BIRDS WINTERING IN THE BAY
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the information contained herein.
THE BAY OF GDAŃSK
Bay of Gdańsk is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea. It is named
after the adjacent port city of Gdańsk in Poland and is sometimes
referred to as a gulf. The western part of Gdańsk Bay is formed by
the shallow waters of the Bay of Puck. The southeastern part is
the Vistula Lagoon, separated by the Vistula Spit and connected
to the open sea by the Strait of Baltiysk.
Bird's observations on Polish coast
Every year a lot of people and organizations (for example
KULING, The University of Gdańsk) involved in counting and
observation of birds on Polish coast. In November, December,
January, February, if you walk on the beach, you can see many
species of birds.
Bird's observations on Polish coast
• Glaucous Gull
• Lapland Longspur
• Purple Sandpiper
• Black-legged Kittiwake
• Iceland Gull
• Arctic Redpoll
• Mute Swan
• Sandwich Tern
• Long-tailed Duck
• Great Cormorant
• Tufted Duck
• Common Eider
Over 1000 species of birds winter on the Bay of Gdańsk.
The Glaucous Gull
The Glaucous Gull is a large gull which breeds in the Arctic
regions of the northern hemisphere and the Atlantic coasts
ofEurope. It is migratory, wintering from in the North Atlantic and
North Pacific oceans, You can also see this bird on the Polish
coast. This species breeds colonially or singly on coasts and cliffs,
making a lined nest on the ground or cliff. Normally, 2–4 light
brown eggs with dark chocolate splotches are laid.
The Iceland Gull
The Iceland Gull is a large gull which breeds in the Arctic regions
of Canada and Greenland, but not Iceland, where it is only seen
in the winter. It is much scarcer in Europe than the
similar Glaucous Gull. It is migratory, wintering from in the
North Atlantic, You can also see this bird on the Polish coast. This
species breeds colonially or singly on coasts and cliffs, making
a nest lined with grass, moss, or seaweed on the ground or cliff.
The Iceland Gull isa largish gull, although relatively slender and
The Black-legged Kittiwake
The Black-legged Kittiwake is a seabird species in the gull family
Laridae. You can also see this bird on the Polish coast. The adults
is 37–41 cm in length with a wingspan of 91–105 cm and a body
mass of 305–525 g. It has a white head and body, grey back, grey
wings tipped solid black, and have black legs and a yellow bill. In
winter, this species acquires a dark grey smudge behind the eye
and a grey hind-neck collar. The name is derived from its call,
a shrill 'kittee-wa-aaake, kitte-wa-aaake'.
The Mute Swan
The Mute Swan is a species of swan, and thus a member of
the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. You can also see this
bird on the Polish coast. It is native to much of Europe and Asia.
It is also an introduced species in North America. The name
'mute' derives from it being less vocal than other swan species.
This large swan is wholly white in plumage with an orange bill
bordered with black. It is recognisable by its pronounced knob
atop the bill. The Mute Swan is one of the heaviest flying birds.
The Purple Sandpiper
The Purple Sandpiper is a small shorebird. The body is dark on
top with a slight purplish gloss and mainly white underneath.
The breast is smeared with grey and the rump is black. They are
late migrants and move to rocky ice-free Atlantic coasts in winter.
You can also see this bird on the Polish coast. This species is
tame and approachable. These birds forage on rocky coasts,
picking up food by sight. They mainly eat arthropods and
mollusks, also some plant material.
The Lapland Longspur
The Lapland Longspur is a passerine bird in the
longspur family Calcariidae, a group separated by most modern
authors from the Fringillidae (Old World finches). You can also
see this bird on the Polish coast. The Lapland Longspur is
a robust bird, with a thick yellow seed-eater's bill. The summer
male has a black head and throat, white eyestripe, chestnut
nape, white underparts, and a heavily streaked black-grey back.
The Arctic Redpoll
The Arctic Redpoll known in North America as the Hoary
Redpoll, is a bird species in the finch family Fringillidae. You can
also see this bird on the Polish coast. It breeds in tundra birch
forest. It has two subspecies. Many birds remain in the far
north; some birds migrate short distances south in
winter, sometimes travelling with Common Redpolls.
The Great Cormorant
The Great Cormorant is a large black bird, but there is a wide
variation in size in the species wide range. You can also see this
bird on the Polish coast. It has a longish tail and yellow throat-
patch. In eastern North America, it is similarly larger and bulkier
than Double-crested Cormorant, and the latter species has more
yellow on the throat and bill. Great Cormorants are mostly silent,
but they make various guttural noises at their breeding colonies.
The Sandwich Tern
The Sandwich Tern is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. You
can also see this bird on the Polish coast. The Sandwich Tern is
a medium-large tern with grey upperparts, white underparts,
a yellow-tipped black bill and a shaggy black crest which
becomes less extensive in winter with a white crown. Young
birds bear grey and brown scalloped plumage on their backs and
wings. It is a vocal bird.
The Long-tailed Duck
The Long-tailed Duck is a medium-sized sea duck. It is the only
living member of its genus, Clangula. You can also see this bird
on the Polish coast. Adults have white underparts, though the
rest of the plumage goes through a complex moulting process.
The male has a long pointed tail (10 to 15 cm) and a dark
grey bill crossed by a pink band. In winter, the male has a dark
cheek patch on a mainly white head and neck, a dark breast and
mostly white body.
The Tufted Duck
The Tufted Duck is a medium-sized diving duck with a population
of close to one million birds. You can also see this bird on the
Polish coast. The adult male is all black except for white flanks
and a blue-grey bill. It has an obvious head tuft that gives the
species its name. The adult female is brown with paler flanks,
and is more easily confused with other diving ducks. In
particular, some have white around the bill base which
resembles the scaup species, although the white is never as
extensive as in those ducks.
The Common Eider
The Common Eider is a large (50–71 cm body length) sea-
duck that is distributed over the northern coasts
of Europe, North America and eastern Siberia. You can also see
this bird on the Polish coast. It can fly at speeds up to 113 km/h
(70 mph). The male is unmistakable, with its black and white
plumage and green nape. The female is a brown bird, but can
still be readily distinguished from all ducks, except other eider
species, on the basis of size and head shape. This duck's call is
a pleasant "ah-ooo". The species is often readily approachable.