice to become the first
      African American b...
Jackie‟s Courage
Jackie Robinson faced
virulent racism.
    Members of his own team
    refused to play with him.
    Oppo...
Teammates
One game in Cincinnati the crowd was especially
insulting. They were yelling unimaginable
insults at Jackie Robi...
Jackie and Civil Rights
  Jackie Robinson‟s actions effected the world
  far beyond Major League Baseball.

  His courage ...
Rosa Parks
   Rosa Parks was born on
   February 4, 1913. She grew
   up in Pine Level, Alabama,
   right outside of Montg...
Events Leading Up To
   Rosa‟s Protest
 Parks was an active member of The Civil
 Rights Movement and joined the
 Montgomer...
The Arrest
 On December 1, 1955
 Rosa Parks refused
 to give up her seat to
 a white man on a bus.
 Parks was arrested    ...
Montgomery Bus
Boycott
           On December 5, 1955,
           through the rain, the
           African Americans in
  ...
Martin Luther King Jr.

Born in Atlanta, Georgia.
Graduated from Morehouse College with a
Bachelor of Arts degree in Socio...
Career As A Leader




He went on to deliver numerous powerful speeches
promoting peace and desegregation.
During The Marc...
Civil Disobedience
     In 1957 King helped found the
     Southern Christian Leadership
     Conference (SCLC).
       A...
Letter From a Birmingham Jail




  King, wrote the letter after being arrested at a peaceful
  protest in Birmingham, Ala...
Letters From a Birmingham
         Jail (cont.)
In the letter King justifies civil disobedience in the town of
Birmingham....
March On Washington
More than 20,000 black
and white Americans
celebrated in a joyous day
of song, prayer and
speeches.

T...
I Have A Dream Speech
          In a powerful speech,
          Martin Luther King Jr.
          stated eloquently that he...
I Have A Dream Speech
                   (cont.)
The powerful words of Martin Luther King Jr.
   “I have a dream that one...
Ruby Bridges
 In 1960, at the age of 6, Ruby Bridges became the first
    black elementary school child to attend a white...
Malcolm X
X Born in Omaha Nebraska, Malcolm Little was
  the son of a Baptist preacher who urged blacks to
  stand up for ...
Elijah Muhammad
    X Elijah Muhammad was the leader
      of the mostly black political and
      religious group The Nat...
Nation Of Islam
X The Nation Of Islam
  (NOI) was an activist
  group that believed that
  most African slaves
  were orig...
Malcolm X: The Activist
         X Malcolm X made constant
           accusations of racism and
           demanded violen...
Malcolm X Speaks, 1965
X “Be peaceful, be
  courteous, obey the law,
  respect everyone; but if
  someone puts his hand
  ...
Tension In The Nation Of
Islam
        X   By the start of the 60‟s tension
            was growing in The Nation of
     ...
The JFK Controversy
X   After the assassination of
    John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X
    made a speech.
      Malcolm claime...
Pilgrimage to Mecca
X In 1964, during a pilgrimage to Mecca,
  Malcolm discovered that orthodox Muslims
  preach equality ...
Malcolm X Quotes (On King)
 X He got the peace prize, we got the problem.... If
   I'm following a general, and he's leadi...
Black Power
Black Power is a term that emphasizes racial
pride and the desire for African Americans to
achieve equality.
T...
Tommie Smith and
   John Carlos
Tommie Smith and
John Carlos gave the
Black Power salute at
the 1968 Summer
Olympics in Me...
Black Panther Party




 U.S. African American Militant group.
 Founded in 1966 in Oakland.
 Led by Huey P. Newton and Bob...
The Violent Panthers
         In the late 60‟s party
         leaders got involved in
         violent confrontations
    ...
The Little Rock Nine
Crisis in Little Rock
-   By the 1950s, some scout troops and labor
    unions in Arkansas had begun quietly
    ending th...
Crisis in Little Rock
-   NAACP members contacted 8 of the students &
    arranged to drive them school.
-   They could no...
University Integration
University of
Alabama
• Alabama Governor-
  George Wallace
University of
Mississippi
• Mississippi ...
Civil Rights Act of 1964
-   Passed by LBJ
-   Prohibited segregation in public
    accommodations (hotels, restaurants,
 ...
Voting Rights Act of 1965
-   The President could suspend literacy tests for
    voter registration & send federal officia...
Civil Rights Leaders and Strategies
                The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s was made up of a
              ...
National Association for the               Congress of Racial Equality
  Advancement of Colored People                    ...
Conclusion
During The American Civil Rights Movement
many different and unique leaders and groups
came to power.
Some prea...
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
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Civil Rights Movement

  1. 1. Leaders Of The Civil Rights Movement
  2. 2. SSUSH22: The student will identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1970. b. Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball. d. Describe the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail and his I Have a Dream speech. e. Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  3. 3. Jackie Robinson 42 Born in Cairo, Georgia, in 1919. Robinson‟s family moved to California after his father deserted the family. At the University of California in Los Angeles, Robinson starred in football, track, basketball and baseball. In 1944, Robinson played in the Negro leagues on a team called the Kansas City Monarchs.
  4. 4. Playing for the Dodgers Branch Rickey, president and General Manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, noticed Robinson‟s exceptional talent. In 1946 Branch Rickey signed Jackie Robinson. Jackie Robinson, at the age of 27, became the first Black Baseball player in Major League history.
  5. 5. A Strange Choice Jackie Robinson was not exactly a logical choice to become the first African American ball player. • He was not a prospect. Robinson was already 27 when he entered the league. • He had a somewhat inflammatory temper. • Rickey believed that Robinson‟s outspoken mentality would benefit the cause in the long run. • However, Rickey did urge Robinson to maintain a level head in his first few years, knowing the importance of his actions, Robinson listened.
  6. 6. Jackie‟s Courage Jackie Robinson faced virulent racism. Members of his own team refused to play with him. Opposing pitchers tried to beam his head, while base runners tried to spike him. He received hate mail and death threats daily. Fans shouted racist remarks at him in every ball park. Hotels and restaurants refused to serve him
  7. 7. Teammates One game in Cincinnati the crowd was especially insulting. They were yelling unimaginable insults at Jackie Robinson. Jackie‟s teammate Pee Wee Reese recognized that the crowd was getting to Jackie. Pee Wee Reese walked across the field and put his arm around Jackie. The two smiled at each other. Their compassion silenced the crowd.
  8. 8. Jackie and Civil Rights Jackie Robinson‟s actions effected the world far beyond Major League Baseball. His courage and discipline in standing up against racism were a preview of the actions taken by many members of The Civil Rights Movement. The success of the Jackie Robinson experiment was a testament to the fact that integration could exist.
  9. 9. Rosa Parks Rosa Parks was born on February 4, 1913. She grew up in Pine Level, Alabama, right outside of Montgomery. In the South, Jim Crowe laws segregated African American‟s and whites in almost every aspect of life. • This included a seating policy on buses. White‟s sat in the front, blacks sat in the back. • Buses also drove white students to school. Black students were forced to walk everyday.
  10. 10. Events Leading Up To Rosa‟s Protest Parks was an active member of The Civil Rights Movement and joined the Montgomery chapter of NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1943. In 1944 Jackie Robinson refused to give up his bus seat in Texas. In 1955, Black Activist in Montgomery were building a case around Claudette Colvin, a 15 year old girl who refused to give up her seat on a bus. She was arrested and forcibly removed from the bus. African Americans made up 75% of the passengers in the bus system but still had to deal with unfair rules.
  11. 11. The Arrest On December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus. Parks was arrested “People always say that I and charged with the didn't give up my seat because violation of a I was tired, but that isn't true. segregation law in I was not tired physically, or The Montgomery City no more tired than I usually Code. was at the end of a working day. I was not old, although 50 African American some people have an image of leaders in the me as being old then. I was community met to forty-two. No, the only tired I discuss what to do was, was tired of giving in.” - about Rosa‟s arrest. Rosa Parks Autobiography
  12. 12. Montgomery Bus Boycott On December 5, 1955, through the rain, the African Americans in Montgomery began to boycott the busses. 40,000 Black commuters walked to work, some as far as twenty miles. The boycott lasted 382 days. The bus companies finances struggled until the law that called for segregation on busses was finally lifted.
  13. 13. Martin Luther King Jr. Born in Atlanta, Georgia. Graduated from Morehouse College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Sociology. Later, at Boston University, King received a Ph.D. in systematic theology. In 1953, at the age of 26, King became pastor at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. His start as a Civil Rights leader came during the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
  14. 14. Career As A Leader He went on to deliver numerous powerful speeches promoting peace and desegregation. During The March On Washington he delivered one of the most famous speeches of 20th century titled, “I Have A Dream” Before he was assassinated in 1968, he won the Nobel Peace Prize.
  15. 15. Civil Disobedience In 1957 King helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).  A group that used the authority and power of black churches to organize non-violent protest to support the Civil Rights Movement.  King believed in the philosophy used by Gandhi in India known as nonviolent civil disobedience. He applied this philosophy to protest organized by the SCLC.  The civil disobedience led to media coverage of the daily inequities suffered by Southern blacks.  The televised segregation violence led to mass public sympathy. The Civil Rights Movement became the most important political topic during the early 60‟s.
  16. 16. Letter From a Birmingham Jail King, wrote the letter after being arrested at a peaceful protest in Birmingham, Alabama.  The letter was in response to a letter sent to him by eight Alabama Clergymen called, “A Call For Unity.”  The men recognized that injustices were occurring in Birmingham but believed that the battles for freedom should be fought in the courtroom not in the streets.  In the letter, “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” King justified civil disobedience by saying that without forceful action, true civil rights would never be achieved. Direct action is justified in the face of unjust laws.
  17. 17. Letters From a Birmingham Jail (cont.) In the letter King justifies civil disobedience in the town of Birmingham.  “I cannot sit idly in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”  “There can be no gain saying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts.”  “Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself.”  “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor, it must be demanded by the oppressed.  “Wait has almost always meant 'never.„”
  18. 18. March On Washington More than 20,000 black and white Americans celebrated in a joyous day of song, prayer and speeches. The march was lead by a group of important clergy men, civil rights leaders, and politicians. Martin Luther King‟s “I Have A Dream” speech was the climax of the day.
  19. 19. I Have A Dream Speech In a powerful speech, Martin Luther King Jr. stated eloquently that he desired a world where blacks and whites coexist equally. King‟s speech was a rhetoric example of the Black Baptist sermon style. The speech used The Bible, The Declaration of Independence, The United States Constitution and The Emancipation Proclamation as sources. He also used an incredible number of symbols in his poetic address.
  20. 20. I Have A Dream Speech (cont.) The powerful words of Martin Luther King Jr.  “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: - 'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.‟”  “I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.”  “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.”  “black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics - will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"
  21. 21. Ruby Bridges  In 1960, at the age of 6, Ruby Bridges became the first black elementary school child to attend a white school in the entire country. This occurred in New Orleans.  Due to white opposition of integration, Ruby needed to be escorted to school by federal marshals.  After Ruby entered the school, many of the teachers refused to teach and many of the white students went home.  Ruby went to school everyday. The Problem We All Live With, By Norman Rockwell
  22. 22. Malcolm X X Born in Omaha Nebraska, Malcolm Little was the son of a Baptist preacher who urged blacks to stand up for their rights. X His father was killed by White Supremacist in Michigan, in 1931. X After time, Malcolm moved to Harlem where he became involved in gambling, drug dealing and robbery. X Malcolm was arrested at the age of 20 for armed robbery. In jail he studied the teaching of the Elijah Muhammad.
  23. 23. Elijah Muhammad X Elijah Muhammad was the leader of the mostly black political and religious group The Nation Of Islam.  His teachings, often perceived as racist, preached complete separation from Whites in society.  He often expressed the idea that blacks were the first people to rule the world and that the Whites tricked them out of power and oppressed them.  Young Malcolm X developed his adept speaking skills and political ideas under the direction of Elijah Muhammad.
  24. 24. Nation Of Islam X The Nation Of Islam (NOI) was an activist group that believed that most African slaves were originally Muslim. X The NOI urged African Americans to reconvert to Islam in effort to restore the heritage that was stolen from them. X The NOI wanted to create a second Black nation within the United States. X The “X” in Malcolm‟s name symbolizes the rejection of his slave name.
  25. 25. Malcolm X: The Activist X Malcolm X made constant accusations of racism and demanded violent actions of self defense. X He constantly retold the injustices his people suffered in the past. X Malcolm X gathered wide spread admiration from African American‟s and wide spread fear from whites. However white college students could not ignore the harsh realities of his preaching's.
  26. 26. Malcolm X Speaks, 1965 X “Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you, send him to the cemetery.” X “Nobody can give you freedom. Nobody can give you equality or justice or anything. If you're a man, you take it.” X “You can't separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom.”
  27. 27. Tension In The Nation Of Islam X By the start of the 60‟s tension was growing in The Nation of Islam.  Malcolm X was exposed to rumors that Elijah Muhammad had indulged in extramarital affairs.  Adultery is shunned in the Muslim doctrine. X Malcolm believed that Elijah Muhammad was jealous of his increasing popularity. X The Nation of Islam blamed Malcolm X for his controversial remarks regarding John F. Kennedy‟s death.
  28. 28. The JFK Controversy X After the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X made a speech.  Malcolm claimed that the violence Kennedy failed to prevent ended up coming back and claim his life.  He stated that assassination was an example of “the chickens coming home to roost"  He later stated, "Chickens coming home to roost never made me sad. It only made me glad."  This comment leads to widespread public dismay.
  29. 29. Pilgrimage to Mecca X In 1964, during a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm discovered that orthodox Muslims preach equality among races. X Malcolm‟s new knowledge and growing distrust with the NOI, caused him to desert his argument that all whites are the devil. X Malcolm X never abandoned his theory that racism had destroyed the nation and that only Blacks could free themselves. X In 1965 Malcolm X was assassinated by a black muslim at a New York City rally.
  30. 30. Malcolm X Quotes (On King) X He got the peace prize, we got the problem.... If I'm following a general, and he's leading me into a battle, and the enemy tends to give him rewards, or awards, I get suspicious of him. Especially if he gets a peace award before the war is over. X I'll say nothing against him. At one time the whites in the United States called him a racialist, and extremist, and a Communist. Then the Black Muslims came along and the whites thanked the Lord for Martin Luther King. X I want Dr. King to know that I didn't come to Selma to make his job difficult. I really did come thinking I could make it easier. If the white people realize what the alternative is, perhaps they will be more willing to hear Dr. King. X Dr. King wants the same thing I want -- freedom!
  31. 31. Black Power Black Power is a term that emphasizes racial pride and the desire for African Americans to achieve equality. The term promotes the creation of black political and social institutions. The term was popularized by Stokely Carmichael during The Civil Rights Movement. Many SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) members were becoming critical of leaders that articulated non-violent responses to racism. Stokely Carmichael
  32. 32. Tommie Smith and John Carlos Tommie Smith and John Carlos gave the Black Power salute at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, Mexico. The two men were suspended by the United States team and banned from Olympic village. The action is considered a milestone of The Civil Rights Movement.
  33. 33. Black Panther Party U.S. African American Militant group. Founded in 1966 in Oakland. Led by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. Believed violent revolution was the only way to receive freedom. Urged African Americans to arm themselves.
  34. 34. The Violent Panthers In the late 60‟s party leaders got involved in violent confrontations with the police.  The result was death on both sides. Huey Newton was tried in 1967 for killing a police officer. Black Panther activist Bobby Seale, was a member of the Chicago Eight.  A group of eight people who disrupted the 1968 Democratic convention.
  35. 35. The Little Rock Nine
  36. 36. Crisis in Little Rock - By the 1950s, some scout troops and labor unions in Arkansas had begun quietly ending their Jim Crow practices. - The Little Rock school board began to make plans to desegregate the public schools. - Governor Orval Faubus publicly supported segregation. - In September 1957, he ordered the National Guard to turn away the “Little Rock Nine”- nine African-American students who had volunteered to integrate Little Rock‟s Central High School. - A federal judge ordered Faubus to let the students into the school.
  37. 37. Crisis in Little Rock - NAACP members contacted 8 of the students & arranged to drive them school. - They could not reach the 9th student, Elizabeth Eckford, who did not have a phone, and she set out alone. - Outside Central High School, Eckford faced an abusive crowd. - Terrified, the 15-year old made it to a bus shop where two friendly whites stayed with her. - This crisis made Eisenhower act. - The National Guard was placed under federal control & ordered a thousand paratroopers into Little Rock. - Televised the coverage - Under the watch of the soldiers, the 9 students attended classes - Nicknamed the Little Rock 9 - Faubus shut down Central High School the following year instead of allowing integration to continue.
  38. 38. University Integration University of Alabama • Alabama Governor- George Wallace University of Mississippi • Mississippi Governor- Ross Barnett – Blocked Meredith’s acceptance to Ole Miss – Violence broke out on campus – Kennedy called in the Army
  39. 39. Civil Rights Act of 1964 - Passed by LBJ - Prohibited segregation in public accommodations (hotels, restaurants, theaters) - Prohibited discrimination in education & employment - Gave the President the power to enforce the new law
  40. 40. Voting Rights Act of 1965 - The President could suspend literacy tests for voter registration & send federal officials to register voters in the event that county officials failed to do so. - Led to a huge increase in African American voter registration, as well as an increase in the number of African American candidates elected to public office.
  41. 41. Civil Rights Leaders and Strategies The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s was made up of a variety of groups, united by their desire to achieve equal rights for all Americans C.O.R.E SNCC Used peaceful confrontations, such Gave young activists an important as sit-ins, to bring about change role in the Civil Rights Movement NAACP National Urban League Worked through the courts Assisted people moving to to secure legal equality for major American Cities all Americans SCLC Organized non-violent protests against racism and segregation
  42. 42. National Association for the Congress of Racial Equality Advancement of Colored People (CORE) (NAACP) 1.Leader(s):W.E.B. DuBois 4. Leader(s): James Farmer 2. Goals: secure full legal equality for 5. Goals: end segregation all Americans; remove barriers to voting; end lynching 6. Strategies: bring about change through civil disobedience and 3. Strategies: work through the political peaceful conflict system and court systems Southern Christian Leadership Student Nonviolent Coordinating Conference (SCLC) Committee (SNCC) 7. Leader(s): Martin Luther King Jr., 10. Leader(s): Ella Baker, Robert Andrew Young Moses 11. Goals: give young African 8. Goals: shift the focus of the Civil Americans a greater role in the Civil Rights movement to the South; achieve Rights movement; shift focus away equal rights; end segregation from church leaders 12. Strategies: use more militant 9 Strategies: boycott; non-violent protest measures to achieve immediate change
  43. 43. Conclusion During The American Civil Rights Movement many different and unique leaders and groups came to power. Some preached violence, some preached peace, some preached protest and some preached resilience. However, every leader had one thing in common. They all wanted freedom and they all wanted equality for their race. Today we celebrate the leaders struggles because it was their work that got us to the point we are at today. Now, not everything is completely equal. But it is clear that we have come a long way since Martin Luther King Jr. marched in Washington and cried out, “I Have A Dream”

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