2011 French Domain Name Industry Report

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AFNIC has published the fifth annual edition of its French Domain Name Industry Report, in partnership with Télécom Paris Sud, against a backdrop of stru

AFNIC has published the fifth annual edition of its French Domain Name Industry Report, in partnership with Télécom Paris Sud, against a backdrop of stru

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  • 1. 2011 IssueFrench Domain Name Industry Report AFNIC - Télécom SudParis
  • 2. 2011 IssueFrench Domain Name Industry Report
  • 3. 2 OVERVIEWINTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 6 Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report? ....................................................... 6EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................... 7 Growth in the process of slowing down, but still above the average for extensions ... 7 A dynamic .fr portfolio, in line with current events .......................................................... 8 Young urban holders ........................................................................................................... 9 On-going market concentration ...................................................................................... 10 A steadily growing resale market .................................................................................... 10 A namespace implementing Anycast, DNSSEC and IPv6 ............................................. 11 A living ecosystem ............................................................................................................ 12 Expected changes in France and worldwide ................................................................. 12PART ONE: BACKGROUND .................................................................................................. 15 Chapter 1: the Internet in France ..................................................................................... 16 Internet users increasingly numerous and better equipped ................................................. 16 International comparisons .................................................................................................. 18 Chapter 2: Domain names worldwide ............................................................................. 20 Use of extensions in the world ........................................................................................... 20 Geographical breakdown of domain names ....................................................................... 23 Distribution of web servers and Internet hosts per extension .............................................. 23 Internationalized national extensions (IDN).......................................................................... 24 Chapter 3: Domain names in France ............................................................................... 26 Market share for extensions in France ................................................................................ 26 French market share worldwide ......................................................................................... 27PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES ........................................................................................ 29 Chapter 4: Number of .fr domain names ........................................................................ 30 Number of .fr domain names ............................................................................................ 30 Private individuals and legal entities.................................................................................... 32 Renewal of .fr domain names............................................................................................. 33 Operations on .fr domain names ........................................................................................ 34 Chapter 5: Number of .fr domain names per holder ...................................................... 35 Individuals .......................................................................................................................... 35 Legal entities...................................................................................................................... 36French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 4. OVERVIEW 3 Chapter 6: Lexicographical structure of .fr domain names ......................................... 37 Length of .fr domain names ............................................................................................... 37 Hyphens and numbers in .fr domain names ...................................................................... 38 Terms used in .fr domain names ....................................................................................... 39 Combinations registered as .fr domain names .................................................................. 42 Searches using various lists of terms ................................................................................. 42 French words registered as .fr domain names .................................................................... 43 Proportion of French first names and surnames registered as .fr domain names ................ 44 Names of French municipalities registered as .fr domain names ......................................... 44 Business names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names ...................................... 45PART THREE: HOLDERS....................................................................................................... 47 Chapter 7: The location of private individuals who hold .fr domain names ................ 48 Opening remarks ............................................................................................................... 48 Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals ............................................ 49 Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants .......... 50 Growth rate over one year ................................................................................................. 53 Chapter 8: The location of legal entities that hold .fr domain names .......................... 55 Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities .................................................... 55 Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies .................. 56 Growth rate over one year ................................................................................................. 59 Chapter 9: Location of private individuals and legal entities holding .fr domain names ................................................................................................................... 61 Total number of .fr domain names (private individuals and legal entities) ............................. 61 Changes over the last year ................................................................................................ 64 Location of .fr domain names per municipality ................................................................... 64 Chapter 10: Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names ........................................ 65 Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names ....................................................... 65 Changes in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names........................................... 67PART FOUR: REGISTRARS ................................................................................................... 69 Chapter 11: Registrars of .fr domain names ................................................................. 70 Number of registrars of .fr domain names .......................................................................... 70 Location of registrars of .fr domain names ......................................................................... 71 Chapter 12: Services and prices offered by registrars .................................................. 75 Services offered by registrars ............................................................................................. 75 Rates charged by registrars ............................................................................................... 76 Chapter 13: Analysis of the registrar market .................................................................. 78 Market for registrars of .fr domain names ........................................................................... 78 Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names .................................................. 83 The market for ICANN-accredited registrars....................................................................... 85
  • 5. 4 OVERVIEW Chapter 14: Analysis of the secondary market .............................................................. 88 The secondary domain name market worldwide (DN Journal.com) .................................... 88 The secondary domain name market worldwide (Sedo) .................................................... 89 Secondary market for .fr domain names (Sedo) ................................................................. 93PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................................................ 97 Chapter 15: DNS Servers .................................................................................................. 98 Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name..................................................................... 98 Number of .fr domain names per DNS server..................................................................... 98 Characteristics of the DNS servers for .fr domain names.................................................... 99 Requests received by authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC ................................. 99 Chapter 16: Use of IPv6 addresses ............................................................................... 102 Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addresses .............................................................. 102 IPv6-compatible .fr domain names................................................................................... 103 International comparisons ................................................................................................ 104 IPv4 exhaustion ............................................................................................................... 104PART SIX: USES ................................................................................................................... 107 Chapter 17: Use of .fr domain names on the Web ....................................................... 108 Responses from Web servers associated with .fr domain names ..................................... 108 Types of website associated with .fr domain names ......................................................... 111 Chapter 18: AFNIC and the ecosystem of domain name stakeholders in France .... 113 Communities identified..................................................................................................... 113 The main lessons ............................................................................................................. 115 Chapter 19: Disputes over domain names in France ................................................... 116 Disputes over .fr domain names....................................................................................... 116 UDRP disputes handled by WIPO .................................................................................... 118PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................... 123 Chapter 20: Market review and prospects.................................................................... 124 Review of the year ........................................................................................................... 124 Outlooks .......................................................................................................................... 125ANNEXES ............................................................................................................................. 129 List of figures ................................................................................................................... 130 Table of tables ................................................................................................................. 132 Table of notes .................................................................................................................. 134 Glossary ........................................................................................................................... 136French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 6. 6 INTRODUCTIONThis document is the 2011 issue of the French Domain Name Industry Report. It was drafted inSeptember 2011.The statistics presented were obtained using various sources, including the retrieval ofnon-confidential information from the AFNIC database, public information sites, etc. AFNIC wouldlike to thank all those who provided information useful for drafting this report.This study was conducted as part of a research contract between AFNIC and Télécom SudParis,from July to September 2011. Information obtained thereafter was not taken into account in thisversion of the report.Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report?There are already various providers offering information on domain names, but these organizationshave a worldwide, generalist vision and cannot access the registries’ own data. In addition, theyusually do not undertake in-depth analysis of the various markets.Since 2007, the AFNIC has undertaken the initiative of establishing an annual industry report onFrench domain names, to be of benefit to market participants, as well as to the government andInternet development agencies in France.The overall aims of this industry report are therefore to: • give a reliable picture of the market and its players, • provide the keys for analysing the factors shaping the market and its trends, • help promote understanding and recognition of this market and its special features among the private and public sectors, • identify the market’s strengths and weaknesses, putting forward recommendations for regis- trars and/or the registry.The aim is to produce a paper to be presented to the government and distributed to Internetstakeholders and the general public.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 7. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7 Salient points concerning the .fr extension for 2010-2011 The .fr TLD turned 25 on 2 September 2011 A new legal framework resulting from the law of 22 March 2011 Two millionth .fr domain name registered on 18 April 2011 17% annual growth rate, i.e. 5 points more than the average for other national extensions 39.5% of .fr domain names filed by private individuals A close correlation between the creation of .fr domain name and start-ups in France Median end-user price steady at €12 excl. VAT/year, in line with other top level domains Continuation of the market consolidation of domain name registrars Growth above average for the .fr resale market and the highest rates Continued deployment of DNSSEC with the software interface for registrars 40% of .fr domain names are IPv6-enabled for their DNS servers Nearly one in every two names refers to a professional website, far in front of personal websitesGrowth in the process of slowing down,but still above the average for extensionsAfter a decline in 2009, the market dynamics of domain names worldwide have slightly stabilised:in June 2011 all the extensions outside China posted an annual growth rate of 9% against 10%in the previous year. While the level of overall growth has continued, it is far from the record highsposted up until 2008 (20% per year or more). National extensions still retain the lead in terms ofgrowth, but the difference with generic extensions has been reduced to a few percent per year. The.com generic extension now represents more than 95 million domain names registered worldwide.Against this background, the .fr TLD retains a high absolute level of growth, of around 17% over oneyear, i.e. five points higher than the average for national extensions. The slowdown is due both tomechanical factors (the base of domain names already registered increases each year) and cyclicalfactors (the .com extension has posted an upswing over the last year in terms of market share inFrance). The French extension has increased by some 300,000 names a year since it was openedto individuals in June 2006, and exceeded 2.1 million domain names in September 2011. It nowrepresents nearly one-third of all the domain names registered in France, behind the .com gTLD.
  • 8. 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe slowdown, which is due to general economic conditions, is not inexorable however; indeed, the.fr extension has a number of factors for future growth in its favour. For example, while the numberof domain names registered per capita has sharply increased in recent years (1.2 per thousandin 2007 to 3.1 per thousand in 2011), is still considerably lower than other comparable countriessuch as Germany (at around 18 per thousand). In addition, while France is better placed than theEuropean average in terms of high-speed internet connection for individuals and businesses, it isstill behind in terms of the creation of websites, indicating a persistent lack of awareness amongFrench companies about online communication compared with their counterparts (58 companiesout of 100). As a corollary, in 2011, only 2.6% of the generic domain names registered worldwidewere held by French entities.The year 2010-2011 was also marked by the opening of internationalized domain names (IDN),and in particular by the success of the Russian national extension .рф in Cyrillic characters, whichreached 850,000 names in June 2011, only a few months after its launch.A dynamic .fr portfolio, in line with current eventsThe average length of .fr domain names is increasing year by year, standing in 2011 at12.7 characters per name. Serving as a separator in increasingly long names, dashes are stillfrequently used (37% of domain names) and constantly increasing in use.The portfolio of .fr domain names is also in line with current events. Alongside terms such as"france" and "paris" which are regularly placed at the head of the character strings forming domainnames, this year terms related to the insurance industry, and logically the years 2011 and 2012,have appeared. Conversely, years gone by are less used in registered domain names.Generic terms are also present in the portfolio for the French extension: 80% of the most frequentlyused French words were recorded, a figure which has also increased by eight percentagepoints since 2007. The same is true for almost all of the names of towns with more than 10,000inhabitants (95%), although the ratio fell to 38% when all the French municipalities are included.As for companies, 94 out of the top 100 firms in France and nearly 80% of the top 1,000 hadregistered their .fr domain name in 2011. All of these figures are steadily increasing, although therise is measured as the years go by.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 9. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9Young urban holdersIn 2011, 39.5% of the holders of .fr domain names were individuals, and 60.5% were entities. Since2006, in half of the cases the new names are registered by individuals, and the percentage of theportfolio they hold is increasing year by year. In addition, the turnover of the .fr extension is around80%, a very high figure compared with many of its counterparts.The study of the location of domain names in France still reports a significant concentration indepartments with the greatest population density, for individuals and businesses alike. It also showsa strong correlation between the number of .fr domain names registered in French regions and theregional gross domestic product. Each year, Paris and the Hauts-de-Seine department are placedat the top of the rankings, but others are gradually catching up, and many departments this yearhave seen growth well above the national average (such as the Sarthe department for both typesof holders, or Reunion Island for the corporate market).French nationals living abroad have been entitled to register .fr domain names since March 2010,and in June 2011 held 0.5% of the portfolio of domain names in the individual segment. Located ina hundred different countries, a quarter reside in Belgium, followed by Spain and Switzerland. Withregard to companies holding .fr domain names, 2% of them are located abroad, mainly in Germany,the United States, and the United Kingdom.The median age of individual holders rose five months between 2010 and 2011, and now standsat 36 years and five months. This development, however, is largely due to the natural aging of thepopulation of registrants, and if demographic factors are excluded, the median age would actuallydrop seven months. The younger age groups are still the growth drivers for the extension.A study comparing the monthly creations of .fr domain names and the monthly creations ofcompanies in France reported a strong correlation between the two indicators. It thus appearsthat a significant proportion of the new domain names are registered because of start-ups in thenational territory (including auto-entrepreneurs), the protection of their trade name preceding oraccompanying the legal constitution of their structure.
  • 10. 10 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYOn-going market concentrationThe decrease in the number of registrars continued in 2011: there are now 770, of which 16%are located abroad (mainly in the European Union). The number of foreign service providers alsorose over the year, contrasting with the general trend, perhaps in connection with the forthcomingopening of the .fr TLD to Europe. In France, the registrars are still predominantly located in the largeurban areas, with Paris and the Hauts-de-Seine department in the lead, while thirteen departmentshave none at all.The study of the offers from the top 30 registrars of .fr domain names reported a very broad pricerange, from €5 to €70 excluding VAT. The market segments targeted by each server provider(general public, SME / VSE, major accounts, resellers), and the additional services that may beincluded in the basic package would seem to substantiate the differences. The median price hasbeen stable since 2009 at €12 excl. VAT, and more than 80% of providers surveyed have notchanged their rates since last year. It should also be noted that registrars generally align the pricesfor the main extensions (.fr and generic).The market concentration of registrars of .fr domain names is continuing inexorably, on both theindividual segment and on the corporate sector, mainly to the benefit of the market leader this yearonce again. The market remains "concentrated" for individuals, and has reached the "moderatelyconcentrated" level for the corporate sector.Concentration is not specific to the .fr extension; it also concerns the market for ICANN-accreditedregistrars of generic extensions. However, the global market appears to be slightly less concentratedthan the French extension, apart from the market leader which has become slightly more powerful.In addition, more than half of the registrars are located in the United States, and on their ownmanage 64% of the generic domain names in the world. On its behalf, France has 2% of theICANN-accredited providers for 1.9% of the gTLDs.A steadily growing resale marketAfter a slowdown in 2009, the resale market for domain names resumed strong growth in 2010:+12% in the number of transactions, average prices up 23% year on year and +39% in the financialvolume of exchanges. The "social.com" domain name attained the highest price in the first half of2011, selling for $2.6 million. The prices for the top 100 domain names exchanged worldwide havedeclined, however, over the year.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 11. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11While the .com extension continues to be the most sought after, the .fr TLD is gaining groundeach year, posting growth rates well above the average for extensions (with an increase of 65% onthe value of sales in 2010). It remains the most expensive on the resale market, with an averageprice in 2010 of €5,000 due to the exceptional price paid for "credit.fr" of some €600,000, and amedian price of approximately €1,000 in the first half of 2011. These figures demonstrate the vitalityof the resale market for the .fr extension which has taken off fast since 2008, reflecting a betterunderstanding of the intrinsic value of .fr domain names.A namespace implementing Anycast, DNSSEC and IPv6In 2011, the French namespace contained nearly 50,000 DNS servers, a figure that is constantlygrowing from year to year. To ensure the highest quality of service and security in its DNSinfrastructure, AFNIC uses a comprehensive series of standard technologies and protocols.It manages a set of authoritative DNS servers for the .fr namespace and uses partners for otherservers in order to improve the resilience of the extension. In addition, some of these servers useAnycast technology, to improve the performance and security of the DNS infrastructure thanks to acloud of servers geographically distributed worldwide (a total of sixty servers for the extension). Inall, the servers managed directly by AFNIC received an average of 3000 DNS queries per secondduring the first half of 2011.In terms of security, 2010-2011 was also marked by the deployment of the DNSSEC protocol, toauthenticate DNS exchanges and avoid attacks such as cache poisoning. The French namespacewas signed in September 2010 and an interface allowing registrars to forward signature elementsof their customers’ domain names was opened in April 2011.The share of .fr domain names that are IPv6-enabled has evolved considerably since last year:nearly 40% of .fr domain names now support IPv6 for DNS and more than 8% for mail servers,but only 2% for web servers. The development is a gradual one, however, the change taking placewhen the main registrars implement IPv6 in their equipment. The French extension is ahead ofthe Japanese .jp TLD for DNS servers and mail servers, but is behind as far as web servers areconcerned. Finally, the percentage of requests received by the authoritative servers for IPv6 in theFrench namespace is also slightly up, standing at 1.5% this year. The overflow of the pool of IPv4addresses reserved for Europe is currently scheduled for June 2012, and it is important that all themarket players concerned move forward together in implementing IPv6.
  • 12. 12 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYA living ecosystemA study carried out by the Linkfuence Company at the request of AFNIC has highlighted the diversityof French social web players present in the "Domain Names" sector, and their respective positions.The "snapshot" taken in early 2011 is probably highly scalable, especially since, like many otherstructures, AFNIC has taken action to significantly expand its presence on the social web, andeducate its members about the issues related to domain names and the benefits that can begained from them.In 2011, 85% of .fr domain names lead to an effective website, either directly or by redirect toanother address, underlining the high rate of use of the extension. In addition, based on a randomsample of 1,000 .fr domain names, an analysis of site content again shows that nearly half of themare professional in nature, well ahead of personal sites (4%). A quarter of the sites are parked andlead to a holding page or sponsored links.In legal terms, a new naming policy and a new procedure for resolving disputes for the .fr TLD hadbeen put in place by 1 July 2011. The PREDEC procedure for AFNIC and the ADR procedure forthe WIPO were suspended in April-May 2011, but had been used on a regular basis up until then.Requests to lift anonymity and verify the eligibility for .fr domain names continue to be commonlyused. Of all the disputes, all extensions combined, France represents 11% of the plaintiffs and 3%of the defendants: it seems that French companies are more often victims than perpetrators ofacts such as cybersquatting, and seem to always initiate litigation a posteriori rather than pursuedefensive registration policies in advance.Expected changes in France and worldwideOn 22 March 2011, the law adapting French legislation to the European Union law on occupationalhealth, labour and electronic communications has clarified the legal framework for the allocationof domain names in France. In the new Article L. 45 of the French Electronic Communicationsand Telecommunications Act, it includes issues related to the Freedom of Communication andFreedom of Trade, to make it consistent with the French Constitution. On 1 July 2011, AFNICimplemented various changes related to this new legal framework, including a new naming policy,new procedures for dispute resolution, release of "key terms" that were previously blocked, dailypublication of the list of domain names registered on the previous day, to name but a few.Other major changes will follow, such as opening access to the .fr TLD to Europe as well as mostof the overseas extensions in December 2011. This opening could affect the market structure ofregistrars, if new leading European players decide to move into the French extension. AFNIC is alsostudying the possibility of registering domain names in internationalised characters (IDNs) underthe .fr TLD.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 13. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 13The process of creating new extensions introduced by ICANN in 2008 is now in progress, theschedule having set the application deadline for the 12th of April 2012, potentially enabling theoperational launch of the new extensions by the end of 2013. Hundreds of new extensions,representing cities, regions and cultural communities, as well as brand names or points of interest,could well emerge. In a few years this development is liable to upset the landscape of the Internetas we know it, with possible impacts on existing extensions and market players. AFNIC, whichis already involved in the draft extension .paris, is also positioned as a solutions provider andtechnical operator capable of providing support for project leaders for new extensions, in preparingthe submission of their application to ICANN and the operational management of the extensionthereafter.
  • 14. PART ONEBACKGROUND
  • 15. 16 PART ONE: BACKGROUNDChapter 1: the Internet in France■ Data source: CREDOC, ARCEP, CGIET, Eurostat.This chapter presents an overview of Internet use in France, including the rate with which people inFrance are being equipped for Internet access, number of users, number of Internet subscriptionsand international comparisons.Internet users increasingly numerous and better equippedHousehold penetration of PCs and Internet access has been steadily increasing for many years1. In2010, more than three-quarters of French people had a computer at home, and more than sevenout of ten had Internet access. The percentage of individuals with a computer but no Internetaccess has significantly dropped over the years (from 19% in 1998 to 5% in 2010).The percentage of Internet users is also continuing to grow: depending on the surveys, in 2010 itranged between 74% and 80% of the French population2.In Q1 2011 the total number of Internet subscriptions in France was 22.2 million, according toARCEP3. The vast majority uses broadband technology, mainly ADSL, the growth of which continuesto be strong (8% per year). As to broadband access, in the second quarter of 2011 it stood at555,000 subscribers, including 155,000 using fibre to the home (FTTH), with very high growth rates(of some 50% per year for all types of broadband access and 70% for FTTH alone). For the firsttime, in early 2011, high-speed broadband subscriptions surpassed low-speed access, which hasseen rapid decline for a number of years.The installed base of mobile phones is currently approaching 102% of the population due to multi-device systems, with strong growth in Internet use: 43% of callers use multimedia services (WAP,i-mode, MMS, e-mail), while 36% of callers use 3G services. If growth in the installed base of mobilephones remains strong (around 6% a year), 60% of that growth is linked to non-voice SIM cards, amarket segment that has been booming for the last two years with an annual growth rate of morethan 27% in Internet-only cards (PCMCIA cards, 3G/3G+ Internet keys) and above all a growth rateof nearly 61% for SIM cards for communicating objects ("machine to machine" cards).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 16. PART ONE: BACKGROUND 17 French Internet statistics for 2011 (according to CREDOC, Eurostat and ARCEP) Change Indicator Value over one year Equipment at home Computers 76% of the population in 2010 + 2 points Internet access 71% of the population in 2010 + 4 points Internet users +4 à 8 Internet users 74 to 80% of the population in 2010 (accord. to survey) points Internet subscriptions Internet access 22.2 million in Q1-2011 7% Low Bandwidth 0.44 million in Q1-2011 - 27 % Broadband access 21.5 million in Q2-2011 7% Very High Bandwidth access 0.56 million in Q2-2011 52 % Mobile phones Installed base of mobile phones 66 million, or 101.6% of the population in Q2-2011 6%Active base of multimedia mobile phones 28.4 million, or 43.3% of the mobile base in Q1-2011 18 % Active installed base of 3G users 23.7 million, or 36.2% of the mobile base in Q1-2011 29 % Internet-only SIM cards 2.8 million in Q1-2011 27 % SIM cards for communicating objects 2.8 million in Q1-2011 61 % Table 1 – French Internet statistics, 2011
  • 17. 18 PART ONE: BACKGROUND International comparisons According to Eurostat, in 2010 France was above the European average penetration rate for household broadband access (67% against 61% for the EU). This rate was up ten points for France, when on average in Europe it only improved five points. The northern countries of Europe continue to post the highest broadband access rates, reaching 87% in the case of Iceland. With regard to the high-speed access ratios for companies, France is one of the leading countries in Europe, with a rate of 93% against an average of 84% for the European Union. These relatively high figures have changed little over the past year (zero to one point of growth). European companies with broadband Internet access in 2010 (Source: Eurostat) 100% 95% 95% 93% 93% 91% 90% 89% 89% 88% 88% 90% 87% 87% 87%Percentage of companies (10 or more employees) 85% 85% 85% 84% 84% 84% EU Average: 84% 83% 83% 80% 80% 78% 78% 76% 76% 75% 71% 70% 66% 66% 61% 60% 49% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% ov . Lu Est n H ece La a Po ia bo a th y Be ds Ki urg Sl ep ed a Sw ny C m ay n Tu m ch s Au ia N nd Bu nd he lta ia er ey en ia G al Fi d C a Sl tria R ria Ire rk Po ly ce Fr nd e Li gar i U xem oni ac ni ze ru ai ak tv an i do at an iu en g ed on Ita n a a w R N Ma rk la la an a M ua Sp re a C yp rtu rla s m m lg ro ov el or un lg nl ng om Ic G D et d te ni Country Figure 1 – Broadband Internet access ratios for European companies French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 18. PART ONE: BACKGROUND 19The situation is still the opposite with regard to the creation of websites for companies in France: in2010, 58% of companies with at least ten employees had a website, compared with the Europeanaverage of 67%. This inferior ranking should be seen in conjunction with the lesser use of domainnames in France by comparison with countries of similar economic development. However, overthe past year in France this figure rose slightly more than the EU average (3% against 2%). European companies with a website or home page in 2010 (Source: Eurostat) 100% 89% 88% 90% 87%Percentage of companies (10 or more employees) 81% 81% 80% 80% 78% 78% 77% 76% 74% 74% 73% 70% 70% 70% 68% EU average: 67% 66% 65% 65% 62% 61% 61% 60% 58% 58% 57% 53% 52% 52% 50% 48% 43% 40% 37% 35% 30% 20% 10% 0% ov . s Lu Es ia ia Po a lg a H ece Au ds G ce R aria Sl ep Fi rk C y en en Ki nd Tu ry te Ice y N m C in Ire g Sp d th ta ac ia L l m ia ch m Fr y ia nd Sl kia he ny ru Be ria e d ga ni Bu oni e a en l ur n an a a an Ita ga M atv iu al xe ton an C gdo at n rk w R ed la yp la ua et a la m st a rtu bo re rla lg ov M om ro ed or N rm nl un Sw n Po ze Li D G d ni U Country Figure 2 - Development of web sites by European companies
  • 19. 20 PART ONE: BACKGROUNDChapter 2: Domain names worldwide■ Data source: AFNIC, Wikipedia, CENTR, WebHosting.Info, Security Space, Internet Systems Consortium.The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistical data on the use of domain names around theworld (including all extensions).Use of extensions in the worldThe .com generic domain is still far ahead, with more than 95 million domain names registered.Far behind, two extensions represent more than ten million names (the German extension .deand the .net generic extension), with two others approaching (.uk for the United Kingdom and thegeneric .org). The Chinese extension .cn continued to fall due to the highly restrictive registrationrequirements established by the CNNIC extension registry: after a brief period in 2009 during whichit was the second largest extension in the world with 13 million domain names, it is now rankedeighth with only 3.4 million domains. The French extension occupies 16th place in the standingswith just over two million domain names. Number of domain names registered in June 2011 per extension (Source: AFNIC, study of 50 of the main global extensions) .com; 95,771,200 .de (Germany); 14,490,843 .net; 13,993,299 .uk (United Kingdom); 9,490,537 .org; 9,256,054 .info; 7,881,985 .nl (Netherlands); 4,522,665 .cn (China); 3,379,441 .eu (European Union); 3,347,378 Extension .ru (Russia); 3,335,265 .br (Brazil); 2,553,255 .it (Italy); 2,210,999 .pl (Poland); 2,136,182 .au (Australia); 2,132,108 .biz; 2,104,281 .fr (France); 2,036,473 .us (United States); 1,720,579 .ca (Canada); 1,714,373 .ch (Switzerland); 1,594,382 .es (Spain); 1,353,110 0 20,000,000 40,000,000 60,000,000 80,000,000 100,000,000 120,000,000 Number of domain names per extension Figure 3 – Number of domain names per extensionFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 20. PART ONE: BACKGROUND 21In terms of growth, the .me extension of Montenegro posted the fastest growth this year (32%) aswell as last year, due to its position as an open extension designed to identify personal content. TheIsraeli extension (.il) and the Iranian extension (.ir) follow with annual growth of around 30%, but onlyrepresent a small number of domain names registered (each representing approximately 200,000).The .info extension has also grown significantly over the past year (28%). With an annual growthrate of 17%, the French extension is well-positioned and more dynamic than the average for thenational extensions included in the study (12% excluding China). This year, growth has also beenslightly higher for generic extensions (13%), contrasting with the reverse trend in previous years.As such, while the overall market has gained five percentage points of growth compared with lastyear, it is only due to the generic extensions (+7 points), with the national extensions maintaining thesame growth rate as for the previous year. Finally, the special case of the Russian national extensionin Cyrillic characters .рф is worth noting: after totalling some 20,000 registrations by the end of thepriority registration period in September 2010, it grew dramatically during the public opening toreach 850,000 domain names by June 2011.In terms of the number of domain names registered per capita, the .fr extension posted a ratioof 3.1 domain names per 100 inhabitants, and has been continuously growing for several years(1.2 in 2007). The Montenegrin extension .me remains well ahead due to its market positioningwhich places it more among the generic extensions rather than national. These are followed by theDutch (.nl), Swiss (.ch), and Danish (.dk) extensions with more than 20 names per 100 inhabitants.We may note that the number of domain names per head of population is not necessarilyrepresentative of a national domain’s real usage by the people in the country concerned: someof the domain names have been registered by firms and not by individuals. On the other hand,in the case of domains without any territorial requirements, some of the names are registered bypeople who do not belong to the country concerned (the most blatant case being the Montenegrodomain, mainly registered by English-speaking people). This means that the "number of domainsper head of population" turns out to be largely connected with the degree to which a domain isopenly available: the ratio should therefore be viewed with care. Up until now, the .fr extension hasincluded a territorial requirement: its domain names were available only to French residents andcorporate bodies registered in France, to French citizens living abroad, or to holders of registeredtrademarks in France.
  • 21. 22 PART ONE: BACKGROUNDThe changes in the adjusted number of domain names in the major extensions since 2007 showthat the French extension has grown significantly more than the average extensions studied, bothnational and generic, and that its growth is highly stable. As a result, its growth has reached 137%over the last four years, against an average of 64% for the national extensions excluding China,and 39% for generic extensions over the same period. The Russian, Polish, Romanian, and Czechextensions have posted the best growth rates over the last four years, immediately followed by the.fr TLD. This contrasts sharply with the Chinese extension .cn which has lost 45% of its portfolio ofnames over the same period, and nearly 80% from the peak of 14 million names in late 2009, justbefore the "purge" organized by the CNNIC. Changes in the adjusted number of domain names per type of extension since 2007 (base 100 in June 2007, Source: CENTR, study of the 30 main global extensions) 260 Standardised number of domains (base 100 in June 2007) 240 Changes over one year (June 2010 - June 2011) .fr : +17% .fr Total ccTLD (except CN) : +12% 220 Total gTLD : +9% Total TLD (except CN) : +9% 200 180 Total ccTLD (except CN) 160 Total TLD (except CN) 140 Total gTLD 120 100 Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 Month Figure 4 – Changes in the "adjusted" number of domain names, per type of extensionThe growth rate year on year has been declining for several years for all TLDs, probably due to thecurrent economic crisis. In contrast, the growth of the .fr TLD has stayed several points above theaverage for the national and generic extensions: the average of the extensions currently seems tostabilize around 10% of the annual growth rate, while the .fr TLD was still 17% in June 2011.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 22. PART ONE: BACKGROUND 23Geographical breakdown of domain namesThe site WebHosting.Info4 provides estimates of the geographical distribution of generic domainnames around the world. These indicate that nearly two thirds of such domain names wereregistered in the United States, followed by Germany, China, the United Kingdom, and Canada.The proportion of generic domain names registered in France is 2.6%, as last year, but has grownover the last four years (2.2% in 2007). China rose by 0.4 points in the rankings this year and isdouble that for the United Kingdom after overtaking Canada last year, indicating a growing interestin generic extensions when the conditions for accessing the national extension .cn have becomehighly restrictive. Distribution of generic domain names .com /.net /.org /.info /.biz Based on the country of registration in July 2011 (Source: WebHosting.Info) Other countries; 9.7% Netherlands; 1.1% Number of generic domains: Italy; 1.1% 120 million Spain; 1.3% Up 7.3% over one year (against 7.1% in 2010 Australia; 1.8% (-0.4 over one year) and 4.1% in 2009) Japan; 1.9% France; 2.6% Canada; 3.3% United Kingdom; 3.8% China; 4.1% (+0.4 over one year) Germany; 5.4% United Kingdom; 64.0% (-0.5 over one year) Figure 5 – Breakdown of generic domain names per countryDistribution of web servers and Internet hosts per extensionDomain names are used to identify different hardware, such as servers or network equipment.According to the website Security Space5, the primary extension chosen to identify Web servers isthe .com gTLD (45%), the .fr extension in turn being used by 1.3% of the web servers in the world.With regard to all Internet hosts (including servers and network equipment), the statistics providedby Internet Systems Consortium6 indicate that the .net extension is by far the first choice (over onethird), the .fr TLD being used by almost 2% of Internet hosts.
  • 23. 24 PART ONE: BACKGROUNDInternationalized national extensions (IDN)After the groundwork carried out by ICANN from 2006 onwards, since late 2009 that states andterritories that wish to can request an extension using their national characters, such as Arabicor Chinese. The objective of the national IDN extensions is to enable people in the countriesconcerned to use domain names written entirely in their native language, while under the previousrules, extensions had to be written using the American alphabet (ASCII). The first four applicationsapproved by ICANN were for Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, and Russia. The firstIDN extensions were introduced into the DNS root zone in May 2010, and the market openingsimmediately followed for the four extensions. The Russian extension in Cyrillic characters .рф metwith immediate success, with over 200,000 registrations within the first six hours after the publicopening on 11 November 2010, and 850,000 domain names had been registered by June 2011.Many other countries have followed, with national extensions using different character sets (Arabic,Chinese, Cyrillic, Persian, Tamil, Thai, etc.). Other applications are currently being processed byICANN (Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Georgia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Oman, Pakistan, Ukraine, and Yemen).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 24. PART ONE: BACKGROUND 25 Country Extensions nationales IDN Algeria . (Arabic) .中国 (simplified Chinese) China .中國 (traditional Chinese) Egypt . (Arabic) Hong Kong .香港 (traditional Chinese) .ভারত (Bengali) .भारत (Devanagari) .ભારત (Gujarati) India .ਭਾਰਤ (Gurmukhi) . (Urdu) .இந்தியா (Tamil) .భారత్ (Telugu) Iran . (Persian) Jordan . (Arabic) Morocco . (Arabic) Palestine . (Arabic) Qatar . (Arabic) Russia .рф (Cyrillic) Saudi Arabia . (Arabic) Serbia .срб (Cyrillic) .新加坡 (simplified Chinese) Singapore . - (Tamil) South Korea .한국 (Hangeul) . - (Sinhala) Sri Lanka . - (Tamil) Syria . (Arabic) .台湾 (simplified Chinese) Taiwan .台灣 (traditional Chinese) Thailand .ไทย (Thai) Tunisia . (Arabic) United Arab Emirates . (Arabic) Table 2 – IDN national extensions accepted by ICANN in 2011
  • 25. 26 PART ONE: BACKGROUNDChapter 3: Domain names in France■ Data source : ZookNIC, AFNIC.The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistical evidence on market share for extensions fordomain names registered in France (.fr and generic extensions), as well as market share in Francein relation to the all generic domain names registered worldwide.Market share for extensions in FranceIn July 2011, the extensions most used in France were .com (nearly 46% of all names) and the.fr TLD (32%), the other extensions being far behind. The .com has made the most progressin the year, to the detriment of most of the other extensions. The upswing could be linked tothe promotional campaign organized by the VeriSign registry for registrars to celebrate the 25thanniversary of the .com gTLD in the spring of 2010. It may also reflect the rotation of extensionsthat the main registrars promote one after another via time-limited offers, such that the .fr TLD wonmarket share in France for several years but lost ground this year. Distribution of the main domain names registered in France in July 2011 (Source: ZookNIC and AFNIC) .biz ; 1.3% .info ; 2.4% (-0.3 over one year) (-0.3 over one year) .eu ; 4,6% .mobi ; 0.3% (-0.8 over one year) .org ; 5.5% (-0.4 over one year) .net ; 7.8% (+0.4 over one year) .com ; 45.9% (+3.2 over one year) .fr ; 32.2% (-1.7 over one year) Figure 6 – Breakdown of extensions for domain names registered in FranceFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 26. PART ONE: BACKGROUND 27After a period of latency between July 2008 and July 2009, the .com extension has resumed itsgrowth in the French market, particularly since the beginning of 2011, which may correspond to thepromotional campaign initiated by the VeriSign registry. The .fr TLD has grown much more smoothlyand regularly over time. Over one year, the .com and .net extensions have grown by around 30%,followed by the .fr TLD which this year has posted an increase of 17%. The other extensions havehad more limited annual performance, the .biz and the .eu TLDs making almost no headway at all.All extensions combined, the overall French market has grown 22%.On an observation period of four years (July 2007-July 2011), the .fr extension has seen thestrongest growth in France, well ahead of the overall growth of the French market, all extensionscombined (140% against 90%). Over the same period, the .com gTLD alone has increased itsportfolio of domain names by 80%.The .fr TLD has gradually gained market share on the French territory to the detriment of themajor generic extensions since 2000. After a peak of 34% in summer 2010, it underwent a slightdownswing to 32% one year later.Since the principle of entitlement to a name was abandoned in May 2004, the .fr TLD has almostalways been ahead of the .com / .net / .org and .eu extensions in terms of growth rates year onyear until the summer of 2010. The .com gTLD then took the head of extensions until the summerof 2011.French market share worldwideOver one year, the French market share worldwide in the registration of domain names with genericextensions rose from 2.8% to 3.2%. It is close to 9% for the .eu TLD, whose market is Europeanand not global, and between 3% and 4% for most generic extensions except for the .info and.mobi TLDs in which France is less present (around 2% of market share). Over one year, Francehas slightly improved its position worldwide for the three main generic extensions .com / .net / .organd remained stable for other extensions (.biz, .info, .eu, .mobi). This trend is probably due to therenewed dynamism of these extensions after several years of "depression", and is consistent withtheir relative strength compared with the .fr extension.
  • 27. PART TWO.FR DOMAIN NAMES
  • 28. 30 PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMESChapter 4: Number of .fr domain names■ Data source: AFNIC.The purpose of this chapter is to provide figures on the registration of .fr domain names, includingchanges in the number of names registered, distribution as between individuals and corporatebodies, and operations carried out (name creation, deletion, and renewal rates).Number of .fr domain namesThe growth curve for the total number of .fr domains clearly shows the impact of successivechanges in the naming policy (abolition of entitlement to a name in May 2004 and opening toprivate individuals in June 2006). The momentum increased from 30,000 new names a year in theearly 2000s, to 300,000 new names per year since 2006 to the present date. On 1 July 2011, therewere 2,054,731 .fr domain names registered in the AFNIC database. Growth has slowed since theeconomic crisis: it dropped from 25% in 2009 to 21% in 2010 and to 17% this year. This slowdownis not specific to the French extension, however, but affects all the extensions.Domain names are overwhelmingly registered directly under the .fr TLD, only 1% of them areregistered in a level-two sub-domain. In addition, sub-domains have regressed or stagnated overone year (-2% on average), except for gouv.fr (+7%) and com.fr (2%). It should be noted that thefigures presented here only take into account the sub-domains directly managed by AFNIC, not thesectoral sub-domains delegated to other administrative authorities7.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 29. PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES 31 Change in the number of .fr domain names since 2000 (directly under .fr or under a sub-domain managed by AFNIC) 2,500,000 Right to .fr domain .fr opened to name renounced private individuals 2,000,000 + 300,000 domains/yearNumber of domain names 1,500,000 1,000,000 + 120,000 domains/year 500,000 + 30,000 domains/year 0 00 4 5 9 1 2 6 7 3 8 0 0 1 06 07 08 09 10 01 02 03 04 05 11 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 l2 l2 l2 l2 l2 l2 l2 l2 l2 l2 l2 l2 n n n n n n n n n n n n Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ja Ja Ja Ja Ja Ja Ja Ja Ja Ja Ja Ja Month Figure 7 – Changes in the total number of .fr domain names
  • 30. 32 PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMESPrivate individuals and legal entitiesDomain names under the .fr TLD may be registered by private individuals as well as by corporatebodies (companies, associations, public bodies, etc.). Until June 2006, private individuals onlycould only register .fr domain names in sub-domains of the extension (nom.fr and com.fr); they cannow file names directly under the national extension.The distribution between the two types of holders shows that a majority of them are still legalentities: at the end of the first half of 2010, 60.5% of the domain names were registered by corporatebodies as against 39.5% by private individuals. In one year, the percentage held by individuals hasnonetheless gained a little more than 1 point.The share of .fr domain names held by individuals is also steadily increasing: it has almost doubledin four years, from 21% in early 2007 to 39.5% in June 2011. Since the domain became availableto individuals in 2006, half of the new name registrations have been by individuals. This mechanismof catching up on the part of individuals seems to converge to an asymptote of around 40%. Percentage of .fr domain names registered by physical persons since 2007 (cumulative number and creations of new names) 70% Creations of new .fr domain names 60% Percentage of .fr domain names registered 50% Cumulative number of .fr domain names by physical persons 40% 30% 20% Annual average (July 2010 - June 2011): Individuals own 39.2% of .fr domain names and create 50% of new domain names 10% 0% Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 Month Figure 8 – Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individualsFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 31. PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES 33Renewal of .fr domain namesThe renewal rate of a domain is the proportion of its domain names renewed by the holder on expiry.For the .fr extension, the renewal rate is currently around 80%: this figure, which has remainedstable over the past year, is very high compared with many other extensions. The curve also showssome irregularities related to clearly identified limited phenomena, such as the declines observed inJuly 2007 (non-renewal of names recorded a year earlier when the domain was opened to privateindividuals) and in February 2009 (non-renewal of names recorded in January 2008 during a "one-off" promotional campaign by a major registrar). Renewal rates for .fr domain names since 2007 90% Annual average (July 2010 - June 2011): 86% 80% renewal rate (stable over one year) 86% 86% 85% 85% 84% 84% 84% 84% 84% 83% 83% 84% 83% 83% 83% 84% 83% 82% 82% 82% 82% 83% 83% 82% 82% 82% 82% 82% 81% 82% 81% 81% 81% 81% 80% 80% 80% 80% Renewal rate for domain names 80% 80% Trend curve 79% 79% 79% 79% (except for the impact 78% 78% 78% 77% of one-off operations) 77% 77% 77% 75% Non renewal of domains one year after Non renewal the OVH marketing campaign of domains one year after 72% in January 2008 the service was opened to private 70% Individuals in June 2006 69% 65% Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 Month Figure 9 – Renewal of .fr domain names
  • 32. 34 PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMESOperations on .fr domain namesOperations involving the creation and deletion of domain names in the AFNIC database are steadilyincreasing from year to year. Between the summers of 2010 and 2011, on average the database of.fr domain names saw some 51,000 new names created per month for 28,000 losses, highlightingthe dynamism and fluidity of the market.A study comparing the monthly creations of .fr domain names and the monthly creations ofcompanies in France reported a strong correlation between the two indicators: the degree ofstatistical correlation stood at 77%, with an average of 1.15 .fr domain names created for eachlegal entity. This finding may suggest that a significant proportion of the creation of .fr domainnames is due to the creation of start-ups in France. Conversely, it should be noted that newregistrations made during corporate life-cycles apparently have less impact on the developmentin the number of creations, as well as the registrations made by individuals. One explanation forthe latter phenomenon may be that a significant portion of the registrations made by individualsare done by entrepreneurs or self-entrepreneurs during the process of setting up their business,protecting their domain name(s) preceding or accompanying the legal constitution of the actualstructure. Correlation between creations of .fr domain names and creations of companies in France (Source: AFNIC and INSEE) 80,000 Creation of the auto-entrepreneur type of sole proprietorship 70,000 Creations of domain names or companies per month 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 Domain name creations Company creations 10,000 0 Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 Month Figure 10 – Correlation between the creation of .fr domain names and start–ups in FranceFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 33. PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES 35Chapter 5: Number of .fr domain names per holder■ Data source: Output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 (number of names registered by private individuals and by legal entities).This chapter gives figures for the number of .fr domain names registered per holder, for both typesof holder (private individuals and legal entities).AFNIC makes every effort to identify holders of domain names in its database unequivocally, byanalysing the information supplied when the names are registered. It is possible, however, for aperson to appear as a holder more than once in the AFNIC database, if that holder has registereddomain names through different registrars and given different details on each occasion. This alsoapplies to firms if their domain names have been registered by different subsidiaries or bodies whichAFNIC has no means of cross-referencing. Holder numbers in the AFNIC database are accordinglya slight overestimate of the actual situation. The figures given in this chapter for the number ofdomain names per holder will therefore be slightly below the true values.IndividualsA great majority of individuals who hold .fr domain names have only one such name (79.6%). Afew hold two .fr domain names (11.5%), but the registration of three or more names is much rarer.These figures are virtually unchanged from last year. In addition, in early July 2011 there were almost13,000 individuals each with more than five domains, and only 128 had over one hundred domains.Since 2010, the number of individual holders has increased by 20%, and the number of namessubmitted by individuals has risen by 19%. The average number of names per individual holderstands at 1.66 names per person (against 1.67 in 2010).The few individuals who have a very large number of domain names could be domainers. The twolargest portfolios held by individuals contain respectively some 5,000 and 7,000 .fr domain names.
  • 34. 36 PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES Number of .fr domain names registered per individual holder July 2011 Five domains 1.0% Over five domains 2.6% Four domains 1.8% Three domains 3.6% Two domains 11.5% Average: 1.66 .fr domain names per indvidual holder One domain 79.6% Figure 11 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (individuals)Legal entitiesThe distribution of the number of names per holder among legal entities is fairly similar to that forindividuals. The percentage of holders with only one .fr domain name is however slightly higher forlegal entities, standing at nearly 84% against 80% for private individuals. Here again, the figureshave hardly changed over the year. The number of entities holding more than five domain nameswas approximately 21,000 in July 2011, and of those, 328 held over one hundred names.Over the year, the number of corporate holders has increased by 14%, and the number of namesregistered by corporate bodies has risen by 15%. The average rose in 2011 from 1.75 to 1.77names per corporate holder.Lastly, some corporate holders have very great numbers of .fr domain names, three of them eachholding between 9000, and 12,000 names. These may be firms in the domainer business, tradingin the resell market for the .fr extension.Overall, the AFNIC database contains some 1.2 million holders (individuals and entities combined).The top ten holders in numbers of domain names hold 3% of all the names, the top 100 hold 6%,the top 1,000 hold 11%, and the top 10,000 hold 20% of the database.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 35. PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES 37Chapter 6: Lexicographical structure of .fr domain names■ Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011.The purpose of this chapter is to provide a set of statistical data on the lexicographical structure ofthe .fr domain names present in the AFNIC database (length of name, presence of hyphens andnumbers, the most commonly used terms, use of combinations of characters of the acronym type),as well as the proportion of various types of terms in the database (French words, French surnamesand first names, names of municipalities, corporate names of companies and brands).Length of .fr domain namesThe following figure shows the distribution of the length of .fr domain names present in the AFNICdatabase (names directly under the .fr TLD without the use of sub-domains, without the ".fr" suffix).The most frequent length in 2011 was ten characters, a figure that has been steadily increasingover the years (eight in 2008, nine in 2009 and 2010). The average length is also growing steadily,from some 0.3 to 0.4 character per year (11.3 in 2007, 11.6 in 2008, 12 in 2009, 12.4 in 2010, and12.7 in 2011). This development is the logical consequence of an increased use of the extension,the shorter names having already been registered and new entrants therefore turning to longernames.The minimum length is two characters. All the combinations of two characters permitted by theAFNIC naming policy ("digit digit", "digit letter" and "letter digit") had all been registered by 1 July2011.The maximum size allowed by the policy is 63 characters (excluding the suffix): there were fifteen.fr domain names of this length in the database at the time of the analysis. Most of them consist ofkeyword concatenations designed to boost their search engine referencing above its natural level.
  • 36. 38 PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES Length of .fr domain names in July 2011 8% 7% 6% Average length: 12.7 (against 12.4 in 2010) Percentage of domain names 5% Median length: 11.4 (against 11.1 in 2010) 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Length Figure 12 – Length of .fr domain namesHyphens and numbers in .fr domain namesHyphens are very frequently used in .fr domain names: 37% of the names contain one or morehyphens. The average number of hyphens per domain name is steadily rising from year to year:from 0.38 in 2007 to 0.5 in 2011.Figures are much less used: only about 6% of the names contain any. Names with two figuresare more numerous than those with single digits, and those with four figures more than thosecontaining three, probably due to the presence of the numbers of French departments and yearsin .fr domain names. The average number of figures per name is also slightly increasing each year(from 0.10 in 2007 to 0.13 in 2011).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 37. PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES 39 Extreme .fr domain names in July 2011 Longest domain names 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.fr alma-transitaires-transport-international-entrepot-frigorifique.fr assurances-devis-moto-scooter-sportive-malus-alcoolemie-drogues.fr batisseur-architecte-constructeur-villa-maison-maitre-oeuvre-06.fr brdecodesign-amenagement-evenementiel-stand-decoration-mobilier.fr coiffure-enfant-coupe-de-cheveux-enfant-cheveu-bebe-paris-75-92.fr creation-site-internet-depannage-informatique-maintenance-vente.fr devis-tarif-installation-remplacement-modification-compteur-eau.fr espejo-peinture-papiers-peints-decoration-facades-degat-ds-eaux.fr isolation-chauffage-pompeachaleur-menuiserie-fermeture-prorenov.fr jp-merle-energie-renouvelable-salle-de-bain-plombier-couverture.fr ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo-la-la.fr piscine-entretien-pro-reparation-renovation-analyse-deau-fuites.fr portail-automatique-motorisation-amiens-picardie-key-automation.fr vente-maison-villa-appartement-terrain-la-salvetat-saint-gilles.fr Domain name with the greatest number of hyphens m-e-d-e-c-i-n-e-e-s-t-h-e-t-i-q-u-e.fr Domain name with the greatest number of digits 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.fr Table 3 – Extreme .fr domain namesTerms used in .fr domain namesDomain names are sometimes created by their holders from generic terms. This study identifiesthe terms present in .fr domain names as strings of alphabetic characters, preceded andfollowed where applicable by a non-alphabetic character (hyphen or number). For example, the"hotel-paris.fr" domain name would be taken into account for the terms "hotel" and "Paris", but notthe name "hotelparis.fr".
  • 38. 40 PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMESAmong the twenty terms most used in .fr domain names in 2011, excluding linking terms (articles,conjunctions, prepositions), the following are primarily found: • geographic terms ("france", "paris", "saint"), • terms related to real estate ("immobilier", "location", "maison", "immo"), • terms related to tourism, leisure activities and practical things ("hotel", "location", "auto", "maison", "restaurant", "art"), • terms related to services ("services", "conseil", "formation"), • computing terms ("web", "informatique"), • terms related to the insurance industry ("insurance", "insurance policies") • the term "municipality" as used in the AFNIC non-mandatory naming convention "mairie commune.fr" • The term "group" identifying the type of company.The terms "insurance" and "insurance policies" have more than doubled in one year, apparentlydue to the implementation of an SEO strategy by a major insurance group. The use of the terms"restaurant" and "paris" has also increased, as last year. Conversely, the percentage of namesusing the terms "maison" and "mairie" has dropped since last year.With regard to the new .fr domain names filed between July 2010 and July 2011, the term "paris"ranks first, ahead of even the term "France". The terms "insurance" and "insurance policies" takethird and fifth place respectively for the terms most frequently used in the new domain names,"mma" taking ninth position. Logically, the term "2011" is also among the top twenty terms usedthis year. Figure 13 – Words most commonly used in .fr domain names (tag cloud generated by Wordle)French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 39. PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES 41Years are also part of the terms used in .fr domain names. Logically, the use of past years drops(2008, 2009, 2010) while the current and future years are more present (2011, 2012). The number"2000" is still growing strong year after year, because of its symbolic character. Use of years in .fr domain names Number Number Change in Year of domains in 2011 of domains in 2010 1 year 2000 869 759 +110 2001 33 34 -1 2002 8 10 -2 2003 12 20 -8 2004 17 22 -5 2005 25 34 -9 2006 26 48 -22 2007 127 181 -54 2008 296 466 -170 2009 254 529 -275 2010 679 1 188 -509 2011 1 538 315 +1 223 2012 1 393 614 +779 2013 233 133 +100 2014 381 246 +135 2015 103 77 +26 2016 179 170 +9 2017 106 58 +48 2018 111 83 +28 2019 31 27 +4 2020 148 118 +30 Table 4 – Use of years in .fr domain names
  • 40. 42 PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMESCombinations registered as .fr domain namesCombinations of 2 to 5 letters and/or figures were analysed (bearing in mind that two-lettercombinations are forbidden by the AFNIC naming policy). These combinations are worth studyingsince they may be acronyms – company names, for example.The findings show that almost all the permissible two-character combinations have been registered,and also almost all the three-letter or three-digit combinations. The ratio is lower (44%) for three-character letter-numeral combinations, and still lower (8% or under) for longer combinations.Combinations of three characters or numerals have all decreased this year, especially those withthree letters which have lost nearly eight points over the year when they gained seven points lastyear. It is likely that a domainer registered a large batch of similar domain names last year, and hasnot renewed them one year later.Searches using various lists of termsThe following analysis examines the proportion of terms from different sources that had beenregistered as .fr domain names in July 2011: • French dictionary words, • French family names and first names, • the names of French municipalities, • the names of French and global companies or brands.Some of the words in these lists contain characters disallowed in .fr domain names (accentedcharacters, spaces, punctuation, etc.). Accented characters are replaced by their unaccentedequivalent, while the other forbidden characters and hyphens have either been deleted or replacedby a dash. Thus, for the town of Pont-lÉvêque, we tested the four names "pontleveque", "pont-leveque" "pontl-eveque" and "pont-l-eveque".French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 41. PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES 43French words registered as .fr domain namesWe have used four lists of French words: • the list of the most frequently used words of the French language drawn up by the lexicographer Étienne Brunet (1,364 words)8, • The Dubois-Buyse spelling scale, containing a set of commonly used words supposedly known to every French adult as a result of gradual acquisition between primary and high school (3,725 words)9, • the list of French words by Christophe Pallier, after the Gutenberg Project carried out by the University of Lausanne (336,531 words with their declined and conjugated forms)10, • The 2007 Official Grand Challenge of common names (489,166 words with their declined and conjugated forms)11.The results show that in the most comprehensive French dictionaries (300,000 to 500,000 entries),approximately 10% of the words have been registered as .fr domain names (an increase of twopercentage points since 2007). This percentage is around 80% for the most common Frenchwords, with an increase from eight to nine percentage points since 2007. Percentage of French words registered as .fr domain names in July 2011 100% 90% +8 since 2007 +9 since 2007 Percentage of words registered as domain names 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 83% 78% 30% 20% +2 since 2007 10% 10% 8% 0% Dictionary of the 1,500 Dictionary of the 4,000 Dictionary of 350,000 words Dictionary of 500,000 words most frequent words most frequent words List of French words Figure 14 – Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names
  • 42. 44 PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMESProportion of French first names and surnames registeredas .fr domain namesThese findings are based on four lists: • the list of the commonest 100 surnames in France, published on the "Beaucarnot Généalogie" website (figures as of 1 January 2006 drawn from the official statistics of the electronic version of the telephone directory)12, • the list of the commonest 5,000 surnames in France, taken from the "Geopatronyme.com" website (a ranking of surnames by number of births between 1891 and 1990, according to the national statistics institute INSEE)13, • the list of the most common 20 female names and 20 male first names in France, according to "The 2008 Official list of first names" by Stephanie Rapoport14, • the list of first names used in France published on the "QuelPrenom.com" website15.The results indicate that 94% of the most common 5,000 surnames have been registered as .frdomain names today, a figure which rises to 99% for the first 100. The same applies for almostthree-quarters of all the first names used in France (up 9 points since 2007), and for all of the mostcommon 40 surnames.Names of French municipalities registered as .fr domain namesThese findings are based on four lists: • the list of municipalities in France (metropolitan and Overseas Territories) with more than 30,000 inhabitants on 1 January 2008, according to the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) (269 unique names)16, • the list of municipalities in France (metropolitan and Overseas Territories) with more than 20,000 inhabitants on 1 January 2008, according to the INSEE (456 unique names), • the list of municipalities in France (metropolitan and Overseas Territories) with more than 10,000 inhabitants on 1 January 2008, according to the INSEE (961 unique names), • the list of all the municipalities in France (metropolitan and Overseas Territories), on 1 January 2011, according to the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) (over 36,000 municipalities corresponding to 34,235 unique names after deleting duplicates)17.The analysis identified whether the name of each municipality is included in the AFNIC base aloneor preceded by the words "ville" or "mairie" used in the .fr naming conventions (with an optionalseparation hyphen).The results indicate that almost all the names of towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants havebeen filed under the .fr TLD, and nearly a quarter of all the municipalities of France. The latter figurehas also been steadily growing, having risen 2 points since last year, and 16 points since 2007. Thenames of the municipalities were reserved by AFNIC from 2004 to 2011, and since 1 July 2011have formed part of the list of terms subject to prior review.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 43. PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES 45Business names and trademarks registered as .fr domain namesThis study is based on five lists: • the 40 companies in the CAC 40 stock market index18, • the list of the 100 largest French companies according to their sales turnover in 2009, as published on the website "L’Expansion.com"19, • the list of the thousand largest French enterprises according to their sales turnover in 2009, as published on the "LExpansion.com" website • the list of the leading 500 companies worldwide according to their sales turnover (fiscal year ending 31 March 2011), published by "Fortune" magazine20, • the list of trademarks used in France, according to Wikipedia (approximately 2,500 trademarks)21.The findings show that almost all the companies in the Paris stock exchange index CAC 40 havereserved their names under the .fr domain. So have 94 of France’s hundred biggest firms (up tenpoints since 2007), and nearly 80% of the top 1,000. Although multinationals do not necessarilyhave offices in France, more than half of them have nevertheless reserved their domain namesunder the .fr TLD. Lastly, nearly three quarters of the brand names used in France have also beenregistered under the national extension. Percentage of corporate and brand names registered as .fr domain names in July 2011 100 % +10 since 2007 Companies Brands 90 % 80 % Percentage of names registered as domains 70 % 60 % 50 % 100% 94% 40 % 79% 74% 30 % 52% 20 % 10 % 0% Companies in the CAC 40 List of 100 largest French List of 1,000 largest French List of 500 largest French List of 2500 French brands companies companies companies worldwide List of companies or brands Figure 15 – Proportion of business names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names
  • 44. PART THREEHOLDERS
  • 45. 48 PART THREE: HOLDERSChapter 7: The location of private individuals who hold .frdomain names■ Data source: Output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2010 (geographical distribution of domain names held by private individuals), INSEE statistics.The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistical data on the geographical location of individuals(natural persons) holding .fr domain names, as well as the associated penetration rates (domainnames per 1,000 inhabitants) and annual growth rates.Opening remarksSince location information is provided by the holders of .fr domain names, the AFNIC databasecontains some erroneous records, such as the numbers of non-existent French departments.These extremely minor errors have been excluded from the analysis.Because of the location method by zip code, the results provided in this study are aggregated in thecase of Corsica (no distinction between departments 2A and 2B) and Guadeloupe (no distinctionbetween Guadeloupe, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin).As to the overseas parts of France, it should be pointed out that these departments and otherlocal authorities have their own ccTLDs (Guadeloupe: .gp, French Guiana: .gf, Reunion Island: .re,Martinique: .mq, Mayotte: .yt, New Caledonia: .nc, French Polynesia: .pf, Saint Barthélemy: .bl,Saint Martin: .mf, Saint Pierre and Miquelon: .pm, French Southern Territories: .tf,Wallis and Futuna: .wf). The residents living in these departments and under these local authoritiescan record domain names with these extensions in addition to the .fr extension, depending on thecorresponding naming policies.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 46. PART THREE: HOLDERS 49Number of .fr domain names registered by private individualsThe .fr extension has been open to individuals of French nationality residing abroad since 16March 2010. In July 2010, 0.5% of the domain names (i.e. approximately 4,000 names) belongedto individuals living abroad in 98 different countries. A quarter of them were located in Belgium,followed by Spain (16%), Switzerland (13%) and Vietnam (12%). The strong growth in Spain andVietnam over one year may be related to the presence of domainers in these countries. Distribution per country outside France of .fr domain names held by individuals in July 2011 Other countries 17.8% Belgium 25% (-11.3 points in one year) Afghanistan 1.5% Canada 2.0% Luxembourg 2.3% Germany 2.4% USA 3.0% UK 4.7% Spain 16.4% (+13.2 points in one year) Viet Nam 12% (+12 points in one year) Switzerland 12.9% Figure 16 – Location of .fr domain names registered by individuals residing abroad99% of the domain names are located in metropolitan France and 1% in the Overseas Territories.The national average is 7,700 domain names per department and the median value approximately3,400, but with very high geographical differences: nearly 130,000 names for Paris againstapproximately 450 for Lozère. Not surprisingly, there are high concentrations of domain nameregistrants in the departments with the largest populations. The eight departments of the Île-de-France (Greater Paris region) alone account for 37% of the domain names registered in France byindividuals. Conversely, rural departments make up the first quartile.In the Overseas Territories, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Reunion Island are in the second quartile,ahead of the other overseas departments for the number of .fr domain names filed by individuals.
  • 47. 50 PART THREE: HOLDERSThe department of Paris accounts for 16% of the individual holders of .fr domain names, faroutnumbering the runners-up. The top 10 departments contain four other departments in the Parisregion (Hauts-de-Seine, Val-de-Marne, Yvelines, Seine-Saint-Denis), and well as the other mostdensely populated departments of France: the Rhône, Bouches-du-Rhône, Haute Garonne, Nordand Alpes-Maritimes departments.Number of .fr domain names registered by private individualsper 1,000 inhabitantsThe following maps show the number of domain names registered by individuals in relation todepartment population (names per 1,000 inhabitants). The population figures for the departmentsare derived from INSEE estimates as at 1 January 200922.The national average is 12.4 names per 1,000 inhabitants (against 10.6 in 2010); once again withmarked disparities between departments (from 58 for Paris to 3.5 for Haute-Marne). Comparedwith the statistics on the gross number of domain names, new departments appear in the bottomquartile: they are departments with lower population densities, but in which .fr domain nameshave been in high demand by private individuals in relation to the population (Charente-Maritime,Dordogne, Savoie, Hautes-Alpes, Drôme and Vaucluse).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 48. PART THREE: HOLDERS 51 Numbers of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (metropolitan France) As at 1 July 2011 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 57 27 95 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 18 58 Numbers 79 36 71 39 of domains per 85 86 1,000 inhabitants 03 More than 10.5 23 01 74 7.7 to 10.5 17 87 69 16 63 42 5.8 to 7.7 73 19 38 24 15 43 Less than 5.8 33 07 26 05 source 46 AFNIC 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 17 – Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (Metropolitan France)
  • 49. 52 PART THREE: HOLDERSThe overseas departments are in the top quartile, except for Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which hasa rate of 6.6 .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants. Numbers of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (Overseas Territories) As at 1 July 2011 St Pierre and Miquelon Mayotte New Caledonia Numbers of domains per 1,000 inhabitants More than 10.5 7.7 to 10.5 Guadeloupe 5.8 to 7.7 Reunion Island Wallis and Futuna Less than 5.8 source AFNIC Martinique Guyana French Polynesia Figure 18 – Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (Overseas Territories)The top 10 departments by number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000inhabitants shows the department of Paris again well ahead (58 names), once more followed byHauts-de-Seine. Some departments are found here which did not make the top ten in absolutenumber of names registered: Hérault, Haute-Savoie and Essonne, where the registration byindividuals is really booming (from 14 to 17 names per 1,000 inhabitants). Haute-Savoie also movedfrom twelfth to ninth position in this ranking in one year.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 50. PART THREE: HOLDERS 53Growth rate over one yearThe figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registeredby individuals. The rise in the number of names registered by individuals averaged 18%. Annual growth rate in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals (Metropolitan France) As at 1 July 2011 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 57 27 95 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 18 58 Growth rate 79 36 71 39 per department 85 86 03 > 21.5% 23 01 74 18.5% - 21.5% 17 87 69 16 63 42 16% - 18.5% 73 19 38 24 15 43 < 16% 33 07 26 05 source 46 AFNIC 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 19 – Annual growth rate in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals (Metropolitan France)
  • 51. 54 PART THREE: HOLDERSIn the Overseas Territories, Martinique and Mayotte have growth rates over a year of some 25%above the national average, followed by New Caledonia with an annual growth rate of 19%. Annual growth rate in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals (Overseas Territories) As at 1 July 2011 St Pierre and Miquelon Mayotte New Caledonia Growth rate per department > 21.5% 18.5% - 21.5% 16% - 18.5% < 16% Guadeloupe Reunion Island Wallis and Futuna source AFNIC Martinique Guyana French Polynesia Figure 20 – Annual growth rates in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals (Overseas Territories)The top 10 departments by annual rate of growth show a vigorous upward trend in individuals’registrations in these departments. Sarthe leads this year with a growth rate of 40%. The ratesare also 30% or higher in five French departments (Hautes-Alpes, Dordogne, Corsica, Aquitaine,Eure-et-Loir), followed by Haute-Savoie, Lot, Loire and Hautes-Pyrénées. Besides catching updepartments with lower growth rates (Hautes-Alpes and Lot), the table also shows the departmentsalready well positioned and that have strengthened their lead, such as Gironde and Haute-Savoie.Hautes-Pyrenees is the only department that also ranked among the top ten in terms of growthlast year.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 52. PART THREE: HOLDERS 55Chapter 8: The location of legal entities that hold .frdomain names■ Data source: Output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2010 (geographical distribution of domain names held by legal entities), INSEE statistics.The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistical data on the geographical location of legalentities (companies, associations, government agencies, etc.) holding .fr domain names, as well asthe associated penetration rates (domain names per 1,000 companies) and annual growth rates.Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entitiesThe AFNIC charter implies that corporations registering an .fr domain name must have their registeredoffice or a facility located in France, or hold a trademark in France, or hold an EU or internationaltrademark covering France. A large majority of corporate holders of .fr domain names are in factlocated in France (98%). Companies located abroad (holders of trademarks covering France) arelocated in 99 different countries, mostly in the European Union (74%) or in North America (17%).Only 9% of them are located in another region of the world.Germany is easily first in the table with over a third of the domain names registered by legal entitieslocated abroad. This advance could be related to the presence of a German domainer with a largeportfolio of domain names. Belgium continues to grow as in previous years (up 1.1 points over oneyear). Conversely, Denmark lost 1.5 points over the year. Distribution per country outside France of .fr domain names held by legal entities in July 2011 Other countries: 8.6% Spain: 2.4% Luxembourg 2.5% Italy: 2.8% Germany: 34.1% Switzerland: 4.5% Denmark: 4.6% (-1.5 point) Belgium: 5.7% (+1.1 point) Netherlands: 8.3% United Kingdom: 9.8% United States: 16.8% Figure 21 – Location of .fr domain names registered by legal entities located abroad
  • 53. 56 PART THREE: HOLDERSIn France, the average number of .fr domain names filed by corporations is approximately 11,700names per department against 10,000 in 2010, the median this year standing at 4,800 names.Here again there is a great range of variation among departments, from the highly industrialised(more than 18% of corporate name holders are located in Paris and 36% in the Greater Paris region)to the most rural (fewer than 0.1% in Creuse and in Lozère). The distribution of corporate bodiesby department is actually very similar to that for individuals. Three departments, however, appearin the bottom quartile for legal entities, but were not concerned by individual holders: Maine-et-Loire, Charente-Maritime and Loire, where the corporate market appears to be comparatively moredynamic than the market for individual holders. Conversely, the .fr market is more developed forindividual holders than legal entities in Pas-de-Calais and Gard.The Overseas Territories represent 1.4% of the .fr domain names held by legal entities. ReunionIsland comes in the top half of French departments for the number of .fr domain names registeredby corporate bodies, with more than 11,000 names. Martinique and Guadeloupe are next in theranking with around 2,500 domain names each.The top 10 departments for legal entities consist essentially of the same departments as forindividuals, but in a different order. Paris and Haute-Garonne are comparatively better placed onthe corporate market, while Val-de-Marne is best placed on the individual market.Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entitiesper 1,000 companiesThe maps below represent the number of corporate domain names per 1,000 legal entities,by department. The number of companies per department is based on the INSEE statistics forcommercial activities excluding agriculture as at 1 January 201023. This economic sector covers allactive businesses in industry, construction, commerce and services, but not organizations whosefunctioning is not funded by commercial activity (i.e. local, regional or national government, social/charitable organisations, non-profit associations, etc. ), nor agriculture, forestry or fisheries.The national average is 356 corporate names per 1,000 legal entities against 340 in 2010 (tobe compared with the average of 12 individuals’ names per 1,000 inhabitants). Once again, wefind large disparities between departments, the first (Haute-Garonne, with 823 names per 1,000firms) has nearly 15 times more than the last (Guadeloupe, with 52 names per 1,000 firms). Inaddition, several departments appear in the bottom quartile when they were not included in thegross number of domain names for corporations (Loiret, Côte-d’Or, Sarthe, Indre-et-Loire andDeux-Sèvres), where the corporate market is experiencing a significant upswing.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 54. PART THREE: HOLDERS 57 Numbers of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Metropolitan France) As at 1 July 2011 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 57 27 95 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 18 58 Number of 79 36 71 39 domains per 85 86 1000 companies 03 > 320 23 01 74 250 - 320 17 87 69 16 63 42 220 - 250 73 19 38 24 15 43 < 220 33 07 26 05 source 46 AFNIC 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 22 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Metropolitan France)
  • 55. 58 PART THREE: HOLDERSThe results for the Overseas Territories only cover the four departments with usable statistics oncompany numbers. Reunion Island is in the first half of French departments, with over 260 namesfor 1,000 companies. Numbers of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Overseas Territories) As at 1 July 2011 Number of domains per 1000 companies > 320 Reunion Island 250 - 320 Guadeloupe 220 - 250 < 220 source AFNIC Martinique Guyana Figure 23 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Overseas Territories)The list of top 10 departments for the number of corporate domain name registrations per 1,000firms is similar to that for the absolute number of such registrations, but there are three newdepartments (Sarthe, Bas-Rhin and Maine-et-Loire). Sarthe has also shot up in this indicator: thisyear it became the fourth department for the number of domain names per company, when itoccupied the 29th position last year. Haute-Garonne and Hauts-de-Seine rank higher than Parisin the classification for the number of domain names per 1,000 companies, for reasons that areperhaps different (there is a major "domainer" in Haute-Garonne, and in Hauts-de-Seine there aremany corporate headquarters that are potential holders of large portfolios of names).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 56. PART THREE: HOLDERS 59Growth rate over one yearThe figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registeredby corporate bodies. The national average growth for the year was 15%, relatively similar to the17% observed in 2010. Annual growth rate in the number of domain names registered by legal entities (Metropolitan France) As at 1 July 2011 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 57 27 95 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 18 58 Growth rate 79 36 71 39 per department 85 86 03 > 21% 23 01 74 18% - 21% 17 87 69 16 63 42 13.5% - 18% 73 19 38 24 15 43 < 13.5% 33 07 26 05 source 46 AFNIC 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 24 – Annual percentage increase in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities (Metropolitan France)
  • 57. 60 PART THREE: HOLDERSIn 2011, many departments or local authorities overseas showed annual growth rates higher than20%: Reunion Island, Mayotte and French Guiana. Annual growth rate in the number of domain names registered by legal entities (Overseas Territories) As at 1 July 2011 St Pierre and Miquelon Mayotte New Caledonia Growth rate per department > 21% 18% - 21% Guadeloupe Reunion Island 13.5% - 18% Wallis and Futuna < 13.5% source AFNIC French Polynesia Martinique Guyana Figure 25 – Annual percentage increase in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities (Overseas Territories)Among the highest annual growth rates in number of domain names held by corporations, Sartheundoubtedly occupies the lead position, after doubling of the number of domain names between2010 and 2011 (from 5,000 to around 10,000 names). It is followed by the departments with fewdomain names and are catching up (Lozere, Mayotte and Haute-Saône, and to a lesser extentMayenne, Landes and Aisne), but also by departments with more domain names and which aretherefore strengthening their position (Reunion Island, Oise and Puy de Dome).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 58. PART THREE: HOLDERS 61Chapter 9: Location of private individuals and legal entitiesholding .fr domain names■ Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 (geographical distribution of domain names held by private individuals and legal entities).The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the geographical location of .fr domain nameholders, whether they are private individuals or corporate bodies, and the corresponding annualgrowth rates.Total number of .fr domain names (private individuals and legal entities)The national average for the number of domain names registered per department including alltypes of holders is about 19,400 domain names against 16,600 in 2010. The median value isapproximately 9,000 domains per department. The disparities we found when looking at theindividuals’ and corporate bodies’ markets separately are naturally reflected in the entire market aswell: Paris comes top with some 350,000 domain names, while there are only 1,500 in Lozère andCreuse. The most dynamic departments on the global market are virtually the same as on the legalentity market, which remains the majority for the .fr extension.
  • 59. 62 PART THREE: HOLDERS Numbers of .fr domain names registered by individuals or legal entities (Metropolitan France) As at 1 July 2011 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 57 27 95 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 18 58 Number of domains 79 36 71 39 per department 85 86 03 > 18,000 23 01 74 9,000 – 18,000 17 87 69 16 63 42 4,000 – 9,000 73 19 38 24 15 43 < 4,000 33 07 26 05 source 46 AFNIC 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 26 – Total number of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France)The proportion of .fr domain names whose holders are located in the Overseas Territories was1.2%. Reunion Island is included the first half of French departments with a portfolio of nearly14,000 .fr domain names, which focuses more on the corporate market (which weighs 0.9%) thanthe individual market (0.3%). Guadeloupe and Martinique have about 4,000 and 4,500 .fr domainnames respectively, with very similar weights on the market for private individuals and for legalentities (around 0.2% of the total number in France).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 60. PART THREE: HOLDERS 63 Numbers of .fr domain names registered by individuals or legal entities (Overseas Territories) As at 1 July 2011 St Pierre and Miquelon Mayotte New Caledonia Number of domains per department > 18,000 9,000 – 18,000 Guadeloupe Reunion Island 4,000 – 9,000 Wallis and Futuna < 4,000 source AFNIC Martinique Guyana French Polynesia Figure 27 – Total number of .fr domain names (Overseas Territories)In the top 10 departments for the total number of .fr domain names, we find most of the departmentsthat already figured among the top 10 for corporate registrations, and in practically the same order.In 2011, Paris continued to concentrate almost 17% of French domain names and Île-de-Francehaving 36%, the phenomenon of concentration regressing, however, over the years (19% and 39%in 2007).If the number of .fr domain names registered in a French region is compared with the regional grossdomestic product, a strong correlation can be seen between these two indicators, the statisticalcorrelation index standing at 99.6%. The market dynamics for domain names, at least in terms ofthe national extension, therefore seems to be closely linked to the creation of economic wealth inthe regions. The French average is approximately 1.1 domain name per million euros of regionalGDP. Some regions hold slightly more .fr domain names compared with their domestic product(Midi-Pyrenees, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, and Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur), whilefor others the situation is the opposite (Haute-Normandy, Champagne-Ardenne, Picardie, andLimousin).
  • 61. 64 PART THREE: HOLDERSChanges over the last yearThe average annual growth in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals orlegal entities located in France stood at 16.4% in July 2011 (against 21% in 2010). This representsan intermediate value between the growth rate over one year for private individuals alone (18%) andfor legal entities (15%).Reunion and Mayotte are among the departments which have made the most progress over oneyear, with respective growth rates of 28% and 26%. Guyana also posted an annual growth abovethe national average (20%).The top 10 departments having made the most progress in the global market between 2010 and2011 include departments that have few domain names that are catching up (Mayotte and Lot, andto a lesser extent Mayenne, Landes and Hautes-Pyrénées), and other departments that have moredomain names and have consolidated their lead (Sarthe, Reunion, Dordogne and Puy de Dome).Location of .fr domain names per municipalityThe list of major French towns for the number of .fr domain names registered puts Paris well inthe lead with more than 350,000 names against 35,000 for the second, the city of Lyon. The top30 municipalities in terms of domain names are almost all among the top 100 municipalities ofFrance in terms of population (more than 50,000 inhabitants), with the exception of Blagnac whichoccupies the fourth position due to the presence of a domainer, and Suresnes, where a number oflarge groups have their head offices. The municipalities that have made the most progress over oneyear are Le Mans (155% annual growth) and Clermont-Ferrand (35%).In addition, there are major discrepancies in the distribution between private individuals and legalentities in the portfolios of domain names in these municipalities. The rate of private individualsis very low for Blagnac (2%) and to a lesser extent for Roubaix (18%). Conversely, the individualmarket for is proving to be highly dynamic in Toulouse and Nice, where approximately one is everytwo domains is held by an individual.The list of large cities abroad logically shows the metropolitan areas with the greatest economicactive in Europe (Brussels, Luxembourg, London, Rotterdam, Dusseldorf, Bonn, Berlin, Neuchâtel,Munich, Geneva, Monaco, and Barcelona) and in the United States (Los Angeles, New York). Butthere are also smaller municipalities, due to the presence of registrars (Starnberg in Germany,Wommelgem in Belgium, Conegliano in Italy) or probable domainers (Linden in Germany, Ribarrojain Spain, Da Nang in Vietnam). The town of Starnberg on its own focuses nearly 60% of all the .frdomain names registered in Germany.The percentage of domain names outside France belonging to private individuals is about 15%. It ismuch higher in a certain number of cities that have a large French community (Brussels, Neuchâtel,Geneva, Barcelona).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 62. PART THREE: HOLDERS 65Chapter 10: Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names■ Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 (dates of birth of individual holders), INSEE statistics.The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on individual holders of .fr domain names (theage pyramid and changes to same).Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain namesThis study uses the holders current age on 1 January. In addition, since the dates of birth areprovided by holders when registering their domain name, the AFNIC database contains a smallpercentage of outliers for ages (approximately 0.4%, from 56 to 120 years of age). Accordingly wehave removed from the study all the ages below 18 years (in keeping with the AFNIC policy whichrequire holders to be adults) and also (more arbitrarily) ages above 90 years.Certain values of the age pyramid seem to be over-represented: they probably correspond to thedefault values of the registrars’ software interfaces, which holders do not change (either deliberatelyor not) when they register their domain name. For instance, 40 years (year of birth: 1970), is anover-represented age, doubtless because 1 January 1970 is the start date for a certain number ofoperating systems (Unix).The mean age of name holders in 2011 was 38. The median age was 36: there are as many holdersaged under 36 as those aged over 36. The average age and the median age have both increasedby four to five months since 2010.A comparison of this age pyramid with that for the French population based on INSEE statistics(metropolitan France and Overseas departments) shows that historical events have had a similarimpact on both curves: the deficit of births during the Second World War, and the baby boomwhich followed from 1946 to 1973 (37 to 64 age groups). Earlier events (the First World War) do notshow up on the curve of name holders, as older people make less use of domain names.We also find a change in the statistics at about 48 or 49 years of age: cohorts of holders of.fr domain names below that age are proportionally larger than their counterparts in the populationat large, while the opposite applies to those above that age.
  • 63. 66 PART THREE: HOLDERS Comparison of age pyramids for individual holders of .fr domain names and the French population in 2011 (aged 18 to 90) 4.5 % More holders than individuals Less holders than individuals 4.0 % End of the baby boom Individual holders 3,5 % Holders of domain names or French population French population 3.0 % Percentage of sample 2.5 % Baby boom WWII 2.0 % 1.5 % 1.0 % 0.5 % 0% 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 Ages of people Figure 28 – Comparison of age pyramids for individual holders of .fr domain names, and the French populationThe mean was 9.7 domain names per 1,000 inhabitants for the whole population in 2011 (against 8.2in 2010), while the maximum is around 31 years with 20.8 names per 1,000 inhabitants (excludingoverestimated values). The curve rises quickly between the age of majority and this maximum, andthen declines steadily with the number of years.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 64. PART THREE: HOLDERS 67Changes in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain namesThe growth in the number of owners remained strong in 2011 (19.4%), although it has sloweddown over the last two years (24% in 2010 and 36% in 2009). Like last year, the median ageof the holders of .fr domain names rose five months over the year, from 36 to 36.4 years. Thisdevelopment, however, is largely due to the natural aging of the population of holders (up 12months). Excluding demographic factors, the trend continues to be negative (-7 months), indicatingthat the younger age groups are the key growth drivers for the extension. Change over one year in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names (aged 18 to 90) Demographic Non-demographic Overall Characteristic 2010 2011 change change change Number of persons 409,799 489,332 - 0.1% 19.5 % 19.4 % Median age 36.0 36.4 12 months -7 months 5 months Table 5 – Annual change in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain namesThe distribution of individual holders by age is gradually changing due to the natural aging ofthe population. For example, the 18-34 age group slight declined by one point between June2010 and June 2011, mainly to the benefit of the 50-65 age group (up 0.5 points) and over 65(up 0.4 point). The older age groups are slightly increasing each year, although they continue to beunder-represented (less than 19% of the holders are aged more than 50).Excluding demographic factors, the rate of growth in the number of domain names per age groupis higher than that for the average population (19.5%) from 19 to 28 years of age, and even reachesvery high values up to 24 years of age, with annual growth rates of more than 30%. Excludingdemographic factors, the growth rate remains slightly below the average for the population from 32to 57 years of age, and then decreases more sharply from age 58 onwards.
  • 65. PART FOURREGISTRARS
  • 66. 70 PART FOUR: REGISTRARSChapter 11: Registrars of .fr domain names■ Data source: Historical AFNIC data (changes in number of registrars since 1996) and data from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 (distribution of registrars per country and per French department).The purpose of chapter is to provide certain items of information about the registrars of .fr domainnames, including their number, changes over time and geographical distribution.Number of registrars of .fr domain namesThe number of service providers for the .fr extension continued to decline in 2011, as has beenthe case since 2006. At the end of June 2011, there were 770 registrars of .fr domain names in all.Over the last year, that number has fallen by approximately 30 providers, a drop of 4% (comparedwith a drop of 8% in 2010).The number of registrars grew very fast until the end of 2001; it then dropped for a few yearswhen the dotcom bubble burst. Since June 2006, when individuals began to be able to register .frnames, the market has restructured: some smaller registrars have become resellers for registrarswho handle larger portfolios of names, which has reduced the overall number of registrars. Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names since 1997 1,400 Creation Explosion of the .fr naming rights Opening of the .fr TLD of AFNIC Internet bubble abolished to individuals 1,200 1,154 1,106 1,057 1,076 1,051 1,047 1,039 1,031 1,026 1,031 1,018 1,001 992 985 1,000 962 960 952 890 874 814 802 807 758 770 800 Numbers of registrars 652 600 498 441 400 311 277 200 0 Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun Jun 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Months Figure 29 – Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain namesFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 67. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 71A breakdown of registrars by nationality reveals that this increase in concentration is among theFrench registrars; the number of foreign registrars has started to grow again this year. Comparedwith last year, there are 40 fewer registrars in France (-6%), while there are eight new ones abroad(+7%). The forthcoming opening of .fr domain names to the European Union could be an explanationfor this reversal in the number of foreign registrars, due to the expectation of some players tochange in their offer to include the French extension.Location of registrars of .fr domain namesThe figure below shows the breakdown of registrars by department. The national average is 6.1registrars per department (against 6.6 in 2010), and the median this year stands at three registrarsper department The map of registrars in France also shows a wide range of geographic disparities:the departments of the bottom quartile, each with more than six registrars, are those of the largestFrench cities (Paris and Ile-de-France, Lyon, Marseille, Grenoble, Lille, Montpellier, Nice, Rennes,Nantes, Strasbourg, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Mulhouse, Tours, and Orleans). With 121 serviceproviders, Paris alone has 19% of all registrars of .fr domain names, while the eight departments ofthe Greater Paris region account for 38% of them. At the other end of the scale, 20 departmentshave only one registrar, and 13 have none (Ardennes, Cher, Dordogne, Haute-Saône, Hautes-Alpes, Loir-et-Cher, Lot, Lozère, Nièvre; and overseas, Mayotte, New Caledonia, French Polynesiaand Wallis and Futuna).Since 2010, most departments have remained stable or have lost a limited number of providers.The largest decreases over the past year concern the two departments with highest number ofregistrars: Paris (-6) and Hauts-de-Seine (-10).
  • 68. 72 PART FOUR: REGISTRARS Location of registrars (Metropolitan France) As at 1 July 2011 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 57 27 95 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 18 58 Number of registrars 79 36 71 39 per department 85 86 03 >6 23 01 74 4-6 17 87 69 16 63 42 2 or 3 73 19 38 24 15 43 0 or 1 33 07 26 05 source 46 AFNIC 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 30 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France)French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 69. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 73Among the French registrars, approximately 2% are located overseas: there are six providers inReunion Island, 3 in Martinique and one in Guadeloupe, French Guyana, and Saint Pierre andMiquelon. Location of registrars (Overseas Territories) As at 1 July 2011 St Pierre and Miquelon New Caledonia Mayotte Number of registrars per department >6 4-6 2 or 3 Guadeloupe Reunion Island Wallis and Futuna 0 or 1 source AFNIC Martinique French Polynesia Guyana Figure 31 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Overseas Territories)Among the top ten departments in terms of registrar numbers, Paris heads the list with twice asmany registrars as the runner-up, Hauts-de-Seine. In addition to three other departments in theParis region (Yvelines, Val-de-Marne, and Seine-Saint-Denis), logically there are the departmentsof the most populated and most dynamic towns in terms of new technologies: Rhône, Bouches-du-Rhône, Isère, Nord and Hérault. These10 departments alone account for more than half of allFrench registrars.
  • 70. 74 PART FOUR: REGISTRARSAmong the registrars of .fr domain names, 16% are now located outside France (compared with14.5% last year). Nearly 70% of the foreign service providers reside in the European Union and9% are located in North America. Compared with 2010, three new countries now have a serviceprovider for the French extension: Spain, India and Japan. Location of registrars of .fr domain names outside France in July 2011 Other countries: 14 Germany: 26 Norway: 2 Sweden: 3 Canada: 3 Australia: 3 Monaco: 4 Luxembourg: 4 Belgium: 13 Denmark 5 Italy: 6 Netherlands: 12 United States: 8 Switzerland: 9 United Kingdom: 12 Figure 32 – Distribution of registrars of .fr domain names outside FranceFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 71. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 75Chapter 12: Services and prices offered by registrars■ Data source: Websites of the 30 top registrars of .fr domain names in terms of the numbers of names managed (checks carried out in September 2011).The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the services offered by the leading registrarsof .fr domain names, and the prices they charge. The details were collected in September 2011from the websites of the 30 registrars handling the largest numbers of .fr domain names.Since the study concerned the French market, we have excluded from the statistical calculationsthose registrars in the sample that do not have a version of their website in French. In addition,some providers do not have detailed information on their websites and therefore have also not beenincluded in the statistics (mainly on the corporate market). In all, the registrars included in the studymanage 79% of the domain names in the .fr zone, so it seems legitimate to consider the results asbeing relatively representative of the overall supply.It should also be noted that the database managed by AFNIC identifies registrars in charge of themanagement of .fr domain names, but none of the resellers who may be involved in the value chainas intermediaries to sell the names to end users. In this way, the results obtained only concern theoffers made direct to end-customers by AFNIC service providers, and none of the offers madeavailable through their respective reseller networks.Services offered by registrarsRegistrars’ offerings differ in many ways. Firstly, the number of domains available for registration isvery variable. Some of the service providers offer only a limited number: the main gTLDs .com/.net/.org/.biz/.info; the ccTLDs .fr and .re (Reunion Island) and the European domain .eu; also frequently.mobi (mobile devices), and other French language ccTLDs such as .be (Belgium). Other registrarshave a wider range, covering dozens of TLDs. Lastly, there are far fewer which claim to offerregistration under all of the available Top Level Domains (around 250).Nearly 30% of the providers reviewed include a web hosting service in their basic domain namepackage; the amount of space varies considerably in size (from 1 MB to 5 GB). Others offer hostingas an additional service at an extra charge. E-mail hosting is likewise often bundled with the basicpackage (by half the registrars; the space provided ranges from 100 MB to 25 GB). Most offers alsoinclude Web and e-mail redirection services in connection with the registered domain name. On theother hand, security services associated with an e-mail address (anti-virus and anti-spam) appearto be included in only 40% of the basic packages.
  • 72. 76 PART FOUR: REGISTRARSAmong the other services present in the core and / or complementary offerings, some primarilyaddress individuals or small businesses, such as the availability of tools for creating websites,or anonymous Whois services allowing clients not to reveal their personal details in the Whoisextensions directory (a default feature for individuals in the .fr namespace). Other services aremore for professionals and large accounts: e-commerce features (online payment), SEO, portfoliomanagement (name audit and background check before registration, monitoring and surveillanceafter registration, legal services and recovery in case of cybersquatting, etc.). Security services arealso sometimes offered as an option (SSL, Anycast DNS servers).Rates charged by registrarsThe rate included in this study is the cost of renewal of a domain name for one year, excludingadditional services, discounts or temporary promotional operations. It should also be pointed outthat corporate customers will tend, through commercial negotiations for bulk purchase, to getbetter terms than those publicly displayed on the registrars’ websites.The figure below shows the range of annual fees charged in September 2011 by the registrarsstudied for .fr domain names. As with services provided, there is a very wide range of fees charged:from about €5 to about €70+VAT. The mean for the sample of the main registrars was still €12 plusVAT, which means there are as many offers less expensive than €12 as there are more expensivethan €12. In addition, the weighted average market share of registrars this year is also equal to €12:it has been steadily declining for three years (€-0.80 in the previous year, on a like-for-like basis).Compared with the 2010 study, the rates charged by providers have remained stable in most cases(82%), but were down in 12% of the providers, and up in only 6% of them.This diversity of fees applied can be explained by the market segments these offers address (e.g. massmarket, SMEs, micro-businesses, corporations, domain name resellers) and by the added-valueservices that are sometimes offered in a package with the domain name, such as technical services(e.g. web hosting, e-mail accounts, etc.), legal services (e.g. background checks, surveillance,name recovery, legal assistance, etc.) and marketing services (search engine optimisation, etc.).In addition, two-thirds of the registrars studied offered volume discounts for longer registrationperiods and/or the number of names purchased, particularly in the case of domain name resellers.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 73. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 77 Pricing of .fr domain names in September 2011 per registrar (Study of the top 30 registrars in the number of .fr domain names managed) 4.99 € 5.99 € 6.90 € Median price: 12 € excl. VAT in 2011 6.99 € (stable over the year on a like-for-like basis) 6.99 € 8.99 € Average price: 21.70 € excl. VAT in 2011 (-0.35 € over the year on a like-for-like basis) 12.00 € 12.00 € Average weighted rate per registrar market share: Registrars 12.00 € 12 € excl. VAT in 2011 12.00 € (-0.80 € over the year on a like-for-like basis) 14.40 € 18.00 € 23.90 € 28.00 € 29.00 € 59.40 € 60.00 € 69.00 € 0€ 10 € 20 € 30 € 40 € 50 € 60 € 70 € 80 € Annual renewal fee in euros excl. VAT for the registrar (basic offer) Figure 33 – Charges for .fr domain namesThe median rates are now identical for all the extensions in the study, on the basis of€12 per year, with the exception of the .eu TLD which continues to be a little more expensive(€13.20 / year). Most providers align their rates on those for the most common extensions, amongother reasons, to make their offer clear. This means the rates for the .fr TLD are identical to thoseof the .com extension in 67% of the offers studied (corresponding to 80% of the domain namesunder management); they are lower in 22% of the cases (18% of the domain names) and higher for11% of the service providers included in the study (managing only 2% of all the .fr domain namesin the sample).
  • 74. 78 PART FOUR: REGISTRARSChapter 13: Analysis of the registrar market■ Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2010 (number of domain names per holder type and per registrar), ICANN and WebHosting.Info (ICANN-accredited registrars).This chapter analyses the market for registrars for the .fr ccTLD and for gTLDS, using variouseconometric parameters (the HHI and CR indices).Market for registrars of .fr domain namesIn July 2011, among the 725 registrars of domain names .fr managing at least one domain, almostall of them (713) manage domain names registered by corporate bodies, while only 518 of themmanage names registered by individuals. However, the number of registrars offering names toindividuals was slightly up over the year (+2%), while it continued to fall in the corporate market(5%).– Market for individualsThe average number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per registrar is approximately1,570 (against 1,350 in 2010), but with considerable discrepancies between the various registrars.While some 30 registrars manage portfolios with over 1,000 names, nearly half of the registrarsmanage fewer than 10 names. The individuals’ market, then, features a long tail of very smallregistrars, alongside a few key players. Like last year, the number of registrars managing less than10 domains fell however (by 4 points over one year), to the benefit of those managing between 10and 100 domains (up 3 points).The following table indicates the value of the concentration indices for the private individual market.The indices of the "CRi" type (Concentration Ratio) represent the cumulative market share of the "i"top players in the market. The main player represents more than 34% of the overall market (CR1),the first four holding nearly three-quarters of the market (CR4) and the top ten having a marketshare approaching 90% (CR10).Changes in these ratios over the last year show that the market share held by the top four andtop ten players has grown less than that of the top registrar (+2 percentage points): this year,once again, the concentration in the private individual market has therefore basically benefitted themarket leader at the expense of its direct competitors.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 75. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 79The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is calculated as the sum of the squares of the market sharesof all the players involved. It can range from 0 (very competitive market) to 1 (a monopoly), and isused by the competition authorities to study the potential consequences of mergers and takeovers.In 2011, the HHI is close to 0.2 on the individual market, compared with 0.19 last year: this thereforeshows the market remains in the "concentrated" state and the trend towards concentration iscontinuing. This phenomenon has existed for several years, the index having gradually increasedfrom 0.13 in 2007 to 0.2 four years later. Market for the .fr extension in 2011 - Individuals Parameter 2011 2010 Change Number of registrars 518 507 2% Number of domain names 814,306 685,075 19% Ave. number of domain names par registrar 1,572 1,351 16% Concentration index 2011 2010 Change CR1 34.2% 32.0% 2.1 CR4 74.7% 73.9% 0.9 CR10 88.1% 88.2% -0.1 HHI 0.198 0.187 0.010 The market for individual holders remained "concentrated" (HHI ≥ 0.18) and continued to concentrate in 2011 Table 6 – Concentration indices for the market for .fr domain names registered by private individuals– Corporate marketWith regard to the corporate market, the characteristics of the distribution of registrars in relation tothe number of domain names managed are very different from those of the private individual market:the market share held by very small players (fewer than 10 names) is a minority, representing only12% of the registrars (compared with 47% on the individual market). Conversely, over a third of theservice providers manage between 100 and 1000 names (against 10% for individuals). Over oneyear, the market share of these service providers with 100 to 1000 domains has grown the most(up 2 points) at the expense of portfolios with between 10 and 100 names (-2 points).The concentration indices show that the corporate market is considerably less concentrated thanthat for private individuals. The "Concentration Ratio" indices are all lower: CR1 is 26% as against34%, CR4 is 51% against 75%, and CR10 is 70% against 88%. Similarly, the HHI for the corporatemarket stands at 0.01, against 0.2 in the private individual market. However, the market for legalentities is also becoming more concentrated over time, and this year reached the "moderatelyconcentrated" level (HHI of about 0.1).
  • 76. 80 PART FOUR: REGISTRARSIt also worth noting that the top registrar gained 1.9 percentage points over the year, representingmost of the gains in market share realised by the top four or the top ten players (between 2.1and 2.2 percentage points). The process of concentration is therefore mainly of benefit to themarket leader, with the following players more or less keeping their market share over the year. Thisphenomenon is less marked than on the private individual market, where the competitors of theleading service provider lost market share to its sole benefit. Market for the .fr extension in 2011 – Legal entities Parameter 2011 2010 Change Number of registrars 713 754 -5% Number of domain names 1,249,224 1,084,053 15% Ave. nb of domain names per registrar 1,752 1,438 22% Concentration index 2011 2010 Change CR1 26.2% 24.3% 1.9 CR4 50.8% 48.6% 2.2 CR10 69.9% 67.8% 2.1 HHI 0.099 0.089 0.011 The legal entity market is becoming concentrated and reached the concentrated threshold in 2011 (HHI ≈ 0.1) Table 7 – Concentration indices for the market for .fr domain names registered by legal entitiesFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 77. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 81– Overall market (private individuals and legal entities)The distribution of the registrars in relation to the number of domain names managed (includingprivate individuals and legal entities) is similar to that for the corporate market alone. The serviceproviders managing 100 to 1000 domains are growing year on year (+2 points) at the expense ofportfolios from 10 to 100 names (-2 points), reflecting the overall growth of the .fr extension. Ranking of registrars in terms of the number of .fr domain names managed in July 2011 (individuals and legal entities) From 1 to 9 domains: 73 registrars 1,000 domains and more: 89 registrars 10 % 12 % In July 2011: 725 registrars managed 2,065,000 domain names From 100 to 999 domains 282 registrars: 39% From 10 to 99 domains: 281 registrars 39 % Figure 34 – Ranking of registrars in relation to the total number of .fr domain namesThe concentration indices for the overall market show intermediate values between those forthe individual market (concentrated), and the corporate market (moderately concentrated) whenconsidered separately. However, they are closer to the corporate market, the majority of Frenchdomain names being held by legal entities. The changes in the HHI indicate that the overall marketremained moderately concentrated in 2011, while continuing its trend towards concentration (upfrom 0.12 to 0.13 over one year).The leading registrar has gained about two points on the global market since last year, i.e. morethan the gains of the top four and top ten players taken together. Growth in market share of theleading provider seems to be to the detriment of the following players, as was the case in themarket for individuals alone.
  • 78. 82 PART FOUR: REGISTRARS Global market share of the .fr extension in 2011 Parameter 2011 2010 Change Number of registrars 725 765 -5% Number of domain names 2,063,530 1,769,128 17% Ave. nb of domain names per registrar 2,846 2,313 23% Concentration index 2011 2010 Change CR1 29.4% 27.3% 2.0 CR4 59.9% 58.3% 1.6 CR10 74.6% 73.6% 1.1 HHI 0.129 0.118 0.011 The global market is becoming more concentrated and was "moderately concentrated" in 2011 (HHI between 0.1 and 0.18) Table 8 – Concentration indices for the overall market for .fr domain names (private individuals and legal entities included)The figure below shows the 30 largest registrars of .fr domain names ranked by numbers of namesmanaged, including both the individual and corporate markets. It can be seen that most of thetop registrars by volume are active in the individual market, with ratios of around 40% or higher.Conversely, a dozen providers among the top 30 have almost entirely invested in the corporatemarket (less than 10% of the individual market).Growth rates over one year were highly variable: some players posted above-average increasesfor the extension (17%) and even reaching 51%, while others saw their portfolios slightly decline.Yellow Pages again was ranked three places higher in 2011 after having gaining two places last year,reflecting the new offer to create and host web sites launched in late 2009 for small businesses.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 79. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 83 Top 30 registrars in terms of the number of .fr domain names managed in July 2011 OVH 605,826 1&1 317,737 Gandi 231,629 Amen 80,842 Online 71,684 PagesJaunes 53,192 NordNet 52,981 Namebay 48,727 EuroDNS 43,249 France Télécom 34,008 INDOM 31,745 LWS 28,991 ELB Multimedia 20,435 Melbourne IT 20,050 Key-Systems 15,885 Ascio 15,796 Web Intelligence 15,044 Cronon 14,850 Viaduc 13,043 Nameshield 12,963 Mailclub 12,535 Linkeo 12,280 Tucows 11,162 AB Connect 10,001 SFR 7,896 NFrance Conseil 6,814 CSC 6,682 Arsys 6,509 MarkMonitor 6,292 InterNetX 6,140 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 Number of domain names managed Figure 35 – Main registrars ranked by the overall number of .fr domain namesChanges in the market for registrars of .fr domain names– Changes in the stock of domain names managedThe concentration indices (CR1, CR4, CR10 and HHI) all showed a peak at the end of 2000, whichseems to have been related to a promotion for the sub-domain ".nom.fr" in December of that year(domain names offered free of charge for one year). The biggest market players would appear tohave reaped most of the rewards of this promotion, for their market shares rose and with them –as a direct consequence – the concentration of the overall market. Mechanisms such as mergersand takeovers among market operators may also have been involved. A considerable proportion ofthe "free" names were not renewed afterwards, causing the various concentration indices to returntowards their normal levels.The market then gradually concentrated until the end of 2003. The greater flexibility of the namingcharter in May 2004 (ending the "right to the name") immediately triggered a process of marketde-concentration. Conversely, a process of re-concentration can be observed when the .fr extensionwas opened to individuals in June 2006: the process was due to the arrival of new registrars in themarket, selling to the general public and handling increasingly large portfolios of names.The indices have not stopped rising since then: we are now seeing levels of concentration similar tothose observed during the late 2000 peak, but with other registrars in play. Those registrars whichhad the majority of the market at the start of the decade have been caught up by newcomers whohave become active in this market much more recently, especially in the individuals segment afterthe .fr domain became available to individuals in 2006.
  • 80. 84 PART FOUR: REGISTRARS– Developments in the registration of new domain namesThe graph below shows a comparison of changes in the HHI concentration indices of the stock of.fr domain names and of new names registered each month. The snapshot concentration figure isdistinctly higher for new name registrations that for total name numbers, meaning that the overallmarket is steadily becoming more concentrated month by month. If the market in terms of thestock of domain names switched in the summer of 2009 to the "moderately concentrated" state,for the past year it has oscillated between the "moderately concentrated" and "concentrated"states in terms of creating new names.Also worth noting is the high volatility of the HHI on the creation of names linked to the large-scalepromotional operations that temporarily modify the distribution of registrations of new domainsbetween the main market players. The change in the HHI on the stock has been little affected bythese one-off events and continues to be much more stable over time. Change in HHI concentration indices on the stock of .fr domain names and the monthly creation of .fr domain names 0,24 Concentrated market 0,22 Value of HHI index (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index) 0,20 HHI on creations of domain names 0,18 Moderately concentrated mkt 0,16 0,14 HHI on the stock of domain names 0,12 0,10 Non-concentrated 0,08 mkt 0,06 Jun 2008 Sep 2008 Dec 2008 Mar 2009 Jun 2009 Sep 2009 Dec 2009 Mar 2010 Jun 2010 Sep 2010 Dec 2010 Mar 2011 Jun 2011 Months Figure 36 – Changes in concentration indices for the registration market of .fr domain names in terms of the stock of names managed, and new names registeredAs far as the monthly registration of new domain names is concerned, the top player stands outfrom the crowd by maintaining its fairly steady market share of 35% since late 2008. The next twoare around 15% each, and other competitors do not exceed the 5% mark. The direct result isconcentration mainly to the benefit of the market leader.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 81. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 85The market for ICANN-accredited registrarsThe rest of this chapter is devoted to ICANN-accredited registrars. This study is based on ICANNpublic data24, as well as the statistics published by WebHosting.Info25.There were 984 ICANN-accredited registrars as at 31 July 2011. From less than 400 in late 2004,this number rose sharply in 2005 and 2006 before taking a more moderate pace. After a slightdecline in 2009, it has restarted to grow since 2010 (up 2% between July 2010 and July 2011).The graph below shows the distribution of ICANN-accredited registrars by country. North Americatakes the lion’s share with 70% of registrars, nearly 55% of them in the United States alone. Franceties for fifth place, with 18 accredited registrars or 1.8% of all the service providers in the world.With two additional French accredited registrars, the country has gained two places comparedwith 2010. In one year, the United States declined one point, unlike Canada and China, whichincreased as a percentage. Three new countries now have an accredited registrar: Barbados,Honduras and Morocco. There are ICANN-accredited registrars in 65 countries. Distribution of ICANN-accredited registrars per country in August 2011 Other countries: 124; 13% France: 1.8% Spain: 13; 1% of ICANN accredited Japan: 14; 1% registrars in 2011 Australia: 16; 2% (against 1.6% in 2010) United Kingdom: 18; 2% South Korea: 18; 2% India: 18; 2% France: 18; 2% Germany: 23; 2% China: 26; 3% United States: 545; 55% Canada: 151; 15% Figure 37 – Country breakdown of ICANN-accredited registrarsThe distribution of generic domain names in relation to the country of registrar once more showsthe United States well in the lead, with nearly 64% of the names. This figure has even risen twopoints over one year after falling in 2009 and 2010. Among the top ten ICANN-accredited registrarsin terms of the number of domains registered, six are in fact American. The proportion of genericnames managed in France is roughly 1.9% of the total of such names, slightly up over the last year(+0.1% since 2010). Conversely Australia lost ground over the past year (-1.2 point).
  • 82. 86 PART FOUR: REGISTRARS Distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar in August 2011 (according to WebHosting.Info, .com / .net / .org / .biz / .info) Other countries: 6.1% Japan: 1.2% French registrars: France: 1.9% 1.9% of generic domains India: 2.5% in 2011 (against 1.8% in 2010 China: 3.9% and 1.4% in 2008) Australia: 4.6% Canada: 7.7% Germany: 8.5% United States: 63.6% (+2 in one year) Figure 38 – Distribution of generic domain names per country of registrarThe Go Daddy company is largely in the lead with roughly one third of the global market, far aheadof eNom, Tucows, Network Solutions and 1&1 (which each held a market share ranging from 4%to 9%). Go Daddy even gained 2.4 points this year: the American registrar has seen steady growthfor several years (up from an 18% market share in 2007 to 32% in 2011). Its closest competitors,eNom, progressed over one year by 0.6% while Tucows and 1&1 have grown to a lesser extent; incontrast, Melbourne IT and Network Solutions declined compared with 2010.There is a small minority (2%) of ICANN-accredited registrars managing portfolios with more than amillion names, up to 40 million for Go Daddy. In contrast, almost half of the providers in the worldhave less than 1,000 names each (46%).The concentration indices indicate that the world market leader in generic domains (Go Daddy)is a little more powerful than the market leader in the .fr domain (the CR1 is 32%, compared with29%). The other indices, however, are lower on the global market, which appears to be a slightlyless concentrated than the .fr market except for the top player (CR4 of 53% against 60%, CR10 of69% against 75% and HHI of 0.125 against 0.129). The global market for generic extensions is stillin the process of concentration and its status is now "moderately concentrated".Unlike last year, the progress of the leader over the year was slightly higher for the generic extensionsthan for the .fr TLD (up 2.4 points against +2 points). In addition, the CR4 index increased more inone year that the CR1 index on the generic extension market, indicating that some challengers arealso making progress. This was not the case for the French extension market.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 83. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 87With an HHI of 0.125 in 2010, the international market for generic names remains slightly lessconcentrated than the .fr market (HHI of 0.129). This may be due to the formation of local marketsbased on the cultures, languages, and legal conditions specific to each country, making it moredifficult for the major players to obtain complete coverage of the global market compared with the.fr market, which is much more homogeneous in cultural, linguistic and legal terms. The difference,however, between the global and French concentration indices decreased over the year. World market for generic extensions (according to WebHosting.Info) Parameter 2011 2010 Change Number of registrars 880 883 0% Number of domain names 124,783,275 120,821,830 3% Nb of domain names per registrar 141,799 136,831 4% Concentration index 2011 2010 Change CR1 32.3% 29.8% 2.4 CR4 52.7% 49.7% 2.9 CR10 69.1% 66.9% 2.1 HHI 0.125 0.110 0.016 The global market for generic extensions is becoming concentrated but in 2011 remained "moderately concentrated" (HHI < 0.18) Table 9 – Concentration indices for the world market in generic domain namesAmong the French ICANN-accredited registrars, four managed more than 100,000 generic domainsand three others managed from 10,000 to 100,000 domains in August 2011. OVH passed theone million milestone of generic names managed in 2010, and this year holds 17th position in theranking of ICANN accredited registrars with nearly 1% of the generic domains worldwide. Mailclubrose in one year from over 1,000 to over 5,000 generic domains under management. It should benoted, however, that these numbers are difficult to interpret because of sub-contracting activities:registrars can hold domain names as sub-contractors for another accredited provider, in whichcase the names are taken into account in the ICANN statistics for the initial service provider andnot for the reseller.
  • 84. 88 PART FOUR: REGISTRARSChapter 14: Analysis of the secondary market■ Data source: DN Journal.com, Sedo (annual report for 2010, quarterly report for Q2-2011, and website).The purpose of this chapter is to review the secondary market in domain names, focusing inparticular on the .fr domain (numbers traded and prices charged).The secondary domain name market worldwide (DN Journal.com)The DNJournal.com website publishes a list of major transactions on the secondary market on allthe existing marketplaces26. The "social.com" domain name attained the highest price in the firsthalf of 2011, selling for $2.6 million. Another name also reached the one-million dollar mark overthat period ("domainname.com"). Among the extensions in the top 100, the .com gTLD is still wellahead with 88 names (11 more compared with 2010). Only six transactions involved domains witha national extension.The extreme trading prices saw a sharp decline compared with last year: the highest sale pricedropped 50% and the average for the top 100 names dropped one third over the year ($160,000approx.)As in previous years, the German and UK extensions were the most frequently represented in thetop 100 most expensive national domain names traded between January and August 2011, with atotal of twenty national extensions. The extension marketed as .co, corresponding to Colombia butsold very broadly, underwent strong growth this year with twelve sales in the top 100 against threefor the same period in 2010. The ranking also includes three domains under the French extension"tada.fr" (€20,000), "pari.fr" (€13,500) and "perles.fr" (€12,500). Finally, three InternationalizedDomain Names (IDN) are included with German and Norwegian characters ("großhandel.de","gärtnerei.de", "klær.no"). The finance sector ("aktien.de", "deals.com.au", "finance.co","market.de") and games sector ("sportsbetting.in", "poker.org.uk") continue to be well representedamong the transactions.The extreme trading prices for national extensions also dropped this year after rising in 2010: -15%for the record sale and -40% for the average of the top 100 in one year.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 85. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 89 The most expensive national domain names sold between 1 January and 29 August 2011 (public transactions, source: DN Journal) deals.com.au; 100,000 $ aktien.de; 725,000 $ business.co; 80,000 $ t.ag; 60,000 $ fr.cc; 50,000 $ namibia.de; 49,700 $ tuttoauto.it; 45,360 $ Median price in the top 100 finance.co; 45,000 $ 20,000 $ market.de; 42,600 $ (-19% in one year) Domain name sold sportsbetting.in; 42,300 $ Extensions in the top 100 poker.org.uk; 41,000 $ .de (24 domains) 2.de; 40,310 $ .uk (13 domains) internet.co; 40,000 $ .co (12 domains) weltreise.de; 39,600 $ .au (6 domains) coffeetables.co.uk; 37,500 $ .es, .eu, .it, .me, .tv (4 domains) diningtables.co.uk; 37,500 $ .ca, .fr, .in (3 domains) golfholidays.co.uk; 36,675 $ .cc, .us (2 domains) .ag, .at, .be, .ch, .gr, .ly, .nl, .no, .pl, .ru, .se, .za (1 domain) lista.pl; 35,733 $ nordgold.eu; 34,250 $ electricity.com.au; 34,000 $ 0$ 100,000 $ 200,000 $ 300,000 $ 400,000 $ 500,000 $ 600,000 $ 700,000 $ 800,000 $ Sale price (in US dollars) Figure 39 – The most expensive country-code domain names sold on the secondary marketThe ranking of the top 100 sales for generic extensions excluding the .com gTLD placed .net by farin the lead (52,100 transactions), followed by the .org TLD (33 domains). The extensions .info, .biz,.asia and .pro lag far behind.The secondary domain name market worldwide (Sedo)We show here some figures published by Sedo in its annual study of the secondary domain namesmarket in 2010 and in its report for Q2 201127. These figures only cover domain names traded in thesecondary market through the Sedo platform: there are no overall statistics for the entire market.Sedo is however one of the main players in the worldwide secondary market for domain names.The secondary market for domain names posted strong growth in 2010 on the Sedo platform afterthe slowdown observed last year. The number of transactions increased by 12% against 5% in2009, standing at around 43,500 domain names. Average prices increased by 23% all extensionscombined, so that the financial volumes of trading leapt 39% over the year (against only 3% in2009) to reach a total of 76 million transactions.
  • 86. 90 PART FOUR: REGISTRARSThe .com domain accounts for 61% of the domain names sold on Sedo, followed by .de (Germany)with 10% of the market share. There was less trading on the other extensions (less than 5%). TheFrench extension represented 2% of the total value of Sedo transactions in 2010 with over 1.8million euros and very high annual growth (up 65% after +30% in 2009). Volume of transactions on the Sedo platform by extension in 2010 (source: Sedo) .com ; € 46,157,952 .de ; € 7,789,621 .net ; € 3,563,334 .org ; € 3,217,736 .uk ; € 3,069,804 Extension .fr ; € 1,848,368 In 2010: .eu ; € 1,591,446 76 million euros of transactions on Sedo (+39% in one year) .info ; € 740,775 On the .fr : 1.8 million euros .es ; € 498 549 (+65% in one year) .at ; € 291,172 .biz ; € 242,244 0€ 10,000,000 € 20,000,000 € 30,000,000 € 40,000,000 € 50,000,000 € Volume of transactions per extension (in euros) Figure 40 – Volume of trading on Sedo by domainIn terms of average prices, the French extension remained the most expensive in 2010 as in 2008and 2009, with an average price of nearly €5,000 against €3,000 the previous year. This sharpincrease is largely due to a special sale conducted in January 2010 under the French extension(when "credit.fr" was sold for €587,500). The .com extension was also the subject of a recordtransaction in November of that year, when "sex.com" sold for $13 million. All extensions takentogether, the average price of trading on the Sedo platform in 2010 stood at €1,750 per domain.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 87. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 91 Average price of domain names sold on the Sedo platform per extension in 2010 (source: Sedo) .fr ; 4,916 € .com ; 2,387 € .org ; 1,678 € .uk ; 1,497 € .net ; 1,214 € Extension .de ; 1,135 € In 2010: .es ; 1,056 € Average sale price on Sedo of €1,750 (+23% in one year) .at ; 749 € On the .fr : 4,900 euros .biz ; 664 € (+66% in one year) .info ; 595 € .eu ; 524 € 0€ 1,000 € 2,000 € 3,000 € 4,000 € 5,000 € 6,000 € Average price per extension (in euros) Figure 41 – Average price of domain names sold on Sedo, by extensionQuarter after quarter, the .fr extension is leading the major generic and national TLDs in terms of theaverage price of transactions on Sedo; only the .com gTLDs occasionally reached an equivalentlevel. Between the second quarter of 2010 and of 2011, the average price for the French extensionoscillated between €1800 and €2500, with peaks in Q3 2010 (€3800) and in Q4 2010 (nearly€6,000) for a few large sales ("albumphoto.fr", "europoker.fr", "everest.fr", and "microcredit.fr").Although mean price figures can be distorted by a few transactions at record prices, median pricesare more reliable indicators of behaviour in ordinary sales. During Q2 2011, the median price atwhich .fr domain names changed hands was around $1500, much higher than the medians for theother domains (the .com followed with a median price of $700). The median price for the Frenchextension jumped 60% year on year, while those for other extensions posted more limited growth(37% for the .com).
  • 88. 92 PART FOUR: REGISTRARS Median price of domain names sold on the Sedo platform in the second quarter of 2011 per extension (source: Sedo) .fr ; 1,445 $ .com ; 700 $ .net ; 600 $ .org ; 550 $ Extension .co ; 525 $ .info ; 496 $ .biz ; 429 $ .me ; 219 $ 0$ 200 $ 400 $ 600 $ 800 $ 1,000 $ 1,200 $ 1,400 $ 1,600 $ Median price per extension (in US dollars) Figure 42 –Median prices of domain names sold on Sedo by extensionThese figures underline the vitality of the secondary market which has taken off fast since 2008,especially for the .fr domain. This is perhaps due to the French TLD catching up somewhat withother extensions, a higher proportion of the interesting names having changing hands ever since, aphenomenon detected earlier for domains such as .com or .de. Another explanation, which doesnot exclude the first, could be that French users have become more mature in their perception ofthe intrinsic value of .fr domain names, and are therefore willing to pay more to acquire them.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 89. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 93Secondary market for .fr domain names (Sedo)The following statistics only cover public trading in .fr domain names on the Sedo platform, not theconfidential transactions.The annual number of transactions on Sedo for .fr domain names saw strong growth between2007 and 2009 (tripling in 2008, +35% in 2009). It then stabilized in 2010 to 337 transactions peryear (-3%), even though the sale price and therefore the total financial volume continued to growstrongly. Change in the monthly number of transactions involving .fr domain names performed on the Sedo platform since 2004 (according to Sedo, excluding confidential transactions) 70 2011 2010 (30/06) 337 transactions 141 tr. 60 2009 348 transactions 50 Monthly number of transactions 2008 258 transactions 40 30 2007 89 transactions 20 2005 2006 26 transactions 31 transactions 10 2004 11 tr. 0 Jun Dec Jun Dec Jun Dec Jun Dec Jun Dec Jun Dec Jun Dec Jun 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 Months Figure 43 – Monthly figures for transactions in .fr domain names on SedoIn terms of trading volume on the secondary market, the French extension also posted continuedgrowth from 2004 (€10,000) to 2010 (over 1.1 million euros). The outstanding figure reached in2010 (+43% year on year), however, was largely related to the record sale of "credit.fr" in January,the total amount of transactions should return to lower values for 2011.The average rates prevailing on the .fr second market jumped between 2009 and 2010 from €2,300to approximately €3,300 per domain name because of the sale of "credit.fr". They should reach amore reasonable value in 2011: over the first half of the year, the average price for .fr domain namesexchanged stood at €2,000.
  • 90. 94 PART FOUR: REGISTRARSThe median sales price on Sedo between January and June 2011 stood at €1,000 for the .fr TLD,up sharply (it stood at €600 for 2010). If 9% of the names exceeded €5,000, a majority were soldat more affordable prices: 45% of them traded for less than €1,000 and 46% between €1,000and €5,000. Compared with the same period the previous year, small transactions made public,however, declined sharply (from 25% to 6% of trading for sales less than €500) in favour of moreexpensive transactions, primarily those between €1,000 and €5,000 (which rose 12 points overthe year). If we consider all the transactions including those that have not been made public, thedecline in sales below €500 is smaller, of about 5 points. Transaction prices for .fr domain names performed on the Sedo platform between January and June 2011 in Euros (source: Sedo, excluding confidential transactions) €5,000 and more Less than €500 13 transactions 8 transactions 9% 6% From January to June 2011: 141 transactions Average price: €1,967 (against €3,344 in 2010 as the result of one exceptional sale) Median price of €1,000 (against €600 in 2010) From €500 to €999 55 transactions 39 % From €1,000 to €4,999 65 transactions 46 % Figure 44 – Prices of .fr domain names sold on SedoFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 91. PART FOUR: REGISTRARS 95Among the most expensive transactions made on the Sedo platform in the first half of 2011 underthe .fr TLD, we find once again the terms related to online games ("pari.fr", "gamer.fr", "joueur. fr"). The most expensive transactions involving .fr domain names performed on the Sedo platform between January and June 2011 (source: Sedo, excluding confidential transactions) tada.fr ; 20,000 € pari.fr ; 13,500 € perles.fr ; 12,500 € horizon.fr ; 10,000 € cartouches.fr ; 9,900 € zynga.fr ; 7,500 € colorier.fr ; 6,500 € gamer.fr ; 6,500 € lookbook.fr ; 6,000 € Domain names sold maillotdebain.fr ; 6,000 € ligue.fr ; 5,500 € joueur.fr ; 5,100 € creditentreprise.fr ; 5,000 € erv.fr ; 4,500 € poeleabois.fr ; 4,000 € testdepaternite.fr ; 3,750 € cartedevoeux.fr ; 3,500 € jetravaille.fr ; 3,500 € halal.fr ; 3,350 € glo.fr ; 3,323 € 0€ 5,000 € 10,000 € 15,000 € 20,000 € 25,000 € Sale price (in euros) Figure 45 – The most expensive .fr domain names sold on SedoThe breakdown by category of .fr domain names for sale on the Sedo marketplace in September2011 once again shows that names for the Business-Economy, IT, Leisure, and Shopping sectorstook the lead. Nearly 14,000 names were on sale in the Business-Economy category, comparedwith only some 3,000 ranked as Adult.
  • 92. PART FIVETECHNOLOGIES
  • 93. 98 PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIESChapter 15: DNS Servers■ Data source: output from the AFNIC database 1 July 2011 (number of domains per server and number of servers per domain), operating statistics for authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC (monitoring data and traffic analysis via the DNSwitness software platform).The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the DNS servers that appear in the registrationsof .fr domain names (number of servers per domain name, number of domain names per server,and characteristics of servers), as well as data (number and type) on the requests received by theauthoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC.In July 2011, the AFNIC database contained 47,946 separate DNS servers, i.e. 12% more than ayear earlier. This increase is slightly lower than the year’s growth in the number of .fr domain names(+17%). Specifically, the AFNIC database contained more than 12,000 new servers, while 7,000had been withdrawn in relation to the figures for July 2010.Number of DNS servers per .fr domain nameThe distribution of the number of DNS servers associated with .fr domain names shows that a verygreat majority of the names (more than 83%) only specify two DNS servers - the minimum required– in their configuration. Some names specify three servers (14%), but configurations offering greaterredundancy are much rarer. These figures have changed little since 2010. The maximum number ofservers is 8, and the mean once again this year is 2.2 servers per name.Number of .fr domain names per DNS serverNearly half of the DNS servers found in the AFNIC database only support a single .fr domain(representing some 23,500 servers) and approximately 13% manage two. At the other end of thescale, 15% of the DNS servers handle more than ten names: in particular these include registrars’servers which their customers’ domain names point to by default. In 2011, five servers evenmanaged portfolios with more than 100,000 .fr domain names.In the year, as last year the proportion of servers hosting a single zone grew (+0.5 point), whilethat for the servers hosting the most zones dropped once again (-0.4 point). Among the new DNSservers that appeared in 2011, 64% only supported a single .fr domain, when this ratio was 49%for all the DNS servers hosting the zones delegated for the .fr TLD. This means a large proportionof the new DNS servers may be managed directly by small companies or individuals.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 94. PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES 99Characteristics of the DNS servers for .fr domain namesThe extensions most used in the names of DNS servers for domains in the .fr zone are the .comand .net TLDs in proportions close to 30%, followed by the .fr extension itself (representing about20% of the servers). The .com, .nl (Netherlands) and .uk (United Kingdom) extensions increasedslightly in 2011.Requests received by authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNICThe information for the .fr zone is made available through a set of authoritative DNS servers forthe zone. Some of them are managed direct by AFNIC, others are managed by entities separatefrom AFNIC on its behalf (Internet Systems Consortium, Netnod, Packet Clearing House, SIDN).In addition, some authoritative servers use Anycast technology, which improves the performanceand resilience of the DNS infrastructure by means of a cloud of servers geographically distributedaround the world. Geographical distribution of DNS servers for .fr and .re as at 31 December 2010 (Source: AFNIC) Figure 46 - Geographical location of the authoritative DNS servers for the .fr TLD
  • 95. 100 PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIESAFNIC uses monitoring tools to ensure that the authoritative servers for which it is responsible arefunctioning properly. The figure below shows changes in the average number of DNS requestsreceived per second by the authoritative servers managed by AFNIC. The graph shows strongseasonal characteristics (a fall at the start of the summer and end-year holidays). In addition, aftera steady growth of 2700 requests per second in 2008 to 3,700 in 2010, the traffic received by thisset of servers appeared to decrease in 2011 (3,000 requests per second on average over the firsthalf of the year). This decrease could be explained by better use of DNS caches by the recursiveservers of ISPs and server operators such as Google Public DNS.It should be noted that requests received by the authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domain onlyaccount for some of the occasions on which Internet users access .fr domain names. This isbecause of the use of "cache" functions in recursive DNS servers, meaning that sometimes whena .fr domain is accessed this does not give rise to a specific request to an authoritative server.In addition, the figures given here do not take into account requests received by authoritative .frdomain servers not directly managed by AFNIC. Number of requests received per second since 2008 by the subset of authoritative DNS servers in the .fr zone managed by AFNIC 6,000 Ave. Apr – Dec 2008 Average 2009 Average 2010 Ave. start of 2011 Number of requests received per second by these servers 2,700 requests/sec 3,100 requests/sec 3,700 requests/sec 3,000 requests/sec 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 May Jul Sep Nov Jan Mar May Jul Sep Nov Jan Mar May Jul Sep Nov Jan Mar May Jul 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2011 Month Figure 47 – Number of requests received by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domainAFNIC has also developed software to detect and analyse DNS traffic, which forms an integralpart of the DNSwitness software platform28, and is available under a GPL licence. This softwarecomponent, known as DNSmezzo, was used in July 2011 to observe the traffic received by twoauthoritative DNS servers for the .fr TLD managed by AFNIC. The analysis of the traffic shows thatmost of the requests were for IPv4 addresses (type "A"), followed by mail servers (type "MX"). IPv6addresses ("AAAA") constitute about 7% of the requests, while the authoritative DNS servers ("NS")represent approximately 2%.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 96. PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES 101Compared with the analysis performed in September 2010, the number of requests for mail serversfell sharply (-20 points). The capture of the traffic taking place over a limited period (less than 24hours), this finding should not be interpreted as an overall change. A massive issue of spam duringthe data capture of 2010, for example, could have temporarily boosted the number of DNS querieson mail servers.The capture also contained a small percentage of requests for the DS ("Delegation Signer") resourcerecord: three per thousand in 2011, when there were none in 2010. This record is used in thehierarchical validation process of DNSSEC keys (Domain Name System Security Extensions), andits presence in the traffic analysis is a consequence of the deployment of DNSSEC in the .fr zoneon 14 September 2010. Types of requests received by authoritative DNS servers in the .fr zone managed by AFNIC in July 2011 (1.5 million requests analyzed) Other types 3.4 % Authoritative server (NS) 1.6 % IPv6 address (AAAA) 7.2 % E-mail server (MX) 13.2 % IPv4 address (A) 74.6 % Figure 48 – Type of requests received by an AFNIC-run authoritative DNS server for the .fr domainFurthermore, analysis of this traffic shows that 1.5% of the requests received by the authoritativeservers analysed were conveyed via the IPv6 protocol, against 1.2% in 2010 and 0.7% in 2009.While still low, the percentage of traffic received in IPv6 should continue to grow over time with thegradual introduction of the IPv6 protocol in recursive DNS servers. The study also revealed that thepercentage depended on the geographical location of the instances of DNS servers in the Anycastclouds: the servers located in France seemed to get more traffic via IPv6.
  • 97. 102 PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIESChapter 16: Use of IPv6 addresses■ Data source: output from the AFNIC database in June 2011 and a search for IPv6 addresses in the DNS using the DNSwitness software platform.The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the use of the IPv6 protocol in the .fr domain,by identifying the number of domain names for which at least one server has an IPv6 address forvarious services (DNS, e-mail, Web).Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addressesThe DNSdelve software, which is the active component of the DNSwitness software platform, canautomatically collect different types of information from the DNS zones. The software can be usedto identify the domain names present in a zone that are IPv6-compatible for various services.For each "afnic.fr" type domain name present in the AFNIC database, DNSdelve was used to testfor the presence of IPv6 addresses for the following three types of server: • DNS servers specified by registrations of the "NS" type resource records associated with the "afnic.fr" type of domain name, • mail servers specified by the "MX" type resource records of registrations associated with the domain name "afnic.fr", • Web servers which might be associated with the "afnic.fr" type of domain name, under the naming conventions "afnic.fr", "www.afnic.fr" and "www.ipv6.afnic.fr".French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 98. PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES 103IPv6-compatible .fr domain namesThe following figure shows the percentage of .fr domain names for which DNS, mail or web serversannounce at least one IPv6 address in the DNS in June 2011. Nearly 40% of the .fr domain namesare IPv6-compatible for the DNS and more than 8% are IPv6-compatible for mail servers, theproportion being lower for web servers (nearly 2%). These figures have significantly increased overthe past year for all the services observed, against a background of strong growth in the .fr TLD,which must be mentioned when working with percentages. Percentage of IPv6-compatible .fr domain names in September 2010 and June 2011 per service 45% 2010 2011 39,7% 40% 39% 35% Percentage of IPv6-compatible .fr domain names 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 8,3% 6,4% 6,7% 5% 0,9% 1,8% 0,3% 0,08% 0,2% 0% DNS Web E-mail At least one service All services Service associated with the domain name Figure 49 – Percentage of IPv6-compatible .fr domain namesThe change over time of IPv6 compatibility shows that it increases in steps, as and when the majorregistrars and hosting companies deploy IPv6 within their infrastructure. For example, the IPv6compatibility of DNS servers rose sharply in October 2010 (from 7% to 15%) and in February 2011(from 18% to 38%), and the mail servers in November 2010 (from 0.3% to 7%). The change isslower among web servers, the IPv6 compatibility of which is still low at present.When an IPv6 address is published in the DNS for a given domain name, the DNSdelve software canalso be used to test whether the corresponding server is actually accessible in IPv6. The analysisconducted in June 2011 showed that 82% of the web servers advertised as being IPv6-compatiblewere effectively accessible with this protocol, as were 85% of the e-mail servers advertised asbeing IPv6 compatible. These figures are a clear improvement for the e-mail servers (up 14 points),but show a decline for web servers (down 16 points).
  • 99. 104 PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIESInternational comparisonsFew registries provide statistical data on the deployment of IPv6 in their extension. For severalyears the IAjapan association has provided statistics on the DNS, messaging and web serversthat are IPv6-compatible under the .jp TLD29. In September 2011, 76,000 domain names in theextension announced an IPv6 address for their DNS servers, and 40,000 for their web servers, aswell as 42,000 for their mail servers. Since the .jp zone contains about 1.23 million domain names,the percentages of IPv6-compatible names for the Japanese extensions stands at 6.2% for DNSservers, 3.3% for web servers, and 3.4% for e-mail servers. The .fr TLD this year therefore seemsto be far ahead of the .jp zone in terms of DNS servers (39% against 6.2%) and to a lesser extentfor mail servers (8.3% against 3.4%); conversely, it is lagging in terms of web servers (1.8% against3.3%).Another indicator to consider is the percentage of requests received by the authoritative DNS serversfor a domain via the IPv6 protocol. This statistic provides information mainly on the deploymentof IPv6 in the recursive name servers of Internet service providers and companies, but gives noindication of its deployment on the computers of Internet users.In July 2011, 1.5% of the requests received by two authoritative servers for the French zone usedthe IPv6 protocol. The ratio is slightly higher for the Japanese extension: in March 2011, 1.5% to2% of the requests used IPv6 (based on the latest data available).IPv4 exhaustionIP addresses are allocated to end-users in a hierarchical process. The global pool of IPv4 addressesis managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA, the technical function overseen byICANN). From this pool, IANA delegates address blocks to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs, suchas AFRINIC for Africa, ARIN for North America, LACNIC for Latin America and the Caribbean,APNIC for Asia Pacific and RIPE for Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East), as and when theyare needed. These regional registries are responsible for allocating IP addresses in their geographiczone, and in turn allocate address blocks (prefixes) in their own pool to entities who request themdepending on their needs (Internet Service Providers, large corporations, etc.).The global pool managed by the IANA has been exhausted since 3 February 2011. The addresspools managed by the regional registries are now steadily decreasing since they are no longersupplied by the global pool. When they have no more than one block of about 17 million addresses,the regional registries need to change their method of allocation to enable the distribution of theremaining addresses is more equitable (by allocating a very small number of IPv4 addresses, andonly to entities that already have IPv6 addresses).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 100. PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES 105The regional pool of IPv4 addresses in the Asia-Pacific region has been exhausted since 15 April2011, and the Asian registry has therefore switched to the "IPv4 endgame" method of allocationsince that date. According to the forecasts by Geoff Huston30, other regional pools in turn shouldexpire between 2012 and 2014, depending on the region. In Europe, the IPv4 address pool currentlycontains just under four blocks of 17 million addresses, and the date of exhaustion is scheduledfor June 2012.One of the major advantages of IPv6 is that it uses IP addresses encoded on sixteen bytes insteadof four in IPv4. The number of IPv6 addresses is therefore considerably higher than that of IPv4addresses, which should resolve the shortage of addresses for many years. Various technicalsolutions might allow operators and Internet service providers to continue to offer their services viaIPv4 on a temporary basis (private addresses and network address translation [NAT]), but the mosteffective long-term solution is implementation of the IPv6 protocol by all the stakeholders in thetechnical infrastructure of the Internet. This topic is also addressed in an In-Depth Study by AFNICon this issue, entitled "IPv6 passport to the future Internet", available at: http://www.afnic.fr/data/divers/public/afnic-dossier-ipv6-2011-05.pdf Address pool available Date of forecast or World region in September 2011 (blocks effective exhaustion of 17 million addresses)APNIC (Asia-Pacific) 15 April 2011 0.96RIPE NCC (Europe and Middle East) 4 June 2012 3.92LACNIC (Latin America and the Caribbean) 12 March 2014 4.27AfriNIC (Africa) 20 May 2014 4.38ARIN (North America) 26 July 2014 5.91 Table 10 – Exhaustion of IPv4 addresses by world region (forecasts by Geoff Huston)
  • 101. PART SIXUSES
  • 102. 108 PART SIX: USESChapter 17: Use of .fr domain names on the Web■ Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 and exhaustive analysis of the HTTP headers returned by Web servers using automated scripts; random sampling of the AFNIC database, and manual browsing of the websites associated with the domain names in the sample.The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the uses of .fr domain names on the Web:response from the server (no response, success or redirected site), and type of site (professionalsite, personal site, parked site, etc.).Responses from Web servers associated with .fr domain namesAn automatic analysis of HTTP headers returned by web servers was performed on all the .frdomain names present in the AFNIC database in July 2011. For each "afnic.fr" type domain name,a script sends an HTTP request of the "HEAD" type to the web server address "www.afnic.fr" thenwaits for the response. The HTTP response received was then analysed for various parameters: • the HTTP return code, • any redirection ("Location:" header), • the server software used ("Server:" header).The figure below shows the kinds of HTTP return code received. For the entire .fr domain, therequests were successfully returned in six cases out of ten; they resulted in a redirect in nearly aquarter of the domain names, and 10% of them did not produce any response within the set timelimit.These results changed little compared with the study last year: redirects and non-responsesincreased slightly (+1 point) at the expense of success (-2 points over one year). This can beexplained by the fact that some of the newly registered domain names link to a holding page or arenot used on a temporary basis, while their holders develop the required content.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 103. PART SIX: USES 109In all, the proportion of domain names leading to an effective site (direct or by redirect) now standsat 85% of the French domain, like last year, representing an increase of 8 points since 2009. Thisproportion reflects the high utilization of the extension, which seems to be much less subject topurely defensive registration strategies than the others. Category of the HTTP response code returned by web servers associated with .fr domain names active in July 2011 Server error: 1% (-1 in one year) 85% of names lead Client error: 4% to an effective website (as in 2010 and against 77% in 2009) No response from Server: 10% (+1 in one year) Redirection: 24% (+1 in one year) Success: 61% (-2 in one year) Figure 50 – Categories of response codes returned by Web servers associated with .fr domain names
  • 104. 110 PART SIX: USESThe figure below indicates which extensions were used by redirecting websites. The extensionsmost frequently used for redirects are the .com gTLD (35% of cases), the .net TLD (26%) and the .frTLD (20%). In addition, the redirect is located on the same server in 15% of the cases (URL with thesame hostname and relative URL), the other extensions forming a large minority. In all, therefore,35% of the redirections remained within the .fr zone.Over one year, the .com gTLD was up two points at the expense of the .net TLD (-1 point). Redirectsto the same server also showed a slight increase (+2 points). Extension used by HTTP redirects returned by web servers associated with .fr domain names active in July 2011 Other redirects: 4% 35% of redirects remain Relative URL: 5% under the .fr extension (+1 in one year) URL using the same Domain name: 10% .com: 35% (+1 in one year) (+2 in one year) .fr: 20% .net: 26% (-1 in one year) Figure 51 – Extension used for redirects associated with .fr domain namesThe servers most frequently used for redirects by .fr websites correspond to the holding pages ofregistrars and hosting companies, to platforms for sponsored links or to servers for the personalpages of general public Internet Service Providers. We can also see SEO strategies based onmultiple domain names referring to the same main site, this year mainly in the insurance, onlinegames, e-commerce, tourism and real estate sectors.Apache freeware is still in the lead for software most frequently used by web servers associatedwith .fr domain names, with more than 80% of the sites, followed by the Microsoft IIS server with6%. Over the year, Apache further increased its lead by 3 points on the French domain, to thedetriment of IISFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 105. PART SIX: USES 111Types of website associated with .fr domain namesA random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names was extracted from the AFNIC database on 1 July2011. These 1,000 domain names were then analysed by staff who visited their associated websitesduring August 2010 (addresses of the www.afnic.fr type).The website types distinguished in this study were as follows: • no response from server: the web server associated with the domain name did not respond, or sent an HTTP error message, • site suspended: a message on the site indicates that it is temporarily unavailable, • site empty: the web page returned is either empty or matches the default page of a content management platform, • holding page: the site has been parked with a registrar, hosting company or web agency, • sponsored links: the site uses commercial links of the "Pay Per Click" kind, such as those of Google AdSense, Microsoft adCenter, NameDrive, Sedo or Yahoo! Search Marketing, • business site: the site appears to be business-related (firms, associations, public bodies, or indeed self-employed individuals), • personal site: the site is personal in character (personal blog, family website, community web- site, photo-sharing website, etc.), • type unknown: it was not possible to determine the website’s place in this classification (password protected access to the website’s content, for example).On ranking the random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names by type of website, we found thatbusiness websites account for almost half (49%), with personal sites far behind (less than 1%)Holding pages represent 21.5% of the domain names considered, and nearly 4% point to pages ofsponsored links. Lastly, 13% of the names generated no response from the associated web server,and 7% of the websites were empty. The confidence interval of 95% is plus or minus three pointsfor the percentage of professional sites, with lower values for the other ratios.The results have changed little since last years study: the variations are generally less than twopoints and not representative compared with the confidence intervals of the study. Only the emptysites appear to be making more marked progress (3 points over one year), which could correspondto newly created sites waiting for meaningful content.A priori, the very small percentage of personal sites (less than 3%) may seem surprising, when theproportion of private holders continues to grow and is approaching 40% for the .fr zone. There areseveral possible explanations. First of all, some of the sites sampled were being used for businesspurposes although registered by individuals (sites belonging to professional artists, freelanceconsultants, etc.). This shows that the practical reason why some individuals have an .fr domainname may be to have a site connected with their work rather than one just for personal or familypurposes. Secondly, the recent popularity of social networks may have made some individualholders of .fr domain names less keen to set up their own website but rather to have a profile on asocial network instead – in which case they may be using their domain name to give themselves apersonalised e-mail address.
  • 106. 112 PART SIX: USES Type of web sites related to .fr domain names active in August 2011 (analysis of a random sample of 1,000 domain names) Site of unknown type: 0.9% Site closed: 0.9% Personal site: 3.7% In August 2011: Sponsored link page: 3.7% 53% of the sites have specific content Site empty: 7.4% (+2 in one year) 25% of the sites are parked (-3 in one year) No response from server: 12.8% Professional site: 49,1% Holding page: 21.5% Figure 52 – Types of website associated with .fr domain namesThe identification of site characteristics associated with the domain names of the sample showsthat 10% of the names were parked pending sale at the time of the study, a figure that droppedover the year (14% in the 2010 study). In addition, 6% of sites with specific content took the formof a blog and only 1% of these were pornographic in nature. Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names active in August 2011 (analysis of a random sample of 1,000 domain names) Characteristic Percentage Domain name for sale 10% of sites parked, or 3% of all domain names Site under construction 4% of sites with specific content Blog type site 6% of sites with specific content Porn or erotic website 1% of sites with specific content Table 11 – Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain namesFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 107. PART SIX: USES 113Chapter 18: AFNIC and the ecosystem of domain namestakeholders in France■ Data source: Linkfluence Study on the presence of AFNIC and domain names in the French social web (2011).In early 2011, the Linkfluence company conducted a study commissioned by AFNIC to draw upa map of the "Internet ecosystem" in France. Which communities in the French social web areinvolved in the issue of domain names? How are they organised and what is their "distance" fromAFNIC? What lessons can be learnt?Communities identifiedAs may be logically expected, AFNIC is central to an initial community of domain name professionals:Internet governance agencies, registrars, "domainers" and information sites dedicated to theissue.The community has strong ties with three main sets of stakeholders: marketing and communicationprofessionals, technologists and the members of a community called "Agora" in reference to therole it plays in terms of content production and expression.Agora consists of stakeholders from the conventional and specialized media, civil society and thelegal sector. It also includes major influencers, known as "opinion makers".On the edge of Agora there are various members of political parties, which – significantly – do notdirectly involve the community of domain name professionals.As might be expected on an issue as technical as this, the Technologists community occupiesa large part of the map and borders all the others in that it includes people from a wide range ofbackgrounds, from Open Source enthusiasts to those of the "Social Revolution" and the "TechRevolution".
  • 108. 114 PART SIX: USES AFNIC and domain names in the French social web Figure 53 – Presence of AFNIC and domain names in the French social webFrench Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 109. PART SIX: USES 115The main lessonsThe most striking feature, on studying the map of the French social web dealing with domainnames, is the eccentric position of AFNIC.Although it is central to the community of domain name professionals, but relatively far fromthe "centre" of the map, AFNIC has everything to gain from creating ties with the communitiesof marketing and communication professionals, technologists, and all those involved in Agora,including influencers and members of the political sphere.The aim would be, first, to build relationships with these communities in order to explain the waysin which they are affected by the issues related to domain names, and then make them aware ofbenefits they could derive from such ties.A few months from the presidential elections, the remoteness of the political players and thecommunity of domain name professionals is relatively symptomatic. It is a safe bet, however, thatsince the French social web is constantly changing, the inter-relations between the communitiesand their members have already changed.On its behalf, AFNIC has "heard" the message, and in 2011 developed its activities in terms of itspresence on the social web including Facebook and via Twitter, in addition to the redesign of itswebsite.
  • 110. 116 PART SIX: USESChapter 19: Disputes over domain names in France■ Data source : AFNIC, WIPO.The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on disputes concerning domain names in France:disputes concerning the .fr extension, and disputes concerning other extensions when one of thetwo parties is located in France.Disputes over .fr domain namesFurther to the law no. 2011-302 dated 22 March 2011 which modified certain aspects of the legalframework for domain names in France, several changes came into force on 1 July 2011. A new .frnaming policy, compliant with the current legislation, has defined the new rules for allocating andmanaging domain names under the French extension. By the end of 2011, AFNIC will have set upa new procedure for dispute resolution in accordance with the new legal framework.Disputes concerning .fr domain names may be handled by means of various procedures, allowingfor a graduated response: • the opportunity for a third party to contact the administrative contact of a domain name with restricted publication (i.e. personal information are not published in Whois directory), without disclosing their identity or guaranteeing that this person will respond, • occasional post-registration checks to ensure that the name complies with the naming policy, either at AFNIC’s initiative or at the request of a third party with a legitimate reason for enqui- ring, without disclosing who is involved (Article 16 of the Charter), • Dispute resolution procedure based on third–party claims to resolve obvious breaches of the provisions of the Decree of 6 February 2007 (Decree / Order covering French TLD manage- ment), without disclosing who is involved (the PREDEC procedure) which was suspended on 15 May 2011, • disclosing, at the request of a third party, the name and other details of an individual holder re- gistered under restricted publicity, if a protected mark has been reproduced exactly or nearly so (typosquatting, dotsquatting, etc.), • disclosing a name holders contact details following a court judgement, • blocking by AFNIC of domain names (Article 19 of the Charter), • ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) procedure by experts decision, administered by the Arbitration and Mediation Centre of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) which was suspended on 15 April 2011, • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) by online recommendation, administered by the Paris Centre for Mediation and Arbitration (CMAP), • legal proceedings before the competent court.The details of these various procedures are available online on the AFNIC website31.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 111. PART SIX: USES 117The figures below show the development in the number of ADR procedures instituted and casesdealt with directly by AFNIC each month. The PREDEC procedure was regularly used from itsinception in July 2008 until its suspension in May 2011. The average frequency of use was aboutsix procedures initiated per month over the past year. The procedures for lifting anonymity (at therequest of a third party or further to a court order) were also used on a regular and stable basisover time (thirty procedures per month). The use of eligibility checks has greatly expanded over thepast year compared with previous years (almost 40 per month). Updates of the Whois database aremuch less frequent and more episodic. Change in number of procedures performed by AFNIC for disputes involving .fr domain names 140 Adoption of Closure of PREDEC PREDEC 120 PREDEC procedure Number of procedures initiated each month Update of Whois database 100 Lifting of anonymity Eligibility check 80 60 40 20 0 Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 Month Figure 54 – Changes in the number of litigation procedures dealt with by AFNIC concerning .fr domain namesProcedures of the ADR type are much less numerous (three per month over the past year), and arevirtually all dealt with at the WIPO. It should also be noted that these figures are for those litigationprocedures known to AFNIC; they do not necessarily include all the cases brought in connectionwith the .fr domain.The number of .fr domain names involved in an alternative dispute resolution procedure slightlyincreased over the year: on average between July 2010 and July 2011 some twenty domain namesheld by individuals were involved in an ADR procedure, and around thirty domain names held bycorporations.
  • 112. 118 PART SIX: USESWith respect to the PREDEC procedures (used to resolve cases of clear violations of the Decreedated 6 February 2007), between August 2010 and June 2011 AFNIC handed down decisionsconcerning 92 .fr domain names. They include well-know names of companies or brands(Banque Populaire, Caisse d’Épargne, Carrefour, Française des Jeux, La Poste, LCI, Leclerc,Les Échos, Microsoft, MSN, Orange, Rhodia, Solvay, TF1, Tour Eiffel, Veolia), as well as thenames of municipalities (Allauch, Bessières, Creil, Galluis, Longjumeau, Loos, Ploërmel, Vitry) orpoliticians (Arnaud Montebourg, Martine Aubry). Some names reflect attempts at dotsquatting(registration of a domain name preceded by the existing characters "www"): "wwwbanquebcp.fr"and "wwwmicrosoftstore.fr".Finally, the names blocked by AFNIC oscillated around 200 for corporations and for privateindividuals. In the case of legal entities, they fell sharply in the summer of 2010, when their numbervaried between 1,000 and 2,500 for several years.UDRP disputes handled by WIPOThe figures given below come from statistics provided by the Arbitration and Mediation Centre ofWIPO (the World Intellectual Property Organisation) on UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy)procedures32. They only relate to procedures of this kind brought before the body in question, giventhat disputes over the various domains can also be handled by means of other procedures and byother bodies, such as the Paris Mediation and Arbitration Centre for the .fr extension, or ADNDRC(the Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre), CAC (the Czech Arbitration Court), and theNAF (National Arbitration Forum) in the case of generic domains.The overwhelming majority of domain names involved in UDRP procedures handled by WIPO islogically under the .com extension, the leader in terms of the numbers of domains registered, withnearly 3,000 names involved in a dispute settlement procedure in 2010. It is followed by the .net,.org and .info extensions (between 100 and 300 domains each). As for the .fr extension, only 61domain names were subject to a WIPO UDRP procedure in 2009 (compared with 43 in 2009). Thechanges over time in the number of names involved in this procedure vary considerably from oneyear to the next, with marked peaks in 2000, 2005 and 2009 for the .com extension.The ratio of the number of domain names involved in UDRP procedures at WIPO for every 100,000registered domain names was slightly up for the .fr TLD between 2009 and 2010 (from 2.7 to 3.2),after sharp drop the previous year. However, it remained well below the value posted in 2008 (7.5contentious domains per 100,000). The French extension almost tied with the .com gTLD ahead ofthe other generic extensions (.net, .org, .info, .biz and .mobi).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 113. PART SIX: USES 119If we look at the breakdown, for .fr domain names, of the UDRP procedures handled by WIPO in2010, in terms of the final decisions given by the experts at the conclusion of those procedures, itcan be seen that in a great majority of cases the complainant’s case was upheld: more than the halfof the procedures ended with the transfer of the domain name in question. The claim was denied in11% of the cases, with the defendant keeping the domain name. In 6% of the cases the procedurewas filed without further action, for example after the parties came to an amicable arrangement.Compared with the figures for 2010, cases of transfer have increased dramatically this year (up 15points after a rise of 10 points already in the previous year), to the detriment of cases filed withoutfurther action. It can be seen that, year after year, UDRP procedures have proven to be morefavourable to plaintiffs, probably because they deepen their knowledge of the applicable case lawand target their claims better.The domain names under the .fr TLD giving rise to an UDRP decision at WIPO in the first half of2011 mostly involved large French companies (Cristalleries de Saint-Louis, Dassault, Françaisedes Jeux, Galliano, Michelin, Nexity, SFR, etc.) or current events (such as the "Guerlain" case, the"Mediator" case).The figures below give a breakdown per country of origin of the claimants and defendants involvedin UDRP procedures handled by WIPO between 1999 and 2011. The USA has by far the greatestshare in both figures, due to its predominance on the Internet (41% of claimants and 37% ofdefendants). France accounts for some 11% of the claimants and 3% of the defendants: it wouldappear therefore that French firms are more often victims than perpetrators of cybersquattingactivities. The percentage of claimants located in France has even slightly increased since the 2010study (+0.3 points), while falling in the United States (-1 percentage point).This figure of 11% of complaints concerning generic extensions by French organisations should becompared with that of 2.6% for names registered in France under these extensions. The contrasthighlights the tendency of French firms to take legal action rather than conduct defensive registrationsbeforehand. They can accordingly be seen to register fewer names than their counterparts in othercountries, but to be more vigilant over infringements of their trademarks in the sphere of domainnames.
  • 114. 120 PART SIX: USES Classification of UDRP procedures handled by WIPO between 1999 and July 2011 according to country of plaintiff (source: WIPO) Other countries: 12.2% Australia: 1.6% Sweden: 1.7% The claimant was French Canada: 1.9% in 11.2% of the UDRP procedures Denmark: 2.1% handled by WIPO Netherlands: 2.4% Italy: 3.5% Spain: 4.3% United States: 40.8% Switzerland: 5.2% Germany: 5.5% United Kingdom: 7.5% France: 11.2% Figure 55 – Main countries of origin of claimants involved in WIPO proceedingsIf French players are less often defendants than claimants, their weight in litigation as defendants(3.3%) remains higher than the weight of the names registered in France for generic extensions(2.6%). This difference might lead one to suspect that there are professional cybersquatters to befound in France. In addition, cases of disputes in which the defendant is Chinese are continuingto rise (+0.9 points accumulated since 2009), indicating a growing concentration of cases ofcybersquatting of domain names in China.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 115. PART SIX: USES 121 Classification of UDRP procedures handled by WIPO between 1999 and July 2011 according to country of defendant (source: WIPO) The defendant was French in 3.3% of the UDRP Other countries: 23.5% procedures handled by WIPO Russia: 1.5% United States: 36.7% Germany: 1.5% India: 1.7% Netherlands: 2.3% Australia: 2.6% France: 3.3% South Korea: 3.4% United Kingdom: 8.1% Canada: 4.2% China: 6.8% Spain: 4.3% Figure 56 – Main countries of origin of defendants involved in WIPO proceedingsAs far as the language used in UDRP proceedings at WIPO is concerned, English is very predominant(nearly 9 cases in 10). In 2010, less than 4% of UDRP cases used the French language, down0.6 points year on year. There was also a reduction in the number of procedures held in Spanish(-1.3 point) in favour of English (+2.2).
  • 116. PART SEVENCONCLUSIONS
  • 117. 124 PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONSChapter 20: Market review and prospectsThe purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of the past year and offer an analysis of the trendsand prospects for the French domain name industry with a particular focus on the .fr extension.Review of the yearFurther to the decree of 6 February 2007 concerning the allocation and management of domainnames on the Internet and after a call for applications published in January 2009, AFNIC wasdesignated as the Registration Office for the .fr extension on 2 March 2010 by the French Ministerof Industry. However, before a priority issue of constitutionality, on 6 October 2010 the ConstitutionalCouncil ruled that Article L. 45 of the French Electronic Communications and TelecommunicationsAct establishing the legal framework for assigning domain names in France, was not consistentwith the French Constitution, to the extent that the article did not take into account issues relatedto the Freedom of Communication and Freedom of Trade, deferring the effects of its decision until 1July 2011. A proposed amendment to replace the article to make it consistent with the Constitutionwas subsequently proposed in December 2010 as part of the law adapting French legislation to thelaw of the European Union on occupational health, labour and electronic communications. This law,which in article L. 45 (et seq.) defines the new legal framework for extensions corresponding to thecountry, was passed by both houses between January and March, and finally promulgated on 22March 2011, less than six months after the decision of the Constitutional Council – a sign that thelegislature recognized the importance of the issues related to domain names. It concerns all FrenchInternet extensions except those of French Polynesia and New Caledonia. The implementing decreewas published in the Official Gazette on 3 August 2011.Since the new article of the law implied a change in the methods of resolving disputes, the procedurespreviously in effect were suspended on 15 April 2011 for the ADR procedure at WIPO, and on 15May 2011 for the PREDEC procedure. AFNIC then developed and published a new naming policyand a new procedure for resolving disputes concerning the .fr TLD, applicable since 1 July 2011.Under the terms of the new law, on 1 July 2011 AFNIC also opened the "fundamental terms" tomarket players, including the names of municipalities, which had previously been blocked andwhose registration is now possible, subject to prior review (claimants must demonstrate a legitimateinterest and use of the domain name in good faith). Nearly 2,500 applications for over 800 differentdomain names were received on the opening day, the most popular terms being "internet", "email","webmaster", "employment", "mail" and "enterprise". By late September 2011, more than 7,000applications had been filed, evidence of interest in the release of these terms. In addition, since 1July, each day on its website AFNIC publishes the list of domain names registered the day before.In terms of communication, in November-December 2010 AFNIC set up a new online campaignto develop awareness of the .fr TLD, targeting prescribers involved in advising companies andindividuals to register their domain names (web agencies, communication agencies, intellectualproperty consultants, etc.).French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 118. PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS 125Regarding the technical infrastructure, over the past year AFNIC has deployed the DNSSEC protocolto secure DNS exchanges, thereby avoiding cache poisoning attacks, first on 14 September 2010by signing the .fr and .re extensions and on 19 April 2011, by opening a DNSSEC interface forregistrars enabling them to forward the signature elements for the domain names they manage.AFNIC also took part in the IPv6Day by setting up a dedicated team for the web community tobenefit from its expertise in IPv6 integration.Furthermore, in order to assess the quality of its services, AFNIC carried out a new satisfaction surveyof its registrars during the last quarter of 2010. The results indicate that 95% of the respondentswere satisfied, and 9% were very satisfied.Finally, the two millionth .fr domain name was filed on 18 April 2011 to accompany the launch of ahome manicure service, "manucure-saint-maur.fr".OutlooksLaunched in 1986, the .fr TLD turned 25 on Sept. 2, 2011! A program of events will accompanythe anniversary until the spring of 2012: new corporate branding with new logos for the AFNICand the .fr TLD, in particular to reflect the values of technology, convenience and innovation, plusa new website, the publication of a magazine tracing the history of the .fr TLD, the organization inSeptember 2011 of a contest showcasing the best .fr experience, a gala evening on the first floorof the Eiffel Tower in October 2011, and finally a series of ".fr digital communication awards" to beheld in late spring 2012.The .fr TLD and the other extensions managed by AFNIC (those of Mayotte, Reunion Island, SaintPierre and Miquelon, the French Southern and Antarctic Territories, and Wallis and Futuna) will beopened to Europe as of 6 December 2011 in accordance with the Act of 22 March 2011 after apublic consultation in the summer of 2010. European companies and individuals residing within theEuropean Union will have access to all of these extensions.AFNIC also plans to open the .fr extension to internationalized names (IDNs). At a workshop heldin early 2011, a large majority of the participants voted for a standard enabling the use of thecharacters required to write the most commonly used major and regional languages in the West,and for a secure opening giving priority to holders of domain names already registered in ASCII forwhich there is an accented version. Another development planned concerns the registration andrenewal of .fr domain names for periods of more one year.On 20 June 2011, ICANN launched the process for the new extensions begun three years earlier.The schedule is particularly tight: applications for the new gTLDs may be submitted from 12 Januaryto 12 April 2012. ICANN will then assess the applications and publish the initial results in November2012 for an operational start of the new extensions at the end of 2013.More than a hundred projects have already been announced, including from cities, regions andcultural communities (such as .paris, .aquitaine or .bzh) brand names (.canon) or centres of interest(.shop, .bank, etc.), and ICANN is preparing to receive hundreds of applications.
  • 119. 126 PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONSIn a few years this could completely upset the landscape of the Internet as we know it, withhundreds of new extensions in addition to the 300 and more existing to date.AFNIC has positioned itself very clearly in the market for new gTLDs as a provider of solutions andtechnical operator for registries. AFNIC provides support for project leaders for new extensions inthe process of submitting their application to ICANN, and in the operational management of theextension as of its allocation by ICANN.Worth citing among the many projects in which AFNIC is involved is that of .paris, for which AFNICwas selected in September 2009 as technical support for the project by Paris City Hall.French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 120. PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS 127About AFNICAFNIC, a French non-profit association, was created in December 1997 at the initiative of thepublic authorities to manage the .fr and .re extensions. These two internet top-level extensionscorrespond to French territories (France and Reunion Island).The members of AFNIC include corporations and individuals. Its board consists of ten members,five of whom are appointed by public authorities (two by INRIA for historical reasons, two by theFrench Industry Ministry and one by the French Research Ministry). The other five members areelected from among registrars (two), users’ representatives (two) and the International College(one).AFNIC works to encourage growth of the .fr domain by establishing flexible rules and facilitatingautomation of the registration process, while still making sure that all parties are in a position toinsist on their rights. This objective is allied to a cost-conscious charging system which has enabledAFNIC to cut its fees to €4.80, under a third of the €15 charged in 2002.Thanks to its expertise in DNS and Internet technologies, AFNIC is also committed to an activeprogramme of Research and Development with a view to maintaining that expertise and extendingit as the Internet continues to make massive technological strides. That R&D effort directly benefitsAFNIC’s customers and members through the services which depend on the outcome of suchendeavours.Finally, AFNIC has decided to capitalise on its core business, the technical management of Internetextension registries, in order to become involved in the programme to create new extensionsinitiated by ICANN in 2008. It supports several projects in this capacity, both in the applicationphase with ICANN and in the subsequent management of the extensions when they have beendelegated. The City of Paris, among others, has chosen AFNIC as its technical manager for thecoming .paris domain.As a neutral, independent body, AFNIC can legitimately assume the role of prime contractor fora monitoring platform enabling all the stakeholders to benefit from the results of studies that theycould not consider carrying out on their own.
  • 121. ANNEXES
  • 122. 130 LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1 – Broadband Internet access ratios for European companies..........................................................18Figure 2 - Development of web sites by European companies .......................................................................19Figure 3 – Number of domain names per extension .........................................................................................20Figure 4 – Changes in the "adjusted" number of domain names, per type of extension ..............................22Figure 5 – Breakdown of generic domain names per country .........................................................................23Figure 6 – Breakdown of extensions for domain names registered in France ...............................................26Figure 7 – Changes in the total number of .fr domain names ..........................................................................31Figure 8 – Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals ............................................................32Figure 9 – Renewal of .fr domain names ............................................................................................................33Figure 10 – Correlation between the creation of .fr domain names and start–ups in France .......................34Figure 11 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (individuals) ...................................................................36Figure 12 – Length of .fr domain names .............................................................................................................38Figure 13 – Words most commonly used in .fr domain names (tag cloud generated by Wordle) ................40Figure 14 – Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names.......................................................43Figure 15 – Proportion of business names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names ......................45Figure 16 – Location of .fr domain names registered by individuals residing abroad ...................................49Figure 17 – Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants(Metropolitan France) ...........................................................................................................................................51Figure 18 – Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants(Overseas Territories) ...........................................................................................................................................52Figure 19 – Annual growth rate in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals(Metropolitan France) ...........................................................................................................................................53Figure 20 – Annual growth rates in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals(Overseas Territories) ...........................................................................................................................................54Figure 21 – Location of .fr domain names registered by legal entities located abroad.................................55Figure 22 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies(Metropolitan France) ...........................................................................................................................................57Figure 23 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies(Overseas Territories) ...........................................................................................................................................58Figure 24 – Annual percentage increase in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities(Metropolitan France) ...........................................................................................................................................59Figure 25 – Annual percentage increase in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities(Overseas Territories) ...........................................................................................................................................60Figure 26 – Total number of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France) ............................................................62Figure 27 – Total number of .fr domain names (Overseas Territories).............................................................63Figure 28 – Comparison of age pyramids for individual holders of .fr domain names,and the French population...................................................................................................................................66Figure 29 – Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names ...........................................................70Figure 30 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France) .........................................72Figure 31 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Overseas Territories)..........................................73Figure 32 – Distribution of registrars of .fr domain names outside France ....................................................74Figure 33 – Charges for .fr domain names .........................................................................................................77French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 123. LIST OF FIGURES 131Figure 34 – Ranking of registrars in relation to the total number of .fr domain names .................................81Figure 35 – Main registrars ranked by the overall number of .fr domain names ............................................83Figure 36 – Changes in concentration indices for the registration market of .fr domain namesin terms of the stock of names managed, and new names registered ...........................................................84Figure 37 – Country breakdown of ICANN-accredited registrars ....................................................................85Figure 38 – Distribution of generic domain names per country of registrar ...................................................86Figure 39 – The most expensive country-code domain names sold on the secondary market ...................89Figure 40 – Volume of trading on Sedo by domain ............................................................................................90Figure 41 – Average price of domain names sold on Sedo, by extension.......................................................91Figure 42 –Median prices of domain names sold on Sedo by extension ........................................................92Figure 43 – Monthly figures for transactions in .fr domain names on Sedo ...................................................93Figure 44 – Prices of .fr domain names sold on Sedo ......................................................................................94Figure 45 – The most expensive .fr domain names sold on Sedo ...................................................................95Figure 46 - Geographical location of the authoritative DNS servers for the .fr TLD ......................................99Figure 47 – Number of requests received by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS serversfor the .fr domain ................................................................................................................................................100Figure 48 – Type of requests received by an AFNIC-run authoritative DNS server for the .fr domain .......101Figure 49 – Percentage of IPv6-compatible .fr domain names ......................................................................103Figure 50 – Categories of response codes returned by Web servers associatedwith .fr domain names .......................................................................................................................................109Figure 51 – Extension used for redirects associated with .fr domain names ...............................................110Figure 52 – Types of website associated with .fr domain names ..................................................................112Figure 53 – Presence of AFNIC and domain names in the French social web .............................................114Figure 54 – Changes in the number of litigation procedures dealt with by AFNICconcerning .fr domain names ...........................................................................................................................117Figure 55 – Main countries of origin of claimants involved in WIPO proceedings .......................................120Figure 56 – Main countries of origin of defendants involved in WIPO proceedings ....................................121
  • 124. 132 TABLE OF TABLESTable 1 – French Internet statistics, 2011 ...........................................................................................................17Table 2 – IDN national extensions accepted by ICANN in 2011 .......................................................................25Table 3 – Extreme .fr domain names...................................................................................................................39Table 4 – Use of years in .fr domain names .......................................................................................................41Table 5 – Annual change in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names............................................67Table 6 – Concentration indices for the market for .fr domain names registeredby private individuals ...........................................................................................................................................79Table 7 – Concentration indices for the market for .fr domain names registeredby legal entities .....................................................................................................................................................80Table 8 – Concentration indices for the overall market for .fr domain names(private individuals and legal entities included).................................................................................................82Table 9 – Concentration indices for the world market in generic domain names ..........................................87Table 10 – Exhaustion of IPv4 addresses by world region (forecasts by Geoff Huston) ..............................105Table 11 – Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names ..................................................112French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 125. 134 TABLE OF NOTES1 ARCEP, Dissemination of communication and information technologies in French society – 2010Results, Annual survey carried out for ARCEP and CGIET by CREDOC,http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=8571&tx_gsactualite_pi1%5buid%5d=1340&cHash=c8fe56b9842 Eurostat, Statistics on the information society,http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/information_society/introduction3 ARCEP, Quarterly observatory of the electronic communications markets in France – 1st quarter2011 - final results, http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=109264 WebHosting.Info, Country-wise Total Domains, http://www.webhosting.info/5 Security Space, Web Server Survey, July 1st, 2011,http://www.securityspace.com/s_survey/data/201106/domain.html6 ISC, Internet Domain Survey, http://ftp.isc.org/www/survey/reports/current/7 AFNIC, Statistics - Detailed data on domains,http://www.afnic.fr/fr/ressources/statistiques/donnees-detaillees-sur-les-domaines/8 French Ministry for Education, List of most frequently used words in the French language asdrawn up by the lexicologist Étienne Brunet, http://eduscol.education.fr/cid50486/vocabulaire.html9 Olivier Bacquet, Dubois Buyse spelling scale, http://o.bacquet.free.fr/db2.htm10 Christophe Pallier, List of French words, April 2004,http://www.pallier.org/ressources/dicofr/dicofr.html11 The challenge of crosswords, OGD of common nouns,http://ledefi.pagesperso-orange.fr/Dictionnaires.htm12 Beaucarnot Généalogie, Ranked list of French surnames, 1 January 2006,http://www.beaucarnot-genealogie.com/contenu/noms-de-famille/accueil-noms-de-famille/6-palmares-des-noms-de-famille-francais/13 GeoPatronyme.com, Names most used in France,http://www.geopatronyme.com/cdip/national2.htm14 Wikipédia, List of most common first names in France,http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_des_pr%C3%A9noms_les_plus_courants_en_France15 QuelPrenom.com, http://www.quelprenom.com/16 INSEE, 2008 populations of legal entities in the overseas departments and local authorities,http://www.insee.fr/fr/ppp/bases-de-donnees/recensement/populations-legales/france-departements.asp17 INSEE, Official Geographic Code, http://www.insee.fr/fr/methodes/nomenclatures/cog/18 Wikipédia, CAC 40, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAC_40French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 126. TABLE OF NOTES 13519 L’Expansion.com, The top 1000 French groups and their subsidairies in terms of sales (industry,services and trade), http://lexpansion.lexpress.fr/classement/economie/20 Wikipédia, Map of brand names, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartographie_des_marques21 INSEE, Estimated population on 1 January by region, department, sex and age, 1990 2009,http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=estim-pop&reg_id=9922 INSEE, Demographics of companies and plants 2010 – non-agricultural market sector,http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?reg_id=0&ref_id=fd-sidemo201023 ICANN, Accredited Registrars, http://www.icann.org/en/registrars/accredited-list.html24 WebHosting.Info, Largest ICANN Registrars, http://webhosting.info/registrars/top-registrars/global/25 DNJournal.com, Year To Date Domain Sales Charts,http://www.dnjournal.com/ytd-sales-charts.htm26 Sedo, Market trends, http://www.sedo.com/fr/ressources/tendances-du-marche/27 AFNIC, DNSwitness, http://www.dnswitness.net/28 Internet Association Japan, Measurement of IPv6 readiness: DNS Deployment,http://v6metric.jp/en/html/st04/29 Geoff Huston, IPv4 Address Report, http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/30 AFNIC, Dispute Resolution, http://www.afnic.fr/fr/resoudre-un-litige/31 WIPO, Domain Name Dispute Resolution Statistics,http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/domains/statistics/
  • 127. 136 GLOSSARYADRAlternative Dispute Resolution procedureADSLAsymmetric Digital Subscriber LineAFNICAssociation Française pour le Nommage Internet en CoopérationAnycastAddressing and routing technique used to redirect data to the "nearest" or the "most effective"server according to routing policy.ARCEPAutorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes - French RegulatoryAuthority for Electronic Communications and PostCMAPCentre de Médiation et d’Arbitrage de Paris - Paris Mediation and Arbitration CentreCRConcentration Ratio, a commonly accepted measure of market concentrationDNSDomain Name SystemDNSSECDomain Name System Security ExtensionsEPPExtensible Provisioning Protocol, a protocol for exchanges among registries and registrarsFDIForum des Droits sur l’Internet - Internet Rights ForumHHIHerfindahl-Hirschman Index, a commonly accepted measure of market concentrationICANNInternet Corporation for Assigned Names and NumbersIDNInternationalized Domain NameINSEEFrench acronym for the National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut National dela Statistique et des Études Économiques)French Domain Name Industry Report – 2011 Issue
  • 128. GLOSSARY 137IPInternet ProtocolIPv6Internet Protocol - version 6PREDECProcédure de résolution des cas de violations manifestes des dispositions du décret du 6 février2007 - Dispute resolution procedure for obvious breaches of the Decree dated 6 February 2007RegistryBody (association, company, etc.) in charge of managing the database of a TLD, or of IPaddresses for a specified regionSMESmall and medium-size enterprisesTLDTop Level DomainUDRPUniform Dispute Resolution PolicyURLUniform Resource LocatorVSEVery Small EnterpriseWhoisService for searching registry databases for information on a domain name or IP addressWIPOWorld Intellectual Property Organisation
  • 129. Immeuble International - 78181 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex - France Phone: +33 1 39 30 83 00 - Fax: +33 1 39 30 83 01 Siret : 414 757 567 00022 - APE : 6311Z - TVA n° FR 72 414 757 567 Copyright 2011 AFNIC Every quotation or reproduction must mention the source: "French Domain Name Industry Report - 2011 Edition - www.afnic.fr"