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2009 French Domain name Industry Report

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Starting in 2007, AFNIC decided to undertake the task of producing an annual industry report on the domain name market in France.

Starting in 2007, AFNIC decided to undertake the task of producing an annual industry report on the domain name market in France.

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    2009 French Domain name Industry Report 2009 French Domain name Industry Report Document Transcript

    • 2009 French Domain Name Industry Report AFNIC - Télécom & Management SudParis
    • French Domain Name Industry Report 2009 Edition
    • Overview Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6 Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report? ......................................................... 6 Executive summary .................................................................................................... 7 France’s favourite domain - .fr ............................................................................................. 7 A regular and steady increase in the use of the domain name pool .............................. 8 Registrants still young and urban ......................................................................................... 9 The growing concentration among registrars ..................................................................... 9 Technology and security ....................................................................................................... 10 .fr domain names are mainly used on the Web for business purposes........................... 11 Major changes ahead ........................................................................................................... 12 Part One: Background ............................................................................................... 13 Chapter 1: Background facts & figures: the Internet in France ......................................... 13 Household equipment ..........................................................................................................................13 Internet users........................................................................................................................................13 Internet access ......................................................................................................................................14 Firms’ Internet Use ..............................................................................................................................15 Chapter 2: Background facts & figures: domain names around the world...................... 18 Use of the various domains around the world .......................................................................................18 Geographical breakdown of domain names .........................................................................................22 Chapter 3: Background facts & figures: domain names in France ................................... 23 Chapter 4: Trend in numbers of .fr domain names ............................................................. 25 Individuals and legal entities.................................................................................................................26 Renewal of .fr domain names ...............................................................................................................27 Part Two: .fr domain names ...................................................................................... 29 Chapter 5: Number of domain names per holder .............................................................. 29 Individuals ...........................................................................................................................................29 Legal entities .......................................................................................................................................30 Trend ...................................................................................................................................................31 Chapter 6: Lexicographical structure of .fr domain names............................................... 32 Length of .fr domain names .................................................................................................................32 Use of hyphens and numerals in .fr domain names...............................................................................33 Terms used in .fr domain names...........................................................................................................34 Proportion of letter/numeral combinations actually registered as .fr domain names ..............................36 Investigations using various lists of names ............................................................................................37 Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names ..................................................................37 Proportion of French first names and surnames registered as .fr domain names ....................................38 Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registered as .fr domain names .........................39 Proportion of company names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names .....................................40 -2-
    • Part Three: Holders of names ..................................................................................... 41 Chapter 7: Location of individual holders of .fr domain names ........................................ 41 Preliminary remarks .............................................................................................................................41 Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals .........................................................................41 Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants ......................................42 Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................46 Chapter 8: Location of legal entities holders of .fr domain names ................................... 49 Preliminary remarks .............................................................................................................................49 Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities.......................................................................50 Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities, per 1,000 legal entities..................................51 Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................54 Chapter 9: Location of individual and legal entities holders of .fr domain names ......... 56 Total number of .fr domain names (individuals and legal entities together) ..........................................56 Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................57 Chapter 10: Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names ............................................ 59 Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names .......................................................................59 Changes in the age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names ................................................61 Part Four: Registrars .................................................................................................... 62 Chapter 11: Registrars ............................................................................................................ 62 Number of registrars of .fr domain names ............................................................................................62 Location of registrars of .fr domain names............................................................................................63 Chapter 12: Types of service offered and charges ............................................................ 67 Services offered by registrars .................................................................................................................67 Registrars’ charges.................................................................................................................................68 Chapter 13: Analysis of the registrar market ....................................................................... 70 Number of .fr domain names per registrar............................................................................................70 Entire market (individuals and legal entities) ..............................................................................70 Lorentz curves.............................................................................................................................72 The market for individuals ..........................................................................................................72 Corporate market .......................................................................................................................73 Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names (numbers of domain names managed) .........74 Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names (in terms of new domain names registered) ..75 The market for ICANN-accredited registrars ........................................................................................76 Figures on registrars operating in the .fr domain and ICANN-accredited for generic domains at the same time ...................................................................................................................................78 Chapter 14: Analysis of the secondary market ................................................................... 79 Players involved in the secondary market for domain names.................................................................79 DN Journal figures on the worldwide secondary domain names market ..............................................80 Sedo statistics on the worldwide secondary domain names market .......................................................81 Sedo statistics on the secondary market for .fr domain names ..............................................................85 -3-
    • Part Five: Technologies .............................................................................................. 87 Chapter 15: Data on DNS servers.......................................................................................... 87 Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name ......................................................................................87 Number of .fr domain names per DNS server ......................................................................................88 Statistics on requests received by authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC .................................89 Chapter 16: Data on the use of IPv6 ..................................................................................... 91 Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addresses .....................................................................................91 .fr domain names supporting IPv6 .......................................................................................................92 Part Six: Uses................................................................................................................ 94 Chapter 17: Use of .fr domain names on the Web ............................................................. 94 Responses from Web servers associated with .fr domain names.............................................................94 Types of website associated with .fr domain names ...............................................................................96 Sector of activity of websites associated with .fr domain names ...........................................................99 Chapter 18: Perception of .fr domain names ...................................................................... 100 Familiarity with the domain names ......................................................................................................100 Values associated with the .fr domain ...................................................................................................101 Acquisition of .fr domain names ..........................................................................................................101 Use of the .fr domain names.................................................................................................................102 Chapter 19: Disputes over domain names in France ........................................................ 103 Disputes over .fr domain names ...........................................................................................................103 UDRP disputes handled by WIPO ......................................................................................................106 Part Seven: Conclusions ............................................................................................ 111 Chapter 20: Market trends and prospects ........................................................................... 111 Review of the year ................................................................................................................................111 Outlook ...............................................................................................................................................112 About AFNIC ............................................................................................................... 114 About Télécom & Management SudParis ................................................................ 115 Contents ..................................................................................................................... 116 List of tables ................................................................................................................. 119 List of figures ................................................................................................................ 120 List of notes .................................................................................................................. 122 Glossary ....................................................................................................................... 124 -4-
    • -5-
    • Introduction This is the 2009 edition of the French Domain Name Industry Report drawn up in September 2009. Its figures have been taken from a variety of sources: non-confidential information extracted from the AFNIC database, public information websites and opinion surveys. AFNIC would like to thank all those who provided information that helped with the preparation of the report. The research was carried out under a contract between AFNIC and Télécom & Management SudParis, over a period of 3 months, from July to September 2009. It was not possible to incorporate later information in this version of the industry report. Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report? There are already various providers offering information on domain names. Yet these organizations have a worldwide, generalist vision and cannot access the registries’ own data. Moreover they usually dot not undertake in-depth analysis of the various markets. Starting in 2007, AFNIC has undertaken this task of reporting annually on the domain names market in France, for the benefit of those involved in that market, the government authorities and the bodies tasked with developing the Internet in France. The overall aims of this industry report are accordingly: ● to give a reliable picture of the market and its players, ● to provide the means of analysing the factors that influence the market and set its trends, ● to help promote understanding and recognition of this market and its special features within the private and public sectors, ● to identify the market’s strengths and weaknesses, putting forward recommendations for registrars and/or the registry. The report’s object is to provide a summary for submission to the government authorities and made available to all those involved in the Internet and to the public at large. -6-
    • Executive summary Salient facts about the .fr domain in 2008-2009 1.5 million domain names milestone reached on September 10, 2009 Weathering the economic storm better than most Top Level Domains (25% growth in a year vs 8% average) Over 75% of new registrations in France since July 2008 Median end-user price steady at €12/year +VAT, in line with other Top Level Domains Concentration still underway among registrars Secondary market growing rapidly: mean value for .fr the highest of all TLDs More DNS and Web servers supporting IPv6 Business use on the Web still well ahead of use for personal sites A growing number of registrants want to use personalised e-mail addresses France’s favourite domain - .fr ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The general climate of economic slowdown has also affected the ICT industry, and the world market in domain names has suffered along with others: It did indeed grow by 8% over the twelve months to mid- 2009, but this was far slower than last year (19%). Some of the most severe corrections afflicted the fastest growing Top Level Domains in recent years, such as the Chinese country domain .cn, or the .mobi domain for mobile devices. While country-code Top Level Domains (or ccTLDs) have generally weathered the recession better than the generic ones, the .fr domain has performed exceptionnaly well, growing another 25% between 2008 and 2009. Since registration was open to individuals in June 2006, and thanks to recent improvements in terms of automation and a fall in registrars’ prices, .fr has become an even firmer favourite among the French. It has accounted for most of the growth in the domestic domain name industry, while .com registrations have been marking time for over a year. Year after year the .fr domain has been nibbling away at competing domains’ market share in the domestic market, and it now accounts for more than three quarters of new name registrations in France, and a third of all French domain names. At a worldwide level, the generic .com domain is still a long way in the lead, with more than 80 million domain names registered. Some other ccTLDs are also well placed, owing to their liberal registrations policies as well as a very dynamic domestic market (China, Germany and the United Kingdom). -7-
    • Judging by the number of domain names registered per head of population, the French domain is quite far behind its European counterparts. This means the .fr domain still has considerable potential, and good prospects accordingly. National domain name markets are, of course, closely bound up with the numbers of households and firms online in their various countries. In France, the proportion of households with Internet access is now 60%, with over 19 million Internet connections (most of them broadband), and approximately 34 million regular Internet users. Mobile Internet use is on the increase: the number of active 3G subscriptions and Internet- only SIM cards has doubled in a year. French firms are also among Europe’s best connected, though they are a long way behind in setting up websites: scarcely more than half of them had a website in 2008. This is one of the reasons why the French domain name industry is small compared those of countries like Germany or the UK. Rather than indicating a reluctance among French people for a particular domain, it might be due to the continuing low uptake of “internet media”. Studies of geographical distribution show that French firms and individuals hold only 2.5% of the domain names registered in the generic domains, slightly up on last year. A regular and steady increase in the use of the domain name pool ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• On September 10, 2009 the number of .fr registrations reached 1.5 million for the first time. Growth has accelerated markedly since the amendments to the AFNIC registration rules in 2004 and 2006: from 25,000 new names a year to 300,000, in just a few years. Personal (non-corporate) registrants are making a significant contribution to the growth of the French market. They are now accounting for half of all .fr registrations. Their share of all domain names registered is rising year by year, and in 2009 reached nearly 40%. Moreover, .fr domain names still have a very high renewal rate of approximately 80%. The vast majority of .fr holders only have one domain name in this TLD, whether individuals or firms. However, some isolated holders own thousands of names, mainly domainers either managing portfolios of names to be sold on the secondary market or monetizing the traffic they generate. A breakdown of registrations indicates that saturation in the .fr domain has continued to intensify somewhat over the past year: mean name length has risen from 11.6 to 12 characters. The hyphen is once again a very popular character (appearing in a third of names): it functions as a separator in putting domain names together using chains of elementary characters, the most frequently used being “france”, “immobilier” [property] and “paris”. Moreover, 84% of the commonest words in the French dictionary have already been registered as .fr names, as well as 71% of personal first names, plus a quarter of place names (local authority areas) and nearly 70% of the company names of the bigger French firms. These ratios have all risen steadily since 2007. -8-
    • Registrants still young and urban ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• There are great variations among administrative regions when it comes to the geographic location of .fr registrants. Understandably, the most densely populated regions are top of the list: Paris accounts for nearly 20% of domain names registered in France, and the Greater Paris region (Île-de-France) for nearly 40%. At the other end of the scale administrative sub-divisions (“départements”) in rural areas show the lowest rate of domain name registration per head and per company, though some have seen considerable annual growth rates. On average, France now has 6 registered names per 1,000 inhabitants and 230 per 1,000 firms. Lastly, 1.5% of the corporate holders of .fr names are based outside France (though owners of brands marketed in France). They are almost all located in Europe, or in North America. In terms of their age distribution, the individual holders of .fr domain names have a median age of 35.5 years. This is distinctly lower than that of the population at large because older people use the Internet less; the name holders’ median age has risen over the last year, just outstripping the natural aging of the population: this might indicate that domain name ownership is gaining ground among older population. The growing concentration among registrars ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The structural trends in the .fr domain name registration industry are continuing: the total number of registrars has continued to fall, down to 870 this year. The geographical distribution of registrars across France shows that their location reflects the general population’s distribution. Furthermore 14% of .fr registrars are in fact based outside France, mainly in Europe. A study of the 30 biggest registrars of .fr domain names reveals that the fees currently charged range between €5 and €90 (plus VAT). The width of this range reflects differences in registrar’s target markets (individuals, SMEs/micro-enterprises or big firms) as well as in the value-added services bundled with a domain name. After a significant fall in 2008 (of around €3 to €5+VAT), the fees charged for the .fr domain remained fairly static this year. The median charge is €12/year +VAT, which is now in line with the generic domains. The individuals’ market is marked by a “long tail” of very small registrars, over half of which manage fewer than 10 names each. This trend continues the significant concentration of the distribution among a few big players. The latter trend has been witnessed continuously since registration of .fr names was open to individuals in 2006. In the corporate sector, the .fr domain name registration industry remains considerably less concentrated than for individuals. Nevertheless it is comparably shifting year by year towards greater concentration. As for the entire .fr registration market, monitoring of changes in the appropriate econometric indices shows that it has just moved from “Not concentrated” to “Moderately concentrated”. We note moreover that this movement of concentration mostly benefits the market leader alone, at the expense of its competitors. -9-
    • In the global market, only 1.5% of the world’s ICANN-accredited registrars are located in France. They manage 1.6% of generic domain names, a proportion which has risen slightly in a year. The world market in generic domains is also seeing a concentration comparable to that visible in the French market for .fr. Again, this trends benefits the market leader alone, that is worldwide No. 1, Go Daddy. The secondary market continues to be very vigorous: 2008 saw 35% yearly growth on one of the main trading platforms. After a marked slowdown in the second half of 2008, probably due to the economic crisis forcing the various players to draw in their horns, there seems to have been a rebound since the start of 2009. The prices at which names changed hands, however, seem to have come off the boil somewhat, whether we look at average figures or record values. This secondary market is something fairly recent in France, but people are gradually becoming aware of the intrinsic value of certain domain names, which have every right to be regarded as assets forming part of their capital. The total number of deals in the secondary market for .fr almost tripled between 2007 and 2008, while the average price is now above that for all domains together. The record sale for 2009 across all TLDs was $5 million; for the .fr domain the record was €35,000 with a median price set at €800. Technology and security ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• An analysis of the AFNIC database shows that the vast majority of .fr domain names are only configured to have two DNS servers, which is often the default configuration specified by their registrar. On the other hand, DNS servers registered in the AFNIC database are very diverse in terms of size: nearly half of them manage just one domain name, while the DNS servers of the biggest registrars, though not very numerous, contain many tens of thousands of registrations. In the light of these findings, from a technical point of view, .fr domain name holders are advised to diversify the DNS and network configuration on which their domain names depend. Lastly, the total number of DNS servers registered in the AFNIC database has risen by 21% over the last year, to a total of 37,000 servers. The average rate of requests to authoritative DNS servers of the .fr zone run by AFNIC rose from 2,000 per second in 2007 to over 3,000 per second in the first half of 2009. This rise clearly reflects the growth and patterns of usage visible with domain names in the .fr zone. Indeed uses of .fr domain name are equally distributed between requests for IPv4 addresses (websites) and mail forwarding requests (e-mail addresses). A specific study on IPv6 address publication in the DNS shows that approximately 5% of .fr domain names support IPv6 for DNS in 2009, and 2% for the Web; the proportion is distinctly lower in the case of mail servers. DNS and web server support for this protocol has grown considerably in France between 2008 and 2009. - 10 -
    • .fr domain names are mainly used on the Web for business purposes ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• A study of the responses from the Web servers associated with .fr domain names shows that in 2009 three quarters of these names led to an operational website, either directly or by redirection to another address. Such redirections were within the .fr zone in 44% of cases. Another study, on a random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names, reveals how the names are used on the Web. Websites associated with French domain names are mostly business ones (nearly half of all names), while only 3% are obviously personal sites. Moreover, 23% of domain names were “parked” (holding pages, or pages listing sponsored links). Business websites cover a very extensive range of activities: the biggest category was that of online stores and other retail sites, but there were also services and leisure sites, 25% of them with e-commerce capabilities. The .fr domain therefore seems to be valuable to those involved in French online commerce, and this tallies with AFNIC’s findings concerning perceptions. Various opinion surveys carried out have revealed a number of key points. The .fr domain still has a special meaning for the French public: they associate it primarily with the French language and the French-speaking world. A overwhelming majority of respondents spontaneously look under .fr when searching for a French firm’s website. Prices are still the main factor when people are choosing a registrar or a domain. However, respondents do not always clearly identify the way they use domain names or how they might benefit from such use. Lastly, most of them want to be able to use their .fr domain names for personalised e-mail addresses and to protect their details by means of anonymous Whois services. So far as legal aspects are concerned, a progressive set of measures has been implemented by AFNIC to deal with any disputes relating to .fr domain names, ranging from conformity checks by the registry itself to court proceedings, including alternative dispute resolution (ADR). Moreover, the dispute resolution procedure for obvious breaches of the Decree of 6 February 2007 (PREDEC) has been used on many occasions since it was set up in July 2008: nearly a hundred cases have been brought in a year. For a number of years the .fr domain has been one of those with the highest number of dispute resolution proceedings per domain name. This fact reflects the importance that legitimate French holders attach to control their .fr names – comparatively with other less highly prized TLDs. It is also worth noting that the proportion of WIPO complaints from French organizations concerning generic domains is more than four times greater than the proportion of generic names registered in France. This could indicate that French firms have a stronger tendency than their foreign counterparts to adopt a policy of registering only a few names but going to law to defend those registrations if tampered with. - 11 -
    • Major changes ahead ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The world market in domain names is expected to change significantly in coming years, as the new generic domains planned by ICANN become available and new technologies arrive, including the Internet of Things. Although the French domain name market as a whole is still relatively less developed than in other countries, it seems that there will be a strong tendency towards vigorous growth over the next few years. This should be of direct benefit to the .fr domain because of its special status among French web users, who associate it with the French-speaking world, with the idea of being a member of the French Internet community and hence feel a certain connection with a site’s publisher and its visitors. The .fr domain is here to stay. It is openly available and managed with an ongoing concern for protecting individual holders’ privacy and third parties’ rights; it may reasonably be expected to dominate the French market. This trend should be strenghtened by the ongoing standardization of registrars’ prices across Top Level Domains. The .fr domain enjoys unquestionable advantages for its continued development in a market which is weathering the economic storm better than most and is being boosted by an ever greater maturity among users. This process of increasing market maturity should moreover help plans for meaningful new domains, such as .paris. Indeed .paris will benefit from the city’s worldwide brand recognition while taking its place as an utterly indispensable tool in the name-choosing strategies of firms and individuals keen to show off their connection with the French capital. - 12 -
    • Part One: Background Chapter 1 Background facts & figures: the Internet in France ● Source of data: INSEE, Médiamétrie, ARCEP, Eurostat. This chapter gives a snapshot of Internet use in France: households’ ownership of equipment, number of Internet users, number of Internet connections and the hardware available to French firms. Household equipment ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Household penetration of PCs and Internet access has been steadily increasing for many years1. At the start of 2008 nearly 6 French households in 10 had access to the Internet. The percentage of households with a PC but without Internet access for it fell noticeably (6% in 2008 compared with 15% in 1998). However, the ICT industry has not been immune to the fallout from the economic crisis. According to the INSEE, sales of ICT-related goods and services did continue to grow in 2008 (+6.9%), but slowed markedly by comparison with 2007 (+14.4%). Purchases of data processing equipment grew 10.9% in 2008 compared with 23.7% last year; this was the slowest growth for 15 years. Internet users ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The number of Internet users in France is also continuing to rise: according to an analysis carried out by the French Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment, it was somewhere between 30 million and 32 million in 2008 (depending on the particular survey). According to Médiamétrie, 34.2 million people aged 11 and over had gone online during June 2009; more than 60% of French people. - 13 -
    • Internet access ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In Q1 2009 the total number of Internet access points in France was 19.2 million, according to ARCEP2. A very great majority of these (95%) use some form of broadband, mainly ADSL. The annual rate of growth in broadband access is still very high (12% in Q2 2009), though it has slowed since the end of 2008. Moreover, one third of the mobile phones in use can access multimedia services (WAP, i-Mode, MMS, e-mail), and 22% can access 3G services3. Mobile Internet access devices are currently proliferating very fast: the total number of active 3G devices has doubled since a year ago (to 13 million customers), as well as the number of Internet-only SIM cards (PCMCIA cards and 3G/3G+ Internet dongles). French Internet statistics, 2009 (Sources: INSEE, Médiamétrie, GfK and ARCEP) Parameter Value Year's change Households’ IT status PC ownership 62% of households at the start of 2008 +8 points Internet access 16.5 million, or 61% of households in Q2 2009 +17.1% Internet users Internet users 33.1 million, or 61.9% of the population in July 2009 +4.1% Broadband users 28.7 million, or 95.8% of household internet users July 2009 +8.5% Internet accounts Internet access 19.2 million in Q1 2009 +8.9% Broadband access 18.7 million in Q2 2009 +12% DSL access 17.6 million in Q2 2009 +10.9% Dial-up access 0.8 million in Q1 2009 -38.8% Mobile phones Number of mobile phones 58.9 million, or 91.8% of the population in Q2 2009 +5.2% Number of multimedia-enabled mobiles 19 million, or 1/3 of mobile phones in Q1 2009 +13.3% Number of 3G-enabled mobiles 13 million, or 22.4% of mobile phones in Q1 2009 +97% Internet-only SIM cards 1.2 million in Q1 2009 +104% Table 1 – French Internet statistics, 2009 - 14 -
    • Firms’ Internet Use ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• According to Eurostat’s figures4, French firms are some of Europe’s best equipped when it comes to broadband access: 92% have broadband, against a European average of 81% (Figure 1). What is more, broadband connectivity has improved in every company size group, and among firms with more than 250 employees the rate actually exceeds 99%. European firms’ broadband Internet access, Jan 2008 (Source: Eurostat) 99% 100% 92% 92% 92% 91% 89% 89% 88% 90% 87% 87% 86% 86% 84% 84% 83% EU mean: 81% Percentage of firms with 10 employees and more 81% 81% 80% 79% 79% 79% 80% 76% 72% 70% 62% 62% 59% 60% 56% 50% 44% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% y ep k g er y Es n m n ce Sw ta Po ly H ria ia U xem ia ia s ia th d D gal Bu ry ia et dom nd ia d Be d N s lic om a an a r ru ur ai e nd n an an ni Ita an n ak en tv ch ma iu ar al ga ub w an ed st la la Sp to rtu yp ua bo La m lg M r la el nl lg or ov Au Po ov Ir e un ng Fr en C Fi Ic he Sl Sl Ki R R G Li d Lu N te ze ni C Country Figure 1 – European firms’ broadband Internet use - 15 -
    • Most French firms deal online with their banks and with government. Teleworking and e-training, on the other hand, are less well developed (Table 2). French Firms’ Internet Use in 2007 (Source: INSEE) Internet Use % Use online banking or financial services 76% Use online teaching or training 23% Deal with government online 72% Complete administrative form online 65% Submit public tenders online 13% Teleworking 21% Equipped with collaborative work tools 13% Use a free (open source) operating system 14% Table 2 – French firms’ Internet use The situation concerning the setting up of websites is very different: only 54% of French firms had a website in 2008, compared with a European average of 64%, which puts France in the lowest quartile of EU countries on this measure (Figure 2). This finding should be seen in conjunction with the lesser use of domain names in France by comparison with countries of similar economic development. European companies with a website or home page, January 2008 (Source: Eurostat) 100% 90% 87% 86% 85% 82% Percentage of firms with 10 employees or more 79% 80% 77% 77% 76% 76% 74% 73% 73% 71% 70% 66% 65% EU mean : 64% 64% 58% 57% 57% 60% 55% 54% 54% 48% 48% 50% 46% 42% 40% 33% 30% 27% 20% 10% 0% Sw rk Ic y Sl ay g h e en m n ria ly ta ia nd ce a Es a H us Po ry m l Bu ia N a nd d R ria Fi s d Sl lic a ga an ur nd ai ni an i i an ni Ita an en tv a ak iu al ga do ub w r an ed la st Lu rela a Sp m to rtu ua yp bo La m lg M r la nl el lg or ov om Au Po ov ze ing un ep Fr en ni Be er C th m I R D G K Li xe et ch d N te C U Country Figure 2 – European firms: websites - 16 -
    • The service sector in general (and financial, ITC-related and property services in particular) has a major presence here; but the same cannot be said of transport, retailing or construction (Figure 3). French companies with a website or home page, January 2008 by industry (Source: INSEE) Services; 61% Financial services; 94% ITC-related services; 87% Other corporate services; 57% Property services; 78% Industry Hotels and restaurants; 59% Transport; 51% Industry incl. agro-food and energy; 58% Commerce; 54% Retailing; 39% Construction; 33% Mean : 54 % 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percentage of firms with 10 employees or more Figure 3 – French firms: websites Company size is another factor in website development: only 44% of French firms employing 10 to 20 staff have a website, while for 85% of those with over 250 employees have one. Many of those French firms which do have a website put their product catalogue online (nearly 70%), though far fewer offer online ordering (one in four) or online payment (one in ten). French firms' use of websites, 2008 (Source: INSEE) Website functions % Offer a catalogue or price list 69% Offer online ordering or reservation of goods and services 24% Offer online payment facilities 11% Offer ways for regular visitors and power users to customize the site 15% Display job offers or accept CVs online 21% Table 3 – French firms’ website functions - 17 -
    • Chapter 2 Background facts & figures: domain names around the world ● Source of data: AFNIC, CIA World Factbook, Dot and Co, CENTR, WebHosting.info, ISC, Security Space. This chapter gives statistical data on the use of domain names around the world (all domains), and on Internet hosts and web servers. Use of the various domains around the world • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • The figure below shows the ranking of the main domains (generic and country-code) in June 2009. The statistics used here have been compiled by AFNIC on the basis of the official websites of these domains’ registries (Figure 4). The .com generic domain is still far ahead, with more than 80 million domain names registered. Next, though far behind, comes a very close cluster of three domains with over 10 million names: .cn (China), .de (Germany) and .net (generic). The .cn domain is growing fast: it has overtaken first .net two years ago, then .de during the last year, before being overtaken by it once again in August. The French domain is still in 16th place in this league table, with nearly 1,500,000 names. - 18 -
    • Number of domain names registered, June 2009, by domain (Source: AFNIC, Study of 50 largest domains worldwide) .com; 81,209,383 .cn (China); 12,963,685 .de (Germany); 12,869,216 .net; 12,337,971 .uk (United Kingdom); 7,708,174 .org; 7,699,874 .info; 5,226,580 .nl (Netherlands); 3,441,405 .eu (European Union); 2,918,908 .ru (Russia); 2,160,583 .biz; 2,045,860 .ar (Argentina); 1,815,000 Domain .br (Brazil); 1,725,000 .it (Italy); 1,708,193 .us (United States); 1,634,491 .fr (France); 1,458,754 .pl (Poland); 1,438,818 .ch (Switzerland); 1,278,125 .ca (Canada); 1,226,413 .es (Spain); 1,147,475 .jp (Japan); 1,098,360 .dk (Denmark); 1,008,543 .kr (South Korea); 1,004,115 .be (Belgium); 925,748 .se (Sweden); 886,816 0 10,000,000 20,000,000 30,000,000 40,000,000 50,000,000 60,000,000 70,000,000 80,000,000 90,000,000 Number of domain names Figure 4 – Number of domain names per Top Level Domain - 19 -
    • The figure below shows the growth over the last year in the number of domain names registered for each TLD (Figure 5). The domains .ro (Romania), .lv (Latvia) and .ru (Russia) all grew by more than 40%. The French domain has had a reasonable position here ever since it became available to individuals; its annual growth of 25% is considerably above the mean (+ 9%) for the 50 biggest TLDs worldwide which were studied here. Global growth over the past year has indeed been led by the ccTLDs (+ 13%) rather than the gTLDs (+ 6%). One year's growth in the number of names registered in June 2009, various domains (Source: AFNIC, Study of 50 largest domains worldwide) .ro (Romania); 69% .lv (Latvia); 53% .ru (Russia); 43% .pl (Poland); 34% .pt (Portugal); 33% .cz (Czech Republic); 30% .lt (Lithuania); 27% .fr (France); 25% .mx (Mexico); 24% .si (Slovenia); 21% .tr (Turkey); 21% .ie (Ireland); 21% Domain .br (Brazil); 21% .se (Sweden); 19% Mean growth, 50 largest TLDs: .sk (Slovakia); 19% .ar (Argentina); 19% + 9% in one year .ca (Canada); 17% .fi (Finland); 17% .hr (Croatia); 17% +6% on gTLDs .es (Spain); 16% +13% on ccTLDs .cl (Chile); 16% .is (Iceland); 16% .il (Israel); 15% .be (Belgium); 15% .nl (Netherlands); 15% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Increase in one year ((June 2008 - June 2009) Figure 5– Annual growth in the number of domain names per Top Level Domain As to the number of domain names registered per head, the .fr domain is still lagging, with 2.3 names per 100 inhabitants. However, this ratio has doubled since two years ago (1.2 in 2007). The domain for Montenegro .me has been top of this ranking since it became available during 2008: it is marketed as a domain for personalized sites, with a play on the English word “me” (for example “ask.me”). The next domains in this list are the Dutch (.nl), Danish (.dk), Swiss (.ch), German (.de), British (.uk) and Austrian (.at), all with over 10 names per 100 inhabitants. We may note that the number of domain names per head of population is not necessarily representative of a national domain’s real usage by the people in the country concerned: some of the domain names have been registered by firms and not by individuals. On the other hand, in the case of domains without any territorial requirements, some of the names are registered by people who do not belong to the country concerned (the most blatant case being the Montenegro domain, mainly registered by English-speaking people). This means that the “number of domains per head of population” turns out to be largely connected with the degree to which a domain is openly available: the ratio should be viewed with care. The .fr domain is one of those which has kept a territorial requirement: its domain names are only available to French residents and corporate bodies registered in France or owning registered trade marks covering France. - 20 -
    • The “adjusted” figures for the number of domain names in the various principal TLDs show that there has been a rapid increase in those domains which have recently undergone an extension of availability or a relaxation in their conditions of registration: .cn (China), .ru (Russia), .pl (Poland), .es (Spain), .mobi (sites for mobile phones). For instance, the .pl domain offers naming rules that are very favourable to domainers (the secondary domain name market). Some of these domains – (.cn, .mobi) – have, however, seen a severe correction in their volume of registrations in recent months. The French domain has grown considerably faster than the average for the domains studied (national or generic), and with remarkable steadiness over time (Figure 6). Changes in “adjusted” number of domain names, by domain type, since 2007 (Base 100 April 2007 - Sources: CENTR and Dot and Co - Study of 25 major domains worldwide) 180 .fr “Adjusted” number of domain names (base 100 April 2007) 170 160 Total ccTLDs 150 140 Total 130 Total gTLDs 120 110 100 09 08 9 8 Au - 0 8 8 8 9 7 7 M 8 8 8 8 7 8 M 7 Se 8 7 7 7 8 Se 7 7 M 9 9 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 r-0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 r-0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 n- r-0 n- -0 br br ne ly ct ch ne ly pt ov ec ct ch st pt ov ec ay st ay Ja Ja ay Ap Ap Ap Ju Fe Ju O Fe O gu gu Ju ar N D Ju ar N D M M Au Months Figure 6 – Changes in “adjusted” number of domain names, by type of domain The rolling annual rate of growth is falling for all TLDs, partly as a consequence of the current economic crisis. The .cn and .mobi domains, which had been enjoying spectacular growth just a little while ago, have seen their growth rates fall drastically since 2008, and even (in the case of .mobi) become negative. The .fr domain, on the other hand, is seen to have steady or hardly slowing growth, now well above the mean rate for generic and national domains. The ccTLDs generally are holding up better than the gTLDs, with an annual rate of growth to mid-2009 of 12%, as 6%. - 21 -
    • Geographical breakdown of domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The site WebHosting.info5 provides estimates of the geographical distribution of generic domain names around the world (Figure 7). These indicate that nearly two thirds of such domain names were registered in the United States, followed by Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada and China. 2.5% of generic domain names were registered in France; the 2007 figure was 2.2%. Unlike last year, France is now ahead of Australia. Breakdown of gTLDs by country .com /.net /.org /.info /.biz July 2009 (Source: WebHosting.info) Hong Kong; 1.1% Other countries; 9.2% gTLDs mean growth: Italy; 1.1% + 4.1% last year Spain; 1.2% Japan; 1.5% Australia; 2.1% France; 2.5% China; 3.2% Canada; 3.4% United Kingdom; 3.6% Germany; 5.7% United States; 65.3% Figure 7 – Breakdown of generic domain names by country - 22 -
    • Chapter 3 Background facts & figures: domain names in France ● Source of data: ZookNIC, AFNIC. This chapter gives figures on the distribution of domain names registered in France among the principal domains used (.fr and generic domains). The figure below shows the distribution among principal Top Level Domains registered in France in July 2009 (Figure 8). The domains most frequently used in France are .com (42% of all names) and .fr (one third of names). The other generic domains come far behind. The changes of the last year have been broadly positive for the French domain (up more than 4 percentage points) but decidedly negative for the .com domain (-5.5 percentage points). Of the 400,000 new names registered since July 2008, more than three quarters belong to the .fr domain and nearly 20% to the .org domain. Conversely, the .com domain actually shows a net loss of 60,000 names. The fact that the .fr domain is moving ahead of the other domains available in its national market clearly shows a growing preference among French users for .fr ever since it was made available to individuals in 2006. Breakdown of the main domain names registered in France in July 2009 (Sources: ZookNIC and AFNIC) .info 3.5% .biz 1.7% (-0.1 in one year) (+0.3 in one year) .mobi 0.4% .eu 5.7% (+0.4 in one year) (+0.2 in one year) .org 6.4% (+1.1 in one year) .com 41.7% .net 7.3% (-5.5 in one year) (-0.5 in one year) .fr 33.3% (+4.1 in one year) Figure 8 – Breakdown of domain names registered in France - 23 -
    • A study of changes over time shows that the .fr domain is enjoying sustained and regular growth in France, even at a time when the leading domain (.com) has been marking time since the summer of 2008. Changes in the “adjusted” numbers of domain names show that the ones which have shown the most vigorous growth in the last two years are the .biz and .fr domains, well ahead of the mean growth in all names registered in France. It should be noted, though, that the .biz domain is starting from a very low base (40,000 names in July 2007, 850,000 for the .fr domain). Since the principle of entitlement to a name was abandoned in May 2004, the .fr domain has practically always come top or second in terms of annual rate of growth, sometimes behind the .info or .biz domains whose market share in France is only a few percent. - 24 -
    • Chapter 4 Trend in numbers of .fr domain names ● Source of data: AFNIC6. This chapter gives figures on the registration of .fr domain names: changes in the number of names registered, distribution as between individuals and corporate bodies, and operations carried out (name creations and deletions, name renewal rate). Looking at the graph of changes in the total number of .fr domains, we clearly see the impact of the successive amendments to the naming rules (abolition of entitlement to a name in May 2004, followed in June 2006 by availability to individuals). The growth rate has risen from 25,000 new names a year at the start of the decade to 300,000 new names a year in 2009 (Figure 9). On 1 August 2009 there were 1,475,750 .fr domain names registered in the AFNIC database. Changes in the total number of .fr domain names 1,600,000 Available to Entitlement abolished individuals 1,400,000 + 300,000 names/yr 1,200,000 1,000,000 No. of domain names 800,000 600,000 + 120,000 names/yr 400,000 + 25,000 names/yr 200,000 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 00 04 05 06 07 08 09 00 01 02 03 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 br br br br br br br br br br st st st st st st st st st st Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe gu gu gu gu gu gu gu gu gu gu Au Au Au Au Au Au Au Au Au Au Months Figure 9 – Changes in the total number of .fr domain names - 25 -
    • Individuals and legal entities ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• .fr domain names may be registered by individuals (natural persons) as well as by corporate bodies (juristic persons – companies, associations, public bodies, etc.). Until June 2006 individuals could only register .fr names in the sub-domains (.nom.fr and .com.fr). Second level names are now also available to adult individuals with an address in France. The breakdown between the two types of holder shows that the corporate bodies still are in the majority: in June 2009 there were more than 900,000 domain names registered by corporate bodies, and around 500,000 names registered by individuals. However, the proportion of registrations carried out by individuals is steadily rising: since the domain became available to individuals in 2006, half of new name registrations have been by individuals. Individuals held 37% of all .fr domain names in June 2009, compared with 27% two years earlier (Figure 10). Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals since 2007 (cumulative totals and new names) 70% Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals New .fr domain names 60% 50% 40% Cumulative totals of .fr domain names 30% 20% 10% 0% Ju 07 ar 07 gu 7 gu 0 8 Ju 8 9 08 N 7 09 M 7 O 7 D 7 7 9 Ap 7 8 S e 07 D 8 Ju 7 N 8 M 09 9 O 8 Se 8 8 M 8 Ju 8 8 Ju 9 Au l y - 0 -0 M r-0 -0 r-0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 M r-0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 r-0 -0 -0 -0 - - n- - n- - ne r- br ne ct ly pt ov ec ne ch st ov ay ct pt ec ch st ay ay ch b b Ap Ja Ja Ap Fe Fe Fe ar ar M Au Months Figure 10 – Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals - 26 -
    • Renewal of .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The renewal rate of a domain is the proportion of its domain names renewed by the holder on expiry. In the case of the .fr domain, this renewal rate is around 80% and has remained fairly steady over time – apart from some particular, clearly identified and expected effects (Figure 11). The fall observed in July 2007, for instance, was due to non-renewal of names registered a year earlier (as soon as this was possible for individuals). That of February 2009 was due to non-renewal of names registered in January 2008 when one registrar was offering ( .fr domain names free of charge for a short promotion). Renewal rates of .fr domain names since 2007 100% 95% 90% 86% 86% 86% 86% 85% 84% 84% 84% 84% 84% 84% 84% 85% 83% 83% 83% 83% 83% 83% 83% 83% 82% 82% 82% 82% Renewal rates 81% 81% 80% 77% 75% 72% 69% 70% 65% 60% 9 8 gu 7 Fe 8 Fe 9 Ju 8 gu 8 ar 07 N 8 Ju 7 N 7 9 8 7 D 8 Se 7 M 9 Se 8 8 D 7 7 Ju 7 7 M 7 M 8 9 Ju 8 Ju 9 8 M r-0 M r-0 Au l y - 0 0 -0 0 -0 Au - 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 r-0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 r-0 r-0 -0 -0 -0 -0 n- n- - ne ct ne ct ly br ne pt pt ov st ec st ov ec ay b ch b ch ay ay ch Ap Ja Ja Ap Ap O O Fe ar ar M Months Figure 11 – Renewal of .fr domain names - 27 -
    • A study of the impact of one registrar’s promotion in January 2008 indicates that about one third of the 20,000 .fr domain names registered on the day of the promotion seem to have been kept in being by their holder a year later (Table 4). Impact of the 10 January 2008 promotion Numbers of names registered during the promotion Registrations in January 2008 59,061 Mean registrations, July 2007 – July 2008 36,565 New registrations presumably due to the promotion 22,496 Name deletions a year after the promotion Deletions in January 2009 31,497 Mean deletions, July 2008 – June 2009 16,882 Deletions of names presumably due to the promotion 14,615 Estimate of the promotion’s success rate Names kept a year after the promotion 7,882 % of names kept after a year 35% Table 4 – Impact of one promotion on .fr domain names - 28 -
    • Part Two: .fr domain names Chapter 5 Number of domain names per holder ● Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (breakdown of numbers of names registered per individual and per corporate body). This chapter gives figures for the number of .fr domain names registered per holder, for both holder types (individuals and corporate bodies). AFNIC makes every effort to identify holders of domain names in its database unequivocally, by analysing the information supplied when the names are registered. It is possible, however, for a person to appear as a holder more than once in the AFNIC database, if that holder has registered domain names through different registrars and given different details on each occasion. This also applies to firms, if their domain names have been registered by different subsidiaries or bodies which AFNIC has no means of cross-referencing. Holder numbers in the AFNIC database are accordingly a slight overestimate of the actual situation. The figures given in this chapter for the number of domain names per holder will therefore be slightly below the true values. Individuals ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• A great majority of individuals who hold .fr domain names have only one such name (81%). A few hold two .fr domain names (11%), but the registration of three or more names is very much rarer (Figure 12). Over the last year the number of individual holders and the number of names registered by individuals have both risen by 36%. The mean number of names per holder (individuals) is unchanged at 1.64 names per person. - 29 -
    • Number of .fr domain names per holder for individuals, July 2009 5 names; 0.9% 4 names; 1.7% More than 5 names; 2.6% 3 names; 3.4% Mean: 1.64 .fr domain names 2 names; 10.9% per individual 1 name; 80.7% Figure 12 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (individuals) Some individuals hold a very great number of domain names; these are probably domainers who are selling these names on the secondary market. Two of them actually have portfolios of over 5,000 names .fr. Legal entities ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The distribution of the number of names per holder among corporate bodies is fairly similar to that for individuals (Figure 13). The percentage of holders with only one .fr domain name is however slightly higher for the corporate bodies: 85% (against 81%). Over the last year the number of corporate holders and the number of names registered by corporate bodies have both risen by 20%. The mean is unchanged at 1.7 names per holder (against 1.6 for the individuals). The proportion of corporate bodies with only one .fr name has risen by 3 percentage points, however, while that of holders with two names has fallen by the same amount. This trend might be due to the development of a clientele of small firms which had no Internet presence before. - 30 -
    • Number of .fr domain names per holder for legal entities, July 2009 5 names; 0.8% 4 names; 1.4% More than 5 names; 2.6% 3 names; 2.6% Mean: 2 names; 8.1% 1.71 .fr domain names per legal entity 1 name; 84.6% Figure 13 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (legal entities) Lastly, some corporate holders have very great numbers of .fr domain names (up to 12,000). These may be firms in the domainer business, trading in the secondary market in the .fr domain. Trend ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The number of names registered per holder has grown steadily since 2007, among individuals as well as firms. The ratios currently stand at 1.65 (individuals) and 1.71 (corporate bodies). - 31 -
    • Chapter 6 Lexicographical structure of .fr domain names ● Source of data: From the AFNIC database, 1 July 2009. This chapter gives various statistical data on the lexicographical structure of .fr domain names in the AFNIC database (name length, presence of hyphens and numerals, frequently-used terms), and on the proportion of various types of name in the database (acronymic character combinations, French words, French first names and surnames, names of localities or municipalities, company names and brand names). Length of .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The figure below shows the distribution of .fr domain names in the AFNIC database by length (second level names only, not counting the suffix “.fr”). The commonest length in 2009 was 9 characters (8 last year). Moreover the mean length is steadily rising: it was 11.3 characters in 2007, 11.6 in 2008, and is now 12. This trend is the logical consequence of more widespread use of the domain, as the shortest names become taken and newcomers have to register longer names accordingly (Figure 14). The minimum length is two characters. All the two-character combinations permissible under the AFNIC registration policy (”numeral+ numeral”, “numeral+letter” and “letter+ numeral”) had been registered by 1 July 2009 (except one, which was registered at the end of July). - 32 -
    • The maximum length allowed under the registration policy is 63 characters (not counting the suffix). There are four .fr domain names of this length in the database; they consist of keyword concatenations designed to boost their search engine referencing above its natural level. Distribution of .fr domain names by length, July 2009 9% Mean length : 12 characters (11.6 in 2008; 11.3 in 2007) 8% 7% Frequency of names of the given length 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Length of domain names Figure 14 – Length of .fr domain names Use of hyphens and numerals in .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Hyphens are very frequently used in .fr domain names: 33% of names contain hyphens, usually just one (26%). Moreover, the mean number of hyphens per domain name is steadily rising: up 38% in 2007, then 41% in 2008 and 44% in 2009. Numerals, on the other hand, are used much less frequently (some 6% of names, evenly split between those using one numeral and those using two). The mean number of numerals per domain name is also steadily on the rise (0.10 in 2007, 0.11 in 2008 and 0.12 in 2009). - 33 -
    • Numerals are sometimes used in domain names to denote dates (Table 5). As might be expected, recent years’ dates are falling in popularity (2007, 2008) while those of future years are more in demand. 2009 was the date whose popularity grew most. The year 2000 remains symbolic, and is widely used, as is 2012 (French presidential elections; London Summer Olympics). This means we may get some measure of users’ tendency to register names connected with major events that take place in one particular year (but could well recur in others). Use of years in .fr domain names Year No. of names in 2009 No. of names in 2008 Year’s change 2000 676 593 +83 2001 32 24 +8 2002 11 12 -1 2003 21 20 +1 2004 25 27 -2 2005 36 39 -3 2006 60 84 -24 2007 281 580 -299 2008 945 2,263 -1,318 2009 790 208 +582 2010 402 175 +227 2011 130 55 +75 2012 339 213 +126 2013 90 38 +52 2014 160 141 +19 2015 51 35 +16 Table 5 – Use of years in .fr domain names Terms used in .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Some domain names are created from ordinary words separated by hyphens (for example, “hotel-in-paris. fr”). The figure below (Figure 15) shows a league table of words most often used in .fr domain names, leaving aside small link-words (the articles, conjunctions, prepositions, etc.). We notice geographical names (“france”, “paris”), words that identify an organization’s type (“groupe” [group], “agence” [agency]), or the holder’s industry or line of business: ● property services (“immobilier” [real estate], “immo” [estate]), ● tourism and leisure (”hotel”, “location” [hire], “art”, “club”, or “restaurant”), ● everyday living ( “maison” [house], “auto” [car], “info”, “sante” [health]), ● services generally (”services”, “conseil” [advice], “formation” [training], “info”, “design”, “service”, or “consulting”), - 34 -
    • ● IT services ( “web”, “informatique” [IT], or “online”), ● retailing ( “vente” [sale], or “boutique”). Under AFNIC’s non-mandatory naming conventions the terms “mairie” and “ville” [city council] are used for municipalities: “mairie commune.fr” and “ville-commune.fr” (where «commune» is the name of the city or town). While the use of most of these terms has remained much as in 2007, we do find that the share of the expressions “mairie” and “ville” has declined sharply over the year. This situation might indicate that local authorities are increasingly tending to register their domain name without adding the words “mairie” or “ville” (where «commune» is the name of the city or town). Words most commonly used in .fr domain names, July 2009 (excluding link-words) france immobilier paris hotel mairie location saint maison services conseil web ville vente formation immo auto informatique groupe online art info club design agence service pro restaurant boutique consulting sante 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 No. of occurrences of the given word in .fr domain names Figure 15 – Words most commonly used in .fr domain names - 35 -
    • Proportion of letter/numeral combinations actually registered as .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Combinations of 2 to 5 letters and/or figures were analysed (bearing in mind that two-letter combinations are forbidden by AFNIC policy). These combinations are worth studying since they may be acronyms – company names, for example. The findings show that almost all permissible two-character combinations have been registered, and also almost all three-letter or three-digit combinations (only 60% of three-digit combinations had been registered in 2008). The ratio is lower (40%) for three-character letter-numeral combinations, and still lower (7% or under) for longer ones (Figure 16). Letter/numeral combinations registered as .fr domain names, July 2009 100.0% 99.8% 99.6% 100% 92.5% 90% 80% % of combinations registered as .fr domain names 70% 60% 50% 42.9% 40% 30% 20% 10% 7.2% 6.3% 2.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.1% 0% 2 numerals 2 letters or 3 letters 3 numerals 3 letters or 4 letters 4 numerals 4 letters or 5 letters 5 numerals 5 letters or numerals numerals numerals numerals Types of combination Figure 16 – Proportion of letter/numeral combinations actually registered as .fr domain names - 36 -
    • Investigations using various lists of names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Next, this analysis considers the proportion of words from various sources which were registered as .fr domain names on the date we examined the AFNIC database: ● words appearing in the French dictionary, ● French first names and surnames, ● French place-names, ● names of French or worldwide companies or brands. Some of the words in these lists contain characters disallowed in .fr domain names (accented characters, spaces, punctuation, etc.). Accented characters have been replaced by the corresponding string of unaccented letters. As to the other special characters, we allow for two ways of dealing with them: deleting them, or replacing them with a hyphen. For the town name “Pont-l’Évêque”, for instance, we test for the presence of two strings “pont-leveque” and “pont-l-eveque”. Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• We used three lists of French words: ● the French Ministry of State Education’s list of the commonest words in written French, containing 1,364 frequently used words7, ● the Dubois-Buyse graduated spelling list, containing 3,725 common words that all adult French speakers are expected to know (having picked them up by degrees from primary school to high school)8, ● Christophe Pallier’s list of French words, containing 336,527 words (with plurals and conjugated forms of verbs in all tenses)9. We should note, however, that the conjugated forms of verbs are unlikely to be registered as .fr domain names. The results indicate that out of the entire dictionary of approximately 300,000 French words, 10% are now registered as .fr domain names (compared with 9% in 2008 and 8% in 2007). The ratio rises to nearly 85% in the case of the commonest French words, 9 percentage points higher than two years ago (Figure 17). - 37 -
    • Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names, July 2009 100% 90% +9 since 2007 +9 since 2007 80% % of words registered as .fr domain names 70% 60% 50% 84% 40% 78% 30% 20% +2 since 2007 10% 10% 0% List of 1,500 commonest words List of 4,000 commonest words Complete French dictionary French word list Figure 17 – Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names Proportion of French first names and surnames registered as .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• These findings are based on four lists: ● the 40 most popular first names in France, according to Wikipedia10, ● the list of first names used in France published on the “QuelPrenom.com” website11, ● the list of the commonest 100 surnames in France, published on the “Beaucarnot Généalogie” website (figures as of 1 January 2006 drawn from the official statistics of the electronic version of the telephone directory)12, ● the list of the commonest 10,000 surnames in France, taken from the “Geopatronyme.com” website (a ranking of surnames by number of births between 1891 and 1990, according to the national statistics institute INSEE)13. The results indicate that more than two thirds of first names used in France have been reserved as .fr domain names. Moreover, 85% of the commonest 10,000 surnames are also currently registered. These ratios have both risen by 6 percentage points since 2007. - 38 -
    • Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registered as .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• These findings are based on three lists: ● Wikipedia’s list of “communes” (towns and villages) with over 50,000 inhabitants14 (120 “communes”), ● the list of “communes” with over 10,000 inhabitants in 2006, according to the Lexilogos website (approximately 1,000 place names, from INSEE statistics)15, ● a list of all French local towns and villages (metropolitan and overseas), prepared using the official INSEE geographic code16 (over 36,000 place names – 34,000 unique names after removing doubletons). The findings show that practically all the towns and villages with over 50,000 inhabitants and 80% of those with over 10,000 inhabitants have registered their name under the .fr domain; the ratio is lower (a quarter) if all French towns and villages are taken into account (but still 3 percentage points higher than two years ago). Local authority names have been protected by AFNIC since 2005, so that only the relevant authority can in fact register the name. It should be noted that this study takes account of the naming convention that applies to “commune.fr”, while municipalities may also use the conventional names “mairie commune.fr” and “ville-commune.fr” (Figure 18). Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registered as .fr domain names, July 2009 100% 90% 80% % of names registered as .fr domain names 70% 60% 50% 95% 40% 79% 30% +3 since 2007 20% 26% 10% 0% Towns and villages > 50,000 pop. Towns and villages > 10,000 pop. All towns and villages All towns and villages Figure 18 – Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registered as .fr domain names - 39 -
    • Proportion of company names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• These findings are based on five lists: ● the 40 companies in the CAC 40 stock market index 4017, ● Wikipédia’s list of the hundred biggest French companies by 2006 turnover18, ● the list of the thousand biggest French enterprises by turnover, published on the “L’Expansion.com” website19, ● the Fortune magazine list of the world’s 500 biggest firms by turnover20, ● Wikipedia’s list of trademarks used in France21 (approximately 2,500 trademarks). The findings show that almost all the companies in the Paris stock exchange index CAC 40 have reserved their names under the .fr domain. So have 85 of France’s hundred biggest firms, and nearly 70% of the top 1,000. Multinationals do not necessarily have offices in France, but half of them nevertheless have reserved their .fr domain names. Lastly, three quarters of the brand names used in France have also been registered under the national domain. These figures have changed little since last year, perhaps indicating that the same proportion of new companies or brands have been protecting themselves in this way as of existing ones (Figure 19). Proportion of company names and brand names registered as .fr domain names, July 2009 100% 90% Companies Trademarks 80% % of names registered as .fr domain names +8 since 2007 70% 60% 50% 93% 85% 40% 74% 68% 30% 20% 44% 10% 0% CAC40 firms 100 biggest French 1,000 biggest French 500 biggest companies 2,500 brand names companies companies worldwide in France Lists of companies/brands Figure 19 – Proportion of French company and trademark names registered as .fr domain names - 40 -
    • Part Three: Holders of names Chapter 7 Location of individual holders of .fr domain names ● Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (geographical distribution of individuals holding domain names), INSEE statistics. This chapter gives statistical data on the geographical location of individuals who hold .fr domain names, and the corresponding rates of penetration (domain names per 1,000 inhabitants), as well as changes over the year. Preliminary remarks ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The AFNIC database includes a number of registrations that contain errors, such as a missing number for the administrative district, or department [French: “département”]. These erroneous registrations (which are very much in the minority) have been excluded from the present study. In a few other cases, the country-code and department number do not match (country-code “.mq” for Martinique, for instance, with the number “971” , which is for Guadeloupe ). In these instances we have gone by the country-code. The overseas territories here correspond on the one hand to registrations where the country-code is “.fr” and the department number is that of the department or territory (overseas) in question (e.g. “.fr 972” for Martinique), and on the other hand to registrations where the country-code is that of the overseas in question, regardless of the department number (for example “.mq 972 »). Corsica appears in the database as one single department instead of the two departments 2A and 2B (their postcode identification). The location statistics therefore treat all of Corsica uniformly, without distinguishing between the two departments. Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The AFNIC policy require individuals to have a physical address in France to register .fr domain names, which means that the database only contains French addresses (99% of these are in Metropolitan France, and 1% in the Overseas dependencies). - 41 -
    • The national average is approximately 5,000 domain names per department (3,800 in 2008); but there are great variations from department to department (nearly 95,000 names for Paris, fewer than 350 for Lozère). Name holders are heavily concentrated around the major French conurbations: Paris and the Greater Paris region, Lille, Rouen, Metz, Strasbourg, Rennes, Nantes, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Annecy, Lyon, Grenoble, Montpellier, Nîmes, Marseille, Toulon, Nice... The eight departments of the Île-de-France (Greater Paris region) alone account for nearly 40% of the domain names registered in France by individuals. At the other end of the scale, all the rural departments together account for only 25%. As to the overseas parts of France, it should be pointed out that these departments and other local authorities have their own ccTLDs (Guadeloupe: .gp, French Guiana: .gf, Reunion Island: .re, Martinique: .mq, Mayotte: .yt, New Caledonia: .nc, French Polynesia: .pf, Saint Barthélemy: .bl, Saint Martin: .mf, Saint Pierre and Miquelon: .pm, French Southern Territories: .tf, Wallis and Futuna: .wf). Depending on these various domains’ different registration policies, then, these ccTLDs are available to the inhabitants of these departments and other local authorities, as well as the .fr domain. The department of Paris accounts for over 17% of individual holders of .fr domain names, far outnumbering the runners-up. The top ten departments include five in the Greater Paris region, alongside the departments which include France’s other biggest cities: Haute Garonne, Rhône, Bouches-des-Rhône, Nord and Alpes- Maritimes. Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The following maps show the number of domain names registered by individuals in relation to department population (names per 1,000 inhabitants). Department population figures are taken from the INSEE estimates on 1 January 200722, and in the case of the overseas territories, from a variety of sources (INSEE, Wikipédia). - 42 -
    • The national average is 6 names per 1,000 inhabitants (4.4 in 2008); once again there is great variation among departments (from 43 for Paris to 2.6 for Haute-Marne). We find the same concentrations as in the previous maps, but different departments feature in the top quartile (more than 3.9 names per 1,000 inhabitants). These are departments with smaller populations but proportionally more applications from individuals for .fr domain names: Charente-Maritime, Dordogne, Savoie, Drôme and Vaucluse (Figure 20). Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (Metropolitan France) On July 1st 2009 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 95 57 27 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 Number of 18 58 domain names per 1,000 inhabitants 79 36 71 39 85 86 Less than 3.9 03 23 01 74 3.9 to 5.1 17 87 69 16 63 5.1 to 6.8 42 73 19 38 More than 6.8 24 15 43 source 33 07 26 05 AFNIC 46 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure20– Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals, per 1,000 inhabitants (Metropolitan France) - 43 -
    • The French Overseas Departments and Territories are all in the bottom quartile, except Saint Pierre and Miquelon where the ratio is 4.6 .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (Figure 21). Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (Overseas) On July 1st 2009 St Pierre and Miquelon New Caledonia Number of domain names per 1,000 inhabitants Less than 3.9 Mayotte Guadeloupe 3.9 to 5.1 5.1 to 6.8 Wallis and Futuna Islands More than 6.8 source AFNIC Martinique Reunion Island French Polynesia French Guiana Figure 21 – Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (Overseas) - 44 -
    • The top 10 departments by number of .fr registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants shows the department of Paris again well ahead (43 names), once more followed by Hauts-de-Seine and Haute-Garonne (Figure 22). Some departments are found here which did not make the top ten in absolute number of names registered: Hérault, Essonne and Bas-Rhin, where the registration by individuals is really booming (around 10 names per 1,000 inhabitants). Top 10 départements by number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants, July 2009 43.1 Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants 21.0 16.4 14.0 13.6 11.9 11.7 11.2 10.2 9.3 Paris Hauts-de- Haute- Val-de-Marne Alpes- Yvelines Rhône Hérault Essonne Bas-Rhin Seine Garonne Maritimes Departements Figure 22 – Top 10 departments by number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants - 45 -
    • Changes over the last year ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals (Figure 23). The rise in the number of names registered by individuals averaged 38%. All of Brittany falls within the top quartile (departments with 40% growth in a year or more), which bodes well for the proposed new generic domain .bzh (Breizh – Breton in the local language). Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals (Metropolitan France) On July 1st 2009 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 95 57 27 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 Percentage rise 18 58 per departement 79 36 71 39 Less than 30% 85 86 03 30% to 35% 23 01 74 17 87 69 35% to 40% 16 63 42 73 More than 40% 19 38 24 15 43 source AFNIC 33 07 26 05 46 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 23 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals (Metropolitan France) - 46 -
    • Of the overseas departments and territories, Martinique, Reunion Island, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Wallis and Futuna Islands grew by more than 50% in the last year (Figure 24). Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals (Overseas) On July 1st 2009 St Pierre and Miquelon New Caledonia Percentage rise per departement Less than 30% Mayotte Guadeloupe 30% to 35% 35% to 40% Wallis and Futuna Islands More than 40% source AFNIC Martinique Reunion Island French Polynesia French Guiana Figure 24 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals (Overseas) - 47 -
    • The top 10 departments by annual rate of growth shows a vigorous upward trend in individuals’ registrations in these departments. It may also reflect the activity of domainers based in these departments (Figure 25). Top 10 departments by 2008-2009 percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals 105% Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names 80% registered by individuals 71% 64% 59% 56% 56% 55% 53% 52% Dordogne Haute- Saint-Pierre- Lot-et- Tarn Savoie La Réunion Deux-Sèvres Loir-et-Cher Côtes-d'Armor Garonne et-Miquelon Garonne Departments Figure 25 – Top 10 departments by annual rate of growth in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals - 48 -
    • Chapter 8 Location of legal entities holders of .fr domain names ● Source of the data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (geographical distribution of corporate domain names), INSEE statistics. This chapter gives figures for the geographical location of corporate bodies (enterprises, associations, public bodies, etc.) holding .fr domain names, and for the corresponding rates of penetration (domain names per 1,000 legal entities), as well as changes in the past year. Preliminary remarks ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The observations in the last chapter concerning individuals (handling of errors in the AFNIC database, handling of registrations for overseas territories and for Corsica) apply here also. However, corporate bodies located in the United Kingdom are recorded in the database, sometimes under the country-code “gb” and sometimes under “uk”. These two codes have been taken into account in the country statistics. - 49 -
    • Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• As a precondition of registering a .fr domain name, corporate bodies must (according to the AFNIC policy) have their registered office or another office located in France, or own a trademark registered in France or a European or international trademark covering French territory. The great majority of corporate holders of .fr domain names are in fact located in France (98.5%). Of the legal entities based abroad (holders of trademarks covering France), most are in the continent of Europe (75%) or in North America (22%), and only 3% are elsewhere. Those in the United States are slightly less numerous than last year (-2 percentage points), but there are a few more in Belgium (+1 point) (Figure 26). Country breakdown of .fr domain names registered by by legal entities outside France, July 2009 Other countries 9.4% Sweden 2.9% United States 21.5% Spain 3.1% Italy 3.2% Belgium 3.9% Switzerland 5.9% Germany 18.0% Denmark 8.6% Netherlands 11.0% United Kingdom 12.4% Figure 26 – Country breakdown of .fr domain names registered by legal entities - 50 -
    • The national average number of .fr registered by corporate bodies is approximately 8,600 names per department (7,200 in 2008); once more there is a great range of variation among departments, from the highly industrialised (19% of corporate names’ holders are based in Paris and 38% in the Greater Paris region) to the most rural (fewer than 0.1% in Creuse and in Lozère). The distribution of corporate bodies by department is actually very similar to that for individuals. All the same, some departments feature in the top quartile for corporate bodies (at over 8,500 names) which did not for individuals’ registrations: Haut-Rhin, Maine-et-Loire, Charente-Maritime and Loire. One of the overseas territories, Reunion Island, comes into the top half of French departments for the number of .fr domain names registered by corporate bodies, with more than 5,500 names. Martinique and Guadeloupe are next, with approximately 1,500 names each. The departments of Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Haute-Garonne and Rhône head the list of the top 10 departments for corporate registrations, as for individuals. And indeed the whole top ten are the same, though in a different order, except that Isère features in this list, with 2% of corporate domain names. Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities, per 1,000 legal entities ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The maps below represent the number of corporate domain names per 1,000 legal entities, by department. Numbers of legal entities in each department are taken from the INSEE non-farm commercial activity figures for 1 January 200823. This economic sector covers all active businesses in industry, construction, commerce and services, but not organizations whose functioning is not funded by commercial activity (i.e. local, regional or national government, social/charitable organisations, nonprofit associations, etc. ), nor agriculture, forestry or fisheries. - 51 -
    • The national average is 230 corporate names per 1,000 legal entities (220 in 2008), compared with the average of 6 individuals’ names per 1,000 inhabitants). There are great variations among departments, the top of the list (Hauts-de-Seine, with 773 names per 1,000 firms) having a ratio 20 times as big as the bottom one (Guadeloupe, with 42). Moreover, many departments appear in the top quartile here (over 260 names per 1,000 legal entities) which did not do so in terms of the absolute number of corporate domain names: Loiret, Indre-et-Loire and Deux-Sèvres (Figure 27). Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Metropolitan France) On July 1st 2009 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 95 57 27 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 Number of 18 58 domain names per 1,000 companies 79 36 71 39 Less than 170 85 86 03 170 to 200 23 01 74 17 87 69 200 to 260 16 63 42 73 More than 260 19 38 24 15 43 source AFNIC 33 07 26 05 46 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 27 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Metropolitan France) - 52 -
    • The results for the overseas territories only cover the four departments with usable statistics on company numbers (Figure 28). These departments are all in the bottom quartile (fewer than 170 names per 1,000 firms). Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Overseas) On July 1st 2009 Number of domain names Guadeloupe Reunion Island per 1,000 companies Less than 170 170 to 200 200 to 260 More than 260 source Martinique AFNIC French Guiana Figure 28 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Overseas) The list of top 10 departments for the number of corporate domain name registrations per 1,000 firms is similar to that for the absolute number of such registrations, but there are three new departments (Moselle, Bas-Rhin and Loire-Atlantique). The special position of Moselle might be due to the presence here of registrars who have registered names under their own company name which they intend to provide to individuals (this is a name-lending arrangement used before 2006, when individuals could not register a .fr domain name): such names are wrongly classified as registered to a corporate body (the registrar), and this is liable to distort the statistics. The distortion is tending, though, to diminish over time; and Moselle has 150 fewer names per 1,000 firms than last year. - 53 -
    • Changes over the last year ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by corporate bodies (Figure 29). The national average is 21% (32% in 2008); the top quartile shows which departments are growing fastest in terms of corporate registrations (over 24% growth in a year). Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities (Metropolitan France) On July 1st 2009 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 95 57 27 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 37 25 Percentage rise 18 58 per departement 79 36 71 39 Less than 18% 85 86 03 18% to 21% 23 01 74 17 69 21% to 24% 87 63 16 42 73 More than 24% 19 38 24 15 43 source AFNIC 33 07 26 05 46 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 29 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities (Metropolitan France) - 54 -
    • Many overseas departments and territories grew by more than 30%: French Guiana, Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Reunion Island (Figure 30). Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities (Overseas) On July 1st 2009 Percentage rise per departement St Pierre and Miquelon Less than 18% 18% to 21% New Caledonia 21% to 24% More than 24% Mayotte source Guadeloupe AFNIC Wallis and Futuna Islands Martinique Reunion Island French Polynesia French Guiana Figure 30 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities (Overseas) Some of the fastest-growing departments in terms of the number of corporate registrations are ones which start from a very low base and are rapidly catching up (French Guiana, Mayotte, Lozère, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Aveyron, Cher); but there are also some in a stronger position which they are reinforcing still further (Charente-Maritime, Var). - 55 -
    • Chapter 9 Location of individual and legal entities holders of .fr domain names ● Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (geographical distribution of individual and corporate domain names). This chapter gives figures on the geographical location of .fr domain name holders (individuals and corporate bodies together), and the corresponding growth figures for the last year. Total number of .fr domain names (individuals and legal entities together) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The national average number of domain names registered per department is approximately 13,800 names (11,000 in 2008). The disparities we found when looking at the individuals’ and corporate bodies’ markets separately are naturally reflected in the entire market as well: Paris comes top with some 265,000 domain names, while there are only a thousand or so each in Creuse and Lozère. The departments found in the top quartile for the entire market are practically the same as those in the top quartile for corporate registrations (which account for more than half of the .fr ccTLD). In the top 10 departments by total number of .fr domain names, we find most of the departments which we saw earlier among the top 10 for corporate registrations, and in exactly the same order. 18% of .fr domain names were concentrated in Paris in 2009, and 38% in the Greater Paris region, though the figures are slightly lower than last year (19% and 39% in 2008). - 56 -
    • Changes over the last year ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals or corporate bodies (Figure 31). The national average growth in a year was 26% (40% in 2008). The departments in the top quartile (growth exceeding 30%) are mostly in the west and south of France. Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France) On July 1st 2009 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 57 27 95 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 41 49 Percentage rise 37 25 per departement 18 58 Less than 23% 79 36 71 39 85 86 23% to 25% 03 23 01 74 25% to 30% 17 87 69 16 63 More than 30% 42 73 19 38 source 24 15 43 AFNIC 33 07 26 05 46 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 31 – Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France) - 57 -
    • French Guiana, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Mayotte, Reunion Island and New Caledonia all grew by more than 30% in the last year (Figure 32). Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names (Overseas) On July 1st 2009 St Pierre and Miquelon New Caledonia Percentage rise per departement Mayotte Guadeloupe Less than 23% 23% to 25% Wallis and Futuna Islands 25% to 30% More than 30% Martinique source AFNIC Reunion Island French Polynesia French Guiana Figure 32 – Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names (Overseas) - 58 -
    • Chapter 10 Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names ● Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (dates of birth of individual holders), INSEE statistics. This chapter gives figures on individual holders of .fr domain names (the age pyramid and associated). Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• This study focuses on the age (completed years) on 1 January. The dates of birth given in the registrations contained in the AFNIC database include a certain number of aberrant values, from -58 years to 119 years. We have accordingly removed from the graph all ages below 18 years (in keeping with the AFNIC policy which require holders to be adults) and also (more arbitrarily) ages above 90 years. Next, after removing these outliers, we find some ages over-represented in the age pyramid: they are most likely the default values of the registrars’ software interface, which the online applicant has not bothered (or been willing) to alter when registering the name. For instance, 38 years (year of birth: 1970), is an over-represented age, doubtless because 1 January 1970 is the year-reckoning origin for many operating systems (Unix). The mean age of name holders is 38 years. Their median age is 35.5 years, meaning that there are as many under this age as over it. - 59 -
    • Comparing this age pyramid with that for the French population at large (metropolitan and overseas departments, men and women) from the INSEE figures24, we see that historical events have had a similar impact on both: the deficit of births during the Second World War, and the baby boom which followed in the years 1946 to 1973 (35 to 62 years on the graph). Earlier events (the First World War) do not show up on the curve of name holders, as older people make less use of domain names (Figure 33). We also find a change in the statistics at about 48 or 49 years of age: cohorts of holders of .fr domain names below that age are proportionally bigger than their counterparts in the population at large, while the opposite applies to those above that age. Comparison of age pyramids: individual holders of .fr domain names, and the French adult population, 2009 4.5% Individual holders > individuals Individual holders < individuals 4.0% End of baby boom 3.5% (name-holders ; French adults) 3.0% Baby boom World War II % of sample 2.5% Individual holders 2.0% Adult French population 1.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 ≥ 100 Individuals' ages Figure 33 – Comparison of age pyramids: individual holders of .fr domain names, and the French population - 60 -
    • The holders of .fr domain names are some ten years younger on average than the population at large, both for the mean age (38 years against 48) and for the median age (35.5 years against 46). We also note that the median age of the holders has risen by around 7 months (0.6 year) since 2008, while that of all French adults has risen by only 5 months (0.4 year). Changes in the age of individual holders of .fr domain names accordingly appear to be due in part to the natural aging of the population but also to a wider uptake of domain names among the older members of the population (Table 6). Individual holders 2009 2008 Year's increase Number 330,022 243,314 36% Mean age 37.6 37.2 0.4 Median age 35.5 34.9 0.6 Adult French population 2009 2008 Year's increase Number 50,046,383 49,541,587 1% Mean age 48.3 48.0 0.2 Median age 46.4 46.1 0.4 Table 6 – Comparison of the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names and all French adults The mean is 6.6 domain names per 1,000 inhabitants for the whole population in 2009 (5 in 2008), while the mode is around 30 years (at nearly 13.5 names per 1,000 inhabitants). The graph rises quickly between the age of majority and this modal value, and then declines steadily with greater age. Changes in the age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The distribution of individual name holders by age group has remained fairly stable over time. The 18 – 34 year-olds form the biggest group (42% in June 2009), very closely followed by the 35 – 50 year-olds (41%); older groups account for fewer name holders (17%). Comparing the age pyramids of holders of .fr domain names in 2008 and in 2009 we see that all age groups have grown bigger over the past year. - 61 -
    • Part Four: Registrars Chapter 11 Registrars ● Source of data: Historical AFNIC data (changes in number of registrars since 1996) and data from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2009 (distribution of registrars by country and department). This chapter gives some details about the registrars of .fr domain names: number, changes over time and geographical distribution. Number of registrars of .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• At the end of June 2009 there were 874 registrars of .fr domain names in all. Over the last year this number has fallen by approximately 80 (or 8%). The number of registrars grew very fast until the end of 2001; it then dropped for a few years when the dotcom bubble burst. Since June 2006, when individuals began to be able to register.fr names, there has been a restructuring of the market: some smaller registrars have turned themselves into resellers for registrars who handle bigger portfolios of names, so reducing the total number of registrars (Figure 34). Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names since 1997 1,400 Internet bubble bursts .fr naming rights .fr available Creation of AFNIC abolished to individuals 1,200 1,154 1,106 1,057 1,076 1,047 1,026 1,039 1,031 1,031 1,051 1,018 1,001 992 985 962 960 952 1,000 890 874 758 No. of registrars 800 652 600 498 441 400 311 277 179 200 0 5 7 8 9 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 7 8 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -0 -9 -9 -9 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -9 -9 -9 -9 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 ne ne ne ne ne ne ne ne ne ne ne ne ne ec ec ec ec ec ec ec ec ec ec ec ec ec Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju Ju D D D D D D D D D D D D D Months Figure 34 – Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names - 62 -
    • A breakdown of registrars by nationality reveals that this increase in concentration is among the French registrars: numbers of non-French ones have remained fairly static over time. Over the last year the number of registrars has fallen by 74 in France (-9%), but only by 4 elsewhere (-3%). Location of registrars of .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The figure below shows the breakdown of registrars by department (Figure 35). The national average is approximately 7 registrars per department (8 in 2008), but there is very wide variation. The top quartile is made up of departments with more than 6 registrars: these are, once again, the departments which contain the biggest French conurbations (Paris and the Greater Paris region, Lyon, Marseille, Grenoble, Nice, Bordeaux, Lille, Toulouse, Nantes, Montpellier, Strasbourg, Rennes, Orléans, Mulhouse, Brest, Lorient, Clermont-Ferrand and Tours). Paris alone has 19% of all registrars of .fr domain names, while the eight departments of the Greater Paris region account for 38% of them. At the other end of the scale, 15 departments have only one registrar, and 14 have none (Hautes-Alpes, Ardennes, Cher, Dordogne, Loir-et-Cher, Lot, Lozère, Haute-Marne, Nièvre, Haute-Saône; and overseas, Mayotte, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna). Most departments have the same number as in 2008, or have lost a few. The most marked declines over the past year were in Paris (-16), Hauts-de-Seine (-11) and Rhône (-9). - 63 -
    • Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France) On July 1st 2009 93 62 59 75 92 80 94 76 02 08 60 50 14 95 57 27 55 51 78 54 61 77 67 91 29 22 28 10 35 53 88 56 52 68 72 45 89 44 21 70 Number 41 49 of registrar(s) 37 25 per department 18 58 0 or 1 79 36 71 39 85 86 2 or 4 03 23 01 74 5 or 6 17 87 69 16 63 More than 6 42 73 19 38 source 24 15 43 AFNIC 33 07 26 05 46 48 47 12 40 82 30 84 04 06 81 32 34 31 13 83 64 65 11 09 66 2B 2A Figure 35 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France) - 64 -
    • Turning to the overseas departments and territories, we find 5 registrars each in Martinique and Reunion Island, and one each in Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Figure 36). Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Overseas) On July 1st 2009 St Pierre and Miquelon New Caledonia Number of registrar(s) per department 0 or 1 Mayotte Guadeloupe 2 or 4 5 or 6 Wallis and Futuna Islands More than 6 source AFNIC Martinique Reunion Island French Polynesia French Guiana Figure 36 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Overseas) - 65 -
    • Among the top ten departments in terms of registrar numbers, Paris heads the list by a long way (twice as many registrars as the runner-up, Hauts-de-Seine). Alongside four departments of the Greater Paris region, we find (not surprisingly) the departments which have the most heavily populated towns or those which are most enthusiastically adopting new technology: Lyon, Marseille, Grenoble, Nice, Bordeaux and Lille. These 10 departments alone account for more than half of all French registrars. 14% of the registrars of .fr domain names are in fact based outside France, though almost all in Europe: only 3% are based in another continent. - 66 -
    • Chapter 12 Types of service offered and charges ● Source of data: Websites of the 30 top registrars of .fr domain names in terms of number of names managed (checks carried out in September 2009). This chapter gives figures on the services offered by the leading registrars of .fr domain names, and the prices they charge. The details were collected in September 2009 from the websites of the 30 registrars handling the largest numbers of .fr domain names. These 30 registrars together manage 78% of .fr domain names, so the results obtained from them would seem reasonably representative of the whole market. Services offered by registrars ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Registrars’ offerings differ in many ways. Firstly, the number of domains available for registration is very variable. Some offer only a limited number: the main gTLDs .com/.net/.org/.biz/.info; the ccTLDs .fr and .re (Reunion Island) and the European domain .eu; also frequently .mobi (mobile devices), and other French language ccTLDs such as .be (Belgium). Other registrars have a wider range, covering dozens of TLDs. Lastly, there are far fewer which claim to offer registration under any of the available Top Level Domains (around 250). Nearly one third of the registrars studied include web hosting in their basic domain name package; the amount of space varies considerably, from 1 MB to 1 GB). Others offer hosting as an additional service at an extra charge. E-mail hosting is likewise often bundled with the basic package (by half the registrars; the space provided ranges from 10 MB to 25 GB). Most offers also include Web and e-mail redirection services in connection with the registered domain name. Security services associated with an e-mail address (anti-virus and anti-spam) appear on the other hand to be included only in a third of basic packages. The other services offered in basic and/or supplementary packages are: a webmail service associated with the e-mail addresses; tools for editing web pages, blogs or photo albums; and referencing services for hosted websites. Some registrars also offer a Whois anonymizing service so that the customer’s personal details need not appear in the domain’s Whois directory. Lastly, some registrars offer professional portfolio management services for big customers: Pre-registration checks on priority and other research, post-registration monitoring, legal advice and redress services for cases of cybersquatting , etc. - 67 -
    • Registrars’ charges ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Charges displayed on registrars’ websites vary in kind: Charges for setting up or renewing a domain name, annual or monthly charge, charging with or without VAT, etc. For the purpose of comparison in this study we have looked at the basic charge (without add-on services) for renewing a domain name for one year, expressed in euros before VAT, without any discounts for quantity or temporary promotions (first-year reductions). It should also be pointed out that big customers will tend, through commercial negotiations for bulk purchase, to get better terms than those publicly displayed on the registrars’ websites. Among the registrars studied, some registrars -which concentrates on the business market- give no information on the fees charged; these were therefore not taken into account in this study. The figure below shows the range of annual fees (before VAT) charged by the registrars studied in September 2009 for .fr domain names (Figure 37). As with services provided, there is a very wide range of fees charged: from about €5 to about €90+VAT. The mean for our sample of 30 top registrars was €23+VAT, and the median approximately €12+VAT (that is, as many fees were above as below €12). Moreover, the mean for these registrars weighted by their market shares was €14 this year (€15 in 2008). After a significant fall of some €3 to €5 (+VAT) in 2008, the fees charged remained fairly static in 2009. Charges for .fr domain names in September 2009 (by the 30 largest registrars in terms of names registered) 5.00 € 5.90 € 5.99 € 6.90 € Median charge: 6.99 € €12 + VAT in 2009 7.80 € (no change from 2008, €17 + VAT in 2007) 8.99 € 9.00 € Weighted mean by registrars’ market shares: 12.00 € €14 in 2009 (€15 in 2008) Registrar 12.00 € 12.00 € 14.40 € 18.00 € 19.00 € 23.90 € 28.00 € 29.00 € 49.00 € 49.50 € 69.00 € 91.44 € 0€ 10 € 20 € 30 € 40 € 50 € 60 € 70 € 80 € 90 € 100 € Annual charge, €, before VAT (basic package) Figure 37 – Charges for .fr domain names - 68 -
    • The median charge has been calculated on the basis of the fees charged by the registrars in the study, disregarding their market shares: it accordingly shows the choice offered to an Internet user who wants to register a domain name but has no particular knowledge of this market. The mean charges weighted by market share have been calculated on the basis of the same charges, but this time giving more weight to those registrars which manage most names: this gives a measure of the mean charge for a domain name over all the registration industry’s sales. The wide range of fees charged is due both to the variety of market segments catered for (general public, SMEs/micro-enterprises, big firms, domain name resellers), and to the value-added services which may be associated with the domain name in a bundle: these may be technical services (web hosting, e-mail accounts, etc.), legal services (priority searches, surveillance, name recovery, legal assistance, etc.) or marketing services (SEO, etc.). Moreover, around half the registrars studied offered discounts for longer registration and/or bulk registration (especially for domain name resellers). The median charges were the same (€12+VAT) for the domains .fr, .com, .net, .org, .biz and .info, and a little higher for .eu (€14.4+VAT). Most of the registrars are now bringing the price for the principal domains, including the .fr domain, more or less into line: charges for .fr are now level with or even below those for .com, in three quarters of the tariffs studied, which account for 95% of all domain names managed. - 69 -
    • Chapter 13 Analysis of the registrar market ● Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (domain name numbers, by holder type and by registrar), Dot and Co figures (ICANN-accredited registrars). This chapter analyses the market for registrars for .fr ccTLD and for gTLDS, using Lorentz curves and various econometric parameters (the HHI and CR indices). Number of .fr domain names per registrar ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In 2009 almost all registrars of .fr domain names (824 of the 828) manage domain names registered by corporate bodies, while only 479 of them manage names registered by individuals. However, the number of registrars offering names to individuals was static (+1% in the last year), while in the business sector it continued to fall (-9%). Entire market (individuals and legal entities) The distribution of the registrars by number of domain names managed (individuals and corporate bodies together) is similar to that of the corporate market alone. The concentration indices for the entire market show values in between those of the two market considered separately, but closer to the corporate name market. Changes in the HHI show that the entire market can now be regarded as moderately concentrated, whereas it was not concentrated until 2008 (Table 7). The top registrar has gained approximately 5 percentage points over the year, as have the top four together; on the other hand the top ten have only gained some 4 percentage points. The top registrar’s increased market share seems therefore to be at the expense of the next biggest, as we saw was the case in each market taken separately. - 70 -
    • Market for .fr domain names - Individuals and Legal entities Parameter 2009 2008 Change on yr Number of registrars 828 909 -9% Number of domain names 1,463,349 1,170,084 25% Number of domain names per registrars 1,767 1,287 37% Index of concentration 2009 2008 Change on yr CR1 24.3% 19.3% 5.1 CR4 54.8% 49.8% 5.0 CR10 71.0% 66.7% 4.3 HHI 0.1002 0.0776 0.1 à 0.18: Moderately concentrated market Table 7 – Concentration indices: entire market for .fr domain names registered by individuals and legal entities The figure below shows the 30 biggest registrars of .fr domain names ranked by number of names managed, together with the breakdown between the individual and corporate markets (Figure 38). It can be seen that most of the top registrars by volume are active in the individuals’ market. Moreover, the top registrar continues to consolidate its position, with an increase of some 60% for the second year running. 30 biggest registrars of .fr domain names, ranked by number of names managed, July 2009 OVH 356,318 1&1 209,040 Gandi 159,911 Amen 76,129 Online SAS 48,869 EuroDNS 43,959 NordNet 43,441 Namebay 35,421 France Télécom 34,523 INDOM 30,778 PagesJaunes 22,478 LWS 16,595 United-Domains 15,257 Melbourne IT Ltd 14,941 Netissime 13,737 Nameshield 13,519 Mailclub 11,975 Web Intelligence 11,432 Cronon AG 10,953 AB Connect / Hosteur 7,942 Viaduc 7,903 Arsys 7,789 Tucows 7,638 NFrance 6,879 Linkeo 6,689 Drim 6,238 Domaine.fr 6,211 Neuf Cegetel 5,698 E-ZONE.fr 5,530 Claranet 5,233 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 No. of names managed Figure 38 – Main registrars ranked by total numbers of .fr domain names - 71 -
    • Lorentz curves A Lorentz curve shows the cumulative market shares of those involved in a market as a function of the cumulative percentage of persons involved. A diagonal line (or “line of perfect equality”) would correspond to a fully competitive market. The further the Lorentz curve bends away from this line, the more concentrated is the market. If we now look at the Lorentz curves for these various markets, we can clearly see that the individuals market is considerably more concentrated than the corporate one, the combined market being of course somewhere between the two. The market for individuals The mean number of .fr registered by individuals per registrar is 1,130 (450 in 2008, but with considerable variation among the various registrars. While some 30 registrars manage big portfolios (over 1,000 names), more than half of registrars manage fewer than 10 names. The individuals’ market, then, features a long tail of very small registrars, alongside a few really big players. The following table gives value of the concentration indices for the market in individuals’ names (Table 8). Indices of the “CRi” type (Concentration Ratio) represent the cumulative market share of the “i” top players in the market. Here the top registrar accounts for nearly 30% of the total market (CR1), the top four have more than 70% of the market (CR4) and the top ten nearly 90% of the market (CR10). Changes in these ratios over the last year show that the market share of the top four has remained static while that of the top registrar has risen by 2.5 percentage points: the increasing concentration in the individuals’ market has therefore been essentially benefiting the market leader at the expense of its direct competitors. The HHI (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index) is calculated as the sum of the squares of the market shares of all the players involved. It can range from 0 (very competitive market) to 1 (a monopoly), and is used by the competition authorities to study the potential consequences of mergers and takeovers. In the case of the individuals market the HHI works out at 0.17, which indicates a market where there is so far little concentration (0.1 to 0.18). The trend, however, is clearly going in the direction of greater concentration: this index rose from 0.13 in 2007 to 0.16 in 2008, and now to 0.17 this year. - 72 -
    • Market for .fr domain names -Individuals Parameter 2009 2008 Change on yr Number of registrars 479 474 1% Number of domain names 541,761 397,818 36% Number of domain names per registrars 1,131 839 35% Index of concentration 2009 2008 Change on yr CR1 29.0% 26.6% 2.5 CR4 71.5% 71.4% 0.1 CR10 87.3% 87.5% -0.1 HHI 0.1700 0.1555 0.1 à 0.18: Moderately concentrated market Table 8 – Concentration indices: market for .fr domain names registered by individuals Corporate market As for the corporate market, here the distribution of registrars by number of domain names managed shows some very different features from the individuals’ market: the very small players (fewer than 10 names) account for only a minority (106) of registrars, while the biggest size group is the middling one (10 to 100 names), with 359 registrars. In 2009, the number of registrars handling fewer than 100 names is 464 (550 a year ago). The concentration indices show that the corporate market is considerably less concentrated than the individuals one (Table 9). The “Concentration Ratio” indices are all lower: CR1 is 22% as against 29%, CR4 is 45% (72%) and CR10 is 64% (87%). Likewise the HHI in the corporate market is 0.07, against 0.17 in the individuals market. Though the corporate market seems not to be concentrated at present (HHI below 0.1), then, the change in all parameters over the past year has nevertheless been in the direction of greater concentration. It can also be seen that the top registrar gained 4.5 percentage points over the year, taking the lion’s share of the gains realised by the top four and those of the top ten (5 to 6 percentage points). The concentration process is mainly benefiting the top registrar, though to a less obvious extent than in the case of registrars in the market for individuals’ names. - 73 -
    • Market for .fr domain names - Legal entities Parameter 2009 2008 Change on yr Number of registrars 824 905 -9% Number of domain names 921,588 772,266 19% Number of domain names per registrars 1,118 853 31% Index of concentration 2009 2008 Change on yr CR1 21.6% 17.1% 4.5 CR4 44.9% 38.7% 6.3 CR10 64.4% 59.0% 5.4 HHI 0.0743 0.0548 < 0.1: Market not concentrated Table 9 – Concentration indices: market for .fr domain names registered by legal entities Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names (numbers of domain names managed) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Those registrars which had the majority of the market at the start of the decade have been caught up by newcomers which have become active in this market much more recently, especially in the individuals segment after the .fr domain became available to individuals in 2006. The concentration indices all showed a peak at the end of 2000, which seems to have been related to a promotion for the second-level names “.nom.fr” in December that year (domain names offered free of charge for one year). The biggest market players would appear to have reaped most of the rewards of this promotion, for their market shares rose and with them – as a direct consequence – the concentration of the overall market. Mechanisms such as mergers and takeovers among market operators may also have been involved. A considerable proportion of the “free” names will not have been renewed afterwards, which would have tended to return the various concentration indices towards their normal levels. So the market became steadily more concentrated until the end of 2003. The greater flexibility of the new policy in May 2004 (removal of rights in a name) immediately caused a decrease in market concentration. Then, in a move in the opposite direction, concentration can be seen to have risen once more up to the time when .fr was first made available to individuals, in June 2006: this will have been due to the arrival of new registrars in the market, selling to the general public and handling large numbers of names. The indices have not stopped rising since then: we are now seeing levels of concentration similar to those observed during the late 2000 peak, but with other registrars in play. - 74 -
    • Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names (in terms of new domain names registered) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The top registrar is far ahead, with 35% of new names; the next two have around 15% each, while none of the rest has more than 5%. The direct consequence of this situation has been a concentration almost entirely to the benefit of the market leader alone. The graph below shows a comparison of changes in the HHI concentration indices of the whole stock of domain names and of new names registered each month (Figure 39). The snapshot concentration figure is distinctly higher for new name creations that for total name numbers, meaning that the entire market is steadily becoming more concentrated month by month. Changes in the HHI concentration indices for all .fr domain names and for new .fr names registered each month 0.300 concentrated market 0.266 Highly 0.250 HHI - Herfindahl-Hirschman Indices HHI , new .fr names 0.200 0.183 0.183 0.175 0.174 0.173 concentrated market 0.162 0.160 0.162 0.152 Moderately 0.150 0.132 0.125 0.125 0.085 0.100 0.095 0.097 0.099 0.090 0.093 Unconcentrated 0.084 0.086 0.087 0.077 0.077 0.079 0.082 0.074 0.076 market 0.050 HHI, all .fr names 0.000 08 09 08 9 09 08 09 8 09 08 8 8 08 09 0 0 0 0 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 ne ne ly n br st ay ct pt r ov ec ay h Ja Ju Ap gu c Ju Ju Fe O Se M M N D ar Au M Months Figure 39 – Historical levels of concentration indices for the registration market of .fr domain names: total stock of managed names, and new names registered It is worth noting that the September 2008 peak corresponds to the start of a promotion offering .fr domain names at a price only just above €1. The offer continued for many months, which explains why the rate did not return to its Spring level until the end of 2008. Nevertheless, once the “bonanza” effect had passed and the offer had had its immediate effect on its target group, the rate of concentration in new names came back down at the end of 2008 – though it rose again in 2009. This could be a sign of fierce competition among the big players for new registrations, most of which are captured by a small group of registrars among whom business tends to remain fairly balanced. - 75 -
    • The market for ICANN-accredited registrars ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The rest of this chapter is devoted to ICANN-accredited registrars. It is based on the statistics published by Dot and Co25. The graph below shows the distribution of ICANN-accredited registrars by country (Figure 40). North America takes the lion’s share with nearly three quarters of registrars, nearly 60% of them in the United States. France comes seventh, with 14 accredited registrars, 1.5% of the total. These figures have changed little over the last year, though the United States has lost 22 registrars in the period. Distribution of ICANN-accredited registrars by country, Aug 2009 (Source: Dot and Co) Russia; 9 Other countries; Japan; 10 97 United Kingdom; 12 France: Spain; 13 South Korea; 13 1.5% of ICANN-accredited France; 14 registrars Australia; 14 India; 16 China; 16 Germany; 24 United States; 553 Canada; 141 Figure 40 – Country breakdown of ICANN-accredited registrars - 76 -
    • The distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar once more shows the United States well in the lead, with nearly two thirds of names. This figure is falling, however (-2 percentage points over the last year). The proportion of generic names managed in France is roughly 1.6% of the total of such names, slightly up over the last year (1.4% in 2008). The Cayman Islands appear in this figure for the first time this year, with more than 1% of generic domain names: many registrars are now registered there, perhaps for essentially tax-related reasons (Figure 41). Distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar, March 2009 (Source: Dot and Co, Study of: .com /.net /.org /.biz /.info /.name /.coop /.pro /.mobi / .travel /.cat /.jobs /.asia /.museum /.aero /.tel ) Spain; 0.7% South Korea; 0.7% Japan; 0.6% United Kingdom; 0.7% Denmark; 0.5% Cayman Islands; 1.3% France; 1.6% Other countries; 2.7% French registrars: 1.6% of generic domains India; 2.6% China; 2.8% (1.4% in 2008) Australia; 6.2% Germany; 8.2% United States; 62.8% (-2.2 in one year) Canada; 8.5% Figure 41 – Distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar The company Go Daddy is well in the lead, with over a quarter of the world market and an unbroken history of growth (+3 percentage points over the last year; +9 over the last two years). Next in the ranking come eNom, Tucows, Network Solution and Melbourne IT. These five registrars together have more than half the world market in generic names. There is a small minority (2%) of registrars with portfolios of a million names or more, the biggest having 30 million. At the other end of the scale, more than 40% of the ICANN-accredited registrars have fewer than 1,000 names each. Four of the 14 French ICANN-accredited registrars handle between 100,000 and one million generic names, three handle between 10,000 and 100,000, five are in the 1,000 – 10,000 band, and two have fewer than 1,000 names. A comparison of the Lorentz curves for the .fr ccTLD and the generic domains shows that the two markets have comparable levels of concentration on the biggest registrars: the .fr market, though, is less concentrated so far as the smaller providers are concerned. - 77 -
    • The concentration indices indicate that the world market leader in generic domains (Go Daddy) is a little more powerful than the market leader in the .fr domain (the CR1 is 27%, compared with 24%). The other world market indices are lower, however: that market seems a little less concentrated than the market in .fr names, apart from the top registrar (the CR4 is 48% as against 55%, the CR10 is 67% as against 71%, and the HHI is 0.097 compared with 0.1). Though still qualifying as “not concentrated” this year, the world market in generic domains is nevertheless becoming more concentrated, and may be expected to reach the “moderately concentrated” level in a few months’ time (Table 10). As in the case of the market in the .fr domain, the CR1 for the market in generic domains has risen faster in the last year than the CR4 or CR10, meaning that the market leader is gaining at the expense of its direct competitors. The top registrar’s growth is more marked, though, in the case of the .fr domain than in that of the generic domains (+5.1 percentage points, against +3.3). World market in generic domain names Parameter 2009 2008 Change on yr Number of registrars 899 872 3% Number of domain names 111,223,439 101,477,691 10% Number of domain names per registrars 123,719 116,373 6% Index of concentration 2009 2008 Change on yr CR1 27.3% 24.0% 3.3 CR4 48.2% 45.4% 2.7 CR10 67.1% 64.8% 2.3 HHI 0.097 0.082 < 0.1: Market not concentrated Table 10 – Concentration indices: world market in generic domain names It can be seen that the worldwide generic names market (2009 index: 0.097), is still less concentrated than the market in the .fr domain (0.1 in 2009). This situation may be due to the formation of “local” markets differentiated by culture, language or national legal system; this would make it harder for the big players to cover the whole market than in the case of the .fr domain where the market is very homogeneous in culture, law and language. Figures on registrars operating in the .fr domain and ICANN-accredited for generic domains at the same time ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Some registrars are active both in the market for the .fr country domain and as ICANN-accredited registrars in the generic domain market. Only a small number of registrars do both (40 in total, or 4% to 5% of all registrars), but they include some of the biggest in terms of numbers of names. The percentage of domain names managed by such registrars engaged in both markets at once is accordingly higher: 77% of .fr domains and 28% of generic domains. - 78 -
    • Chapter 14 Analysis of the secondary market ● Source of data: DN Journal, Sedo (annual report for 2008; quarterly report for Q2-2009; website). This chapter reviews the secondary market in domain names, concentrating especially on the .fr domain (numbers traded and prices charged). Players involved in the secondary market for domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The secondary domain names market consists of all trading which takes place in already-registered domain names. These names are bought mainly, though not exclusively, through market-makers which play the often indispensable role of broker, vouching for each of the two parties and helping to keep the market liquid. Individuals acting as domainers in this way can acquire domain names in the hope of reselling them with a capital gain: the price a domain name can fetch is related to its intrinsic value (a generic name, a short name, an acronym, etc.) and so can be much higher than the registrar’s standard charge. Domainers are a very varied group, including individuals alongside businesses, some of them (mainly American) backed by investment funds. The business has significant risks, for hopes of capital gain are not always realized and the fixed costs (registering and maintaining a portfolio of names) can quickly eat into profits. The saturation of domains such as .com has also had an impact on the prices charged in the secondary market. The top prices ever recorded were for “sex.com” ($14 million in 2006), “fund.com” ($10 million in March 2008), “porn.com” ($9.5 million in May 2007) and “business.com” ($7.5 million in November 1999). The market-makers offer various services to the domainers or people wanting to buy or sell a domain name: valuation of names for sale, parking on sponsored link pages for names waiting to be sold, putting the seller and buyer in touch, escrow services during the transaction, post-purchase transfer of the domain name, auction arrangements, etc. There can also be transactions in ready-made websites, in addition to the domain name involved. - 79 -
    • DN Journal figures on the worldwide secondary domain names market ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The DN Journal website publishes a list of the main deals done in 2009 through all the existing market- makers in the secondary market26. The name “toys.com” comes top of the table, with a price of $5.1m. Four other names changed hands for over one million dollars during the first half of 2009 (“candy.com”, “fly.com”, “auction.com” and “webcam.com”). Of the domains in the top 100 published by DN Journal, .com is well in the lead, with 79 names. National domains (ccTLDs) are making ground, however (four in 2007, ten in 2008, and 19 in 2009). The French domain’s representatives in the top 100 are “loterie.fr” [lottery] and “camping.fr”. Prices appear to have come off the boil a little since last year: the record is 50% lower, and the average for the top 100 is down 25% over the last year. The league table of the most expensive names from country domains traded between January and August 2009 is headed by a Swedish domain name, “spel.se” (“game” in Swedish), which changed hands for $266,000. German and British domains feature most prominently in the top 100, where some twenty ccTLDs are to be found in all. Eleven are names traded under the .fr domain (Figure 42). By comparison with the 2008 ranking, the .de domain (Germany) has made great strides, while .ca (Canada) is much less well represented. Prices of ccTLDs are also down this year: the record price is only a quarter of what it was, and the top 100 average is down by a third over the last year. Top 30 publicly-traded national domain names by price, Jan- July 2009 (Source: DN Journal) Spel.se; 266,000 $ FlatRate.de; 200,000 $ OnlineCasino.co.uk; 165,000 $ HorseRacing.co.uk; 165,000 $ Hardware.de; 148,274 $ Motor.es; 113,050 $ Seeriese.de; 82,110 $ Entsorgung.de; 69,972 $ Gartenmoebel.de; 67,500 $ Gartenmöbel.de ; 67,500 $ RT.TV; 62,500 $ Gemaelde.de; 57,389 $ Domains in the top 100 Domain name traded Texel.de; 56,090 $ Loterie.fr; 50,400 $ LOL.de; 45,500 $ .de (32 names) Campings.fr; 45,500 $ Kino.pl; 43,500 $ .uk (17 names) SexCamera.nl; 42,250 $ .fr (11 names) Northwest.co.uk; 41,124 $ .nl (9 names) Parierenligne.fr; 39,000 $ .es , .eu , .pl (4 names) TelefonBuch.eu; 37,800 $ .at , .be , .it , .me , .tv , .us , .za (2 names) Blackjack.it; 37,410 $ Job.us; 35,532 $ .ar , .au , .br , .ca , .ch , .ru , .se , .tv (1 name) Camera.co.uk; 35,000 $ Schutzfolien.de; 33,320 $ Action.de; 32,512 $ Online-Casino.nl; 31,654 $ Slots.eu; 31,200 $ Roulette.it; 30,000 $ Statoil.ru; 29,718 $ 0$ 50,000 $ 100,000 $ 150,000 $ 200,000 $ 250,000 $ 300,000 $ Strike price (USD) Figure 42 – Dearest country-code domain names sold in the secondary market - 80 -
    • Eleven .fr domain names featured in the top 100 at the start of 2009, changing hands for between €10,000 and €35,000 each. The online gambling industry is heavily represented, and also the leisure industry. Deals in domain names related to online gambling especially show signs of domainer activity in the expectation of investment funding aimed at capturing the market in a small number of key terms. Domain names incorporating these terms are automatically rising in value and will continue to do so as competition heats up among the new companies that offer online gambling. It may also be that some of these deals are being done by gambling operators themselves who have already planned their online strategy and realize that such domain names can be valuable assets. Sedo statistics on the worldwide secondary domain names market ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• We show here some figures published by Sedo in its annual study of the secondary domain names market in 200827 and in its report for Q2 200928. These figures only cover domain names traded in the secondary market through the Sedo platform: there are no overall statistics for the entire market. Sedo is however one of the main players in the worldwide secondary market for domain names. The secondary domain names market on the Sedo platform again grew vigorously in 2008: the number of names changing hands rose 35%, after a rise of 53% in 2007. The average price across all domains fell 21% to €1,440, however, with the result that in money terms the market grew by only 8% in the last year. The rise in the number of names slowed in the last two quarters of 2008 because of the economic crisis, but picked up again in the first half of 2009. The .com domain accounts for nearly half of the domain names sold on Sedo, followed by .de (Germany, 17%). The other domains, generic and national, are less well represented. The French domain is far behind, with nearly 300 transactions in 2008 (0.8% of names traded), but its share is rising fast (the number of trades doubled in a year). - 81 -
    • The .com domain features very heavily in the 2008 distribution of sales on Sedo by value, with nearly €30m of deals. Again, the runners-up were .de and .uk. The French domain came eighth, with a total of over €800,000: its annual turnover more than tripled in 2008, whereas that of all domains together grew by no more than 8% (Figure 43). 2008 Sedo turnover by domain (Source: Sedo) .com ; 29,985,253 € .de ; 7,207,138 € .uk ; 2,872,234 € .net ; 2,374,503 € .eu ; 1,138,649 € 2008: .org ; 1,095,881 € €53m turnover on Sedo Domain (+8% on year) .info ; 911,714 € .fr turnover: €825,370 .fr ; 825,370 € (+219% on year) .es ; 736,164 € .at ; 374,523 € .ch ; 201,331 € .biz ; 197,271 € 0€ 5,000,000 € 10,000,000 € 15,000,000 € 20,000,000 € 25,000,000 € 30,000,000 € 35,000,000 € Turnover (€) Figure 43 – Turnover on Sedo, by domain In terms of average price, the French domain now appears to be the dearest, with a mean value of €2,850 (+64% in the last year). On the other hand, average selling prices for last year’s most costly domains (.com and .uk) have halved. The mean price across all domains is down by approximately 20% over the last year. - 82 -
    • Mean price figures, however, can be distorted by a few transactions at record prices; median prices are a more reliable indicator of behaviour in ordinary sales. During Q2 2009, the median price at which .fr domain names changed hands was around €650, higher than the medians of other domains (Figure 44). Median prices for country-code domain names traded on Sedo in Q2 2009 (Source: Sedo) .fr ; 651 € .uk ; 547 € .es ; 415 € .net ; 409 € .at ; 331 € Domain .com ; 318 € .org ; 295 € in Q2 2009: .eu ; 292 € Mean of all domains' median prices €350 .de ; 260 € Mean of all domain nams prices €1200 .biz ; 210 € .info ; 171 € 0€ 100 € 200 € 300 € 400 € 500 € 600 € 700 € Median prices (€) Figure 44 –Median prices of domain names sold on Sedo These figures show the vitality of the secondary market which took off strongly in 2008/2009, especially for .fr domain. There is perhaps some element of “catching up” with other markets, as a higher proportion of the more interesting names changed hands in 2008/2009, a phenomenon detected earlier in domains like .com or .de. Another explanation, not incompatible with the former one, might be that domainers have identified the French market as rich in opportunities and are prepared to put considerable resources into it, paying a little more for names in hopes that their potential is greater than in other more slowly growing domains. - 83 -
    • The figure below shows the distribution by broad industrial classification of .fr domain names offered for sale in the Sedo marketplace in August 2009. The IT industry is the best represented, ahead of Commerce/ Business, Shopping and Leisure. “Adult” names make up only 4% of the total number of names for sale (Figure 45). Number of .fr domain names for sale on Sedo, by broad industrial classification, Augt 2009 Home Education Health 2% 1% 4% Sports IT 4% 18% Social 4% Sciences 4% XXX-Adult 4% Commerce Gambling 15% 5% Arts 7% Shopping Others 11% 10% Leisure 11% Figure 45 – Number of .fr domain names for sale on Sedo, by broad industrial classification - 84 -
    • Sedo statistics on the secondary market for .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• These statistics only cover public trades in .fr domain names done on the Sedo platform, not the more confidential deals. The annual number of transactions in .fr domain names carried out on Sedo has been growing rapidly since 2007. It almost tripled between 2007 and 2008, and probably continued to grow in 2009 (Figure 46). Monthly figures for deals in .fr domain names done on Sedo, (Source:Sedo, not including confidential deals) 40 2008 2009 (to 30/06) 258 transactions 159 transactions 35 30 No. of domain names traded 25 20 2007 89 transactions 15 2005 2006 26 transactions 31 transactions 10 2004 11 transactions 5 0 Ap 005 Ap 006 6 st 8 Ap 007 Ap 008 Ap 009 09 st 4 st 5 7 O 004 O 008 ec 4 ec 05 ec 6 ec 7 ec 08 ct 5 O 00 6 5 6 7 8 ne 9 br 4 br 5 br 6 br 7 br 8 O 07 gu 00 gu 00 gu 200 gu 00 gu 00 D 00 D 00 D 00 0 Ju 0 0 Ju 0 0 Ju 0 0 Ju 0 0 Ju 0 0 Fe 0 Fe 00 Fe 0 Fe 00 Fe 0 0 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Au e 2 Au e 2 2 2 2 2 2 Au e 2 Au e 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 r2 r2 r2 r2 r2 ne ct ct ct ct st st n n n n O Ju D D Au Months Figure 46 – Monthly figures for deals in .fr domain names done on Sedo The rise in the secondary market in .fr domain names can also be seen in terms of turnover: This rose from €10,000 in 2004 to over €700,000 last year. However, the exceptionally high turnover in .fr domain names on Sedo in 2008 is due to a few very big deals done during the year (€100,000 and €50,000). Now that record prices are becoming more modest, turnover growth can be expected to slow in 2009. - 85 -
    • After remaining fairly steady in earlier years, average prices in the French secondary market rose rapidly in 2008 and approached €3,000 per .fr domain name. This figure, though, is connected with the small number of exceptional deals done last year, and should be lower this year. Over the first half of 2009 the mean price at which .fr domain names changed hands rose slightly to €2,000 (Figure 47). Monthly mean prices (€) of trades in .fr domain names on Sedo (Source:Sedo, not including confidential deals) 9,000 2008 2009 (to 30/06) 2,780 € 2,136 € 8,000 Mean prices (€) of domain names traded 7,000 6,000 5,000 2005 1,745 € 4,000 2006 2007 1,169 € 1,351 € 3,000 2004 2,000 844 € 1,000 0 Ap 005 Ap 006 6 st 8 Ap 007 Ap 008 Ap 009 09 st 4 st 5 7 O 004 O 008 ec 04 ec 5 ec 6 ec 7 ec 8 ct 5 O 00 6 5 6 7 8 ne 9 br 4 br 5 br 6 br 7 br 8 O 07 gu 00 gu 00 gu 200 gu 00 gu 00 D 00 D 00 D 00 D 00 0 Ju 0 0 Ju 0 0 Ju 0 0 Ju 0 0 Ju 00 Fe 00 Fe 00 Fe 00 Fe 00 Fe 0 20 20 20 20 20 Au e 2 Au e 2 2 2 2 2 2 Au e 2 Au e 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 r2 r2 r2 r2 r2 ne ct ct ct ct st st n n n n O Ju D Au Months Figure 47 – Monthly mean prices of trades in .fr domain names on Sedo The median price of sales on Sedo between January and June 2009 was €800 for the .fr domain, slightly down on the 2008 figure. 10% of names fetched over €5,000, but the great majority changed hands at much more reasonable levels: a quarter at under €500, and more than half at under €1,000 . - 86 -
    • Part Five: Technologies Chapter 15 Data on DNS servers ● Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (number of domains per server and number of servers per domain), operating statistics of official DNS servers managed by AFNIC (monitoring data and traffic analysis through DNSmezzo, the passive measurement component of the DNSwitness software platform). This chapter gives figures for the DNS servers that appear in registrations of .fr domain names (number of servers per domain name, number of domain names per server, and characteristics of servers.), as well as data (number and type) on requests received by the authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC. In July 2009, the AFNIC database contained 37,544 separate DNS servers, 21% more than a year earlier. This increase is virtually the same as the year’s growth in the number of .fr domain names (+20%). Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The distribution of DNS servers domain names associated with .fr domain names shows that a very great majority of the names (more than 83%) only specify two DNS servers – the minimum required – in their configuration. Some names specify three servers (14%), but more complex configurations are much rarer. The greatest number of servers is 8, and the mean is 2.2 servers per name (Figure 48). - 87 -
    • These figures have changed little since 2008. We do note, however, a very slight fall in the percentage of domain names with two DNS servers, and a corresponding rise in those indicating three. Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name, July 2009 4 DNS servers and more 4 DNS servers 0.6% (1.8%) 3 DNS servers Mean: 14.3% (+0.8% in past year) 2.2 DNS servers per .fr domain name (vs. 2.19 in 2008) 2 DNS servers 83.3% (-0.5% in past year) Figure 48 – Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name Number of .fr domain names per DNS server ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Nearly 18,000 – almost half – of all DNS servers in the AFNIC database handle only one .fr domain name and approximately 13% handle two. At the other end of the scale, 16% of DNS servers handle more than ten names each: in particular these include registrars’ servers which their customers’ domain names point to by default. There are even five servers handling portfolios of more than 100,000 domain names. - 88 -
    • Statistics on requests received by authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Details of the .fr domain are made available through a set of authoritative DNS servers for the domain, some of them run by AFNIC itself, and others by separate bodies. AFNIC uses monitoring tools to ensure that the authoritative servers for which it is responsible are functioning properly. The figure below shows changes in the mean number of requests DNS received per second by the authoritative servers managed by AFNIC (Figure 49). The graph shows strong seasonal characteristics (a fall at the start of the summer and end-year holidays). Moreover, the trend line shows steady growth in the traffic received by this set of servers: the annual mean rose from 2,000 requests a second in 2007 to over 3,000 in the first half of 2009, a 50% increase in the flow of requests received by AFNIC servers in just 18 months. It should be noted that requests received by the authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domain only account for some of the occasions on which Internet users access .fr domain names. This is because of the use of “cache” functions in recursive DNS servers, meaning that sometimes when a .fr domain is accessed this does not give rise to a specific request to an authoritative server. Moreover, the figures given here do not take into account requests received by authoritative .fr domain servers not run directly by AFNIC itself. Number of requests received per second by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domain, Sept 2009 5,000 Mean at end 2008 mean: Mean at start 4,500 of 2007 : 2,700 requests per second of 2009 : No. of requests received per second by these servers 2,000 requests 3,100 requests 4,000 per second per second 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 Trend line 1,000 500 0 8 8 9 8 9 7 8 9 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 08 08 9 09 9 8 9 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 .-0 .-0 .-0 0 .-0 .-0 .-0 .-0 .-0 .-0 -0 0 -0 -0 -0 r.- r.- e- h- r.- n. h- n. ly ne st ct ct ly br ay ay pt ov ec pt ov ec b Ap n Ju Ja c Ja Ap c gu Fe Ju O O Ju Se Se Fe ar Ju ar M M N D N D Au M M Months Figure 49 – Number of requests received by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domain - 89 -
    • AFNIC has also developed software to detect and analyse DNS traffic; this forms an integral part of the DNSwitness software platform29, which is available under GPL licence. This software component, known as DNSmezzo, was used for a month between June and July 2009 to observe the traffic received by one of the authoritative DNS servers run by AFNIC. A breakdown of this traffic shows that most of the requests were for mail servers (type “MX”) or IPv4 addresses (type “A”), in similar proportions. Other types of request were less frequent: those for IPv6 addresses (AAAA), authoritative DNS servers (NS), etc. Further analysis of this traffic showed that 99.3% of the requests received by the AFNIC server used the IPv4 protocol, and only 0.7% used IPv6. The percentage of traffic received using IPv6 is however expected to rise over time. - 90 -
    • Chapter 16 Data on the use of IPv6 ● Source of the data: AFNIC database, July 2009 and search for IPv6 addresses in the DNS using DNSdelve, the active measurement component of the DNSwitness software platform. This chapter gives figures on the use of IPv6 in the .fr domain, by identifying the number of domain names for which at least one server has an IPv6 address, in relation to various services (DNS, e-mail, Web). Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addresses ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The DNSwitness software platform supports the automatic gathering of various kinds of information from DNS domains. Domain names in a given zone which support IPv6 for various services can be identified, for example. For each domain name “internet.fr” present in the AFNIC database, DNSwitness can test for the presence of an IPv6 address for the following three types of server: ● DNS servers corresponding to the domain names associated with the domain name “internet.fr”, ● mail servers corresponding to the domain names as specified by the “MX” registrations associated with the domain name “internet.fr”, ● Web servers which might be associated with the domain name “internet.fr”, under the naming conventions “internet.fr”, www.internet.fr and “www.ipv6.internet.fr”. - 91 -
    • .fr domain names supporting IPv6 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The figure below shows the percentage of .fr domain names whose DNS, e-mail and Web servers announce at least one IPv6 address in the DNS (Figure 50). These figures show that in 2009 some 5% of .fr domain names support IPv6 for DNS and 2% for the Web, while the proportion for mail servers is much lower (0.2%). Though these figures are still quite low, they have risen fast since a year ago in the case of DNS and Web servers. If an IPv6 address is published in the DNS for a given domain name, DNS witness can test whether the corresponding server is actually operational. The survey in July 2009 showed that 99% of Web servers supporting IPv6 were indeed operational, but only two thirds of the mail servers which offered IPv6 support. Percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6, July 2009 7% 6.7% July 2008 July 2009 6% 5.2% 5% % of domain names 4% 3% 2.3% 2% 1% 0.7% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.03% 0.04% 0% DNS Service E-mail Web At least one service All services Service supporting IPv6 Figure 50 – Percentage of the .fr domain names supporting IPv6 - 92 -
    • The figure below shows how the percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6 has changed over recent months. While IPv6 support remains largely unchanged in the case of the Web and e-mail, it is growing far more clearly in that of DNS servers, particularly since May 2009 (Figure 51). Change in percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6 7% At least one service 6% DNS 5% % of domain names 4% 3% Web 2% 1% E-Mail All services 0% 09 09 8 09 09 09 8 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 .0 .0 ly ne ne n. ay ril ril n. ch ay ay ch b. b. ec ec Ju Ap Ap Ja Ja Fe Fe M Ju ar Ju M M ar D D 11 M M 24 30 10 02 16 04 18 27 13 13 07 21 27 07 21 Dates Figure 51 – Changes in the percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6 - 93 -
    • Part Six: Uses Chapter 17 Use of .fr domain names on the Web ● Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 and analysis of the HTTP headers returned by Web servers to automated scripts; random sample from the AFNIC database, with manual investigation of the websites associated with the domain names in the sample. This chapter gives figures on the uses to which the .fr domain names are put on the Web: response from the server (no response, success or redirected site), type of site (business site, personal site, parking site, etc.) and sector (in the case of the business websites). Responses from Web servers associated with .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• An automatic analysis of the HTTP headers returned by Web servers was carried out for the entire set of .fr domain names in the AFNIC database in July 2009. For each domain name “internet.fr”, a script sent a “HEAD” HTTP request to a server at the address “www.internet.fr” and then waited for the response. The HTTP response received was then analysed for various parameters: ● the HTTP return code, ● any redirection (“Location:” header), ● the server software used (“Server:” header). - 94 -
    • The figure below shows the kinds of HTTP return code received (Figure 52). For the entire .fr zone, the requests got a successful return in 6 cases out of 10; 16% were redirected, and 15% timed out. By comparison with last year’s study, slightly fewer domain names led to a successful result (-4 percentage points), and there were more with no response from the server (+2 points). Because of the rapid growth in .fr domain registrations over a number of years, the number of recently-registered names is rising. These names’ holders have not necessarily had time to develop a website associated with their domain name, and this year’s decline in the percentage of successful calls will be the result. Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name, July 2009 Categories of code returned by webservers associated with active .fr domain names, July 2009 4 DNS servers and more 4 DNS servers 0.6% (1.8%) 5 (Server error); 3% 3 DNS servers Mean: 4 (Client error); 4% 14.3% (+0.8% in past year) 2.2 DNS servers per .fr domainnames lead 77% of name (vs. 2.19 in 2008) to an active website No response from server; 15% 3 (Redirection); 16% 2 (Success); 61% 2 DNS servers 83.3% (-0.5% in past year) Figure 52 – Categories of code returned by Web servers associated with .fr domain names In 77% of cases, .fr domain did lead to a website, though in 16% of cases a redirection was involved. This proportion shows that the domain has a high rate of utilization, and appears much less prone than others to purely defensive registrations strategies. - 95 -
    • The figure below indicates which domains were used by redirecting websites (Figure 53). The domains most commonly redirected to were .com (in 41% of cases), .fr (32%) and .net (7%). Moreover, the redirection was to a URL located on the same server in 12% of cases (a relative URL, or URL with the same hostname). There were far fewer redirections to other domains. In total, therefore, 44% of redirections remained within the .fr zone. Over the last year redirections to the .fr domain have risen by 3 percentage points, while those to .net domains have fallen considerably (-6 percentage points). Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name, July 2009 Domains used in HTTP redirections from active .fr domain names, July 2009 4 DNS servers and more 4 DNS servers 0.6% (1.8%) .de ; 1% .eu ; 1% .org ; 3% Other redirections; 3% Mean: 3 DNS servers 14.3% (+0.8% in past year) URL with 2.2 DNS servers same hostname; per .fr domain name 5% (vs. 2.19 in 2008) .net ; 7% (-6 points on last year) .com ; 41% Relative URL ; 7% .fr ; 32% (+3 points on last year) 2 DNS servers 83.3% (-0.5% in past year) Figure 53 – Domains redirected to by .fr domain names Types of website associated with .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• A random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names was extracted from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2009. These 1,000 domain names were then analysed by staff who visited their associated websites during August 2009 (all addresses of the type “www.internet.fr”). The figures given below were obtained from this sample of 1,000 names, and do not purport to represent the entire .fr zone. The website types distinguished in this study were as follows: ● no response from server: the web server associated with the domain name did not respond, or sent an HTTP error message, ● site suspended: a message on the site indicates that it is temporarily unavailable, ● site empty: the web page returned is either empty or matches the default page of a content management platform, - 96 -
    • ● holding page: the site has been parked with a registrar or hosting company, ● sponsored links: the site uses commercial links of the “Pay Per Click” kind, such as those of Sedo, NameDrive (NDParking), Google (AdSense) or Yahoo! Search Marketing, ● business site: the site appears to be business-related (firms, associations, public bodies, or indeed self-employed individuals), ● personal site: the site is personal in character (personal blog, family website, community website, photo-sharing website, etc.), ● type unknown: it was not possible to determine the website’s place in this classification (password- protected access to the website’s content, for example). On ranking the random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names by type of website, we find that business websites account for almost half (46%). Personal websites are much rarer (3%), since the domain only became available to individuals as recently as June 2006. Holding pages represent 17% of the domain names considered, and 5% point to pages of sponsored links. Lastly, 20% of the names generated no response from the associated web server, and 5% of the websites were empty (Figure 54). It can be seen that since last year’s study business sites have increased a little (+1 point) at the expense of personal ones (-1 point). This might seem a surprising trend, in that the current growth in the .fr domain is being for the most part driven by individuals’ registrations; but there are various factors that could provide an explanation. First of all, some of the sites sampled were being used for business purposes although registered to individuals (sites belonging to professional artists, freelance consultants, etc.). This shows that the practical reason why some individuals have an .fr domain name may be to have a site connected with their work rather than one just for personal or family purposes. Secondly, the recent popularity of social networks like Facebook may have made some individual holders of .fr domain names less keen to set up their own website but rather to have a profile on a social network instead – in which case they may be using their domain name to give themselves a personalised e-mail address. - 97 -
    • Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name, July 2009 Types of website associated with .fr domain names (random sample of 1000 names) 4 DNS servers and more 4 DNS servers Site suspended; 0.7% 0.6% (1.8%) Type unknown; 2.0% 3 DNS servers Personal site; 3.3% Mean: 2009: August 14.3% (+0.8% in past year) empty; 5.3% Site 2.2 DNS servers 49% of sites had specific content per .fr domain nameyear) (no change from last Page of sponsored links ; 5.4% (vs. 2.19 in 2008) 23% were parked sites (-1 on last year) Holding page ; 17.3% Business site; 45.9% 2 DNS servers No response from server; 83.3% 20.1% (-0.5% in past year) Figure 54 – Types of website associated with .fr domain names Features of the websites associated with the domain names in the sample showed that a quarter of the business sites incorporated some kind of e-commerce function (providing an order form, or actually offering the opportunity of buying online). This figure is in keeping with INSEE statistics according to which 24% of French firms’ websites in 2008 were offering online ordering or booking of goods or services. Though it is relatively low, the figure has risen considerably over the last year (16% in 2008). Other business sites have a “showcase” function: they display the firm’s catalogue of goods or services but offer no facilities for ordering or purchasing directly online. Moreover, 2% of the names in the sample were on sale in the secondary market at the time of the study, and just 4% of the sites which did have specific content took the form of a blog (Table 11). Features of websites associated with .fr domain names (random sample of 1,000 names, August 2009) Feature % Domain name for sale 11% parked names, 2% of all names Sites with e-commerce functions 24% of business sites, 11% of all names Blog 4% of business and personal sites Sites under construction 5% of business and personal sites Table 11 – Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names - 98 -
    • Sector of activity of websites associated with .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Business sites were classified by apparent sector of activity. The figure below shows the classification for the 1,000 names in the random sample (Figure 55). Some sectors appear to have a very considerable presence on the French web: services (ITC-related services in particular), leisure-related activities (tourism, art, culture), commerce, etc. Pornography websites accounted for only 1% of the sample. Subjects currently much in the news appeared frequently in the sample, such as sustainable development or personal services. Sector of activity of business websites associated with .fr domain names, Aug 2009 (random sample of 1,000 names) Security; 1.1% Porn; 1.1% Other ; 2.4% Jobs; 1.3% Farming; 1.5% Finance; 1.7% ITC-related services ; 12.2% Beauty; 1.7% Media; 2.4% Education/Training; 2.4% Sport; 2.8% Services/Consultancy; 8.9% Government; 2.8% Food; 2.8% Tourism; 8.5% Health; 3.1% Property; 3.1% Manufacturing; 3.3% Leisure; 7.4% Motoring/Biking; 3.3% Social; 3.5% Art/Culture; 6.8% Construction; 4.1% Home; 5.0% Retail; 6.8% Figure 55 – Sector of activity of websites associated with .fr domain names - 99 -
    • Chapter 18 Perception of .fr domain names ● Source of data: Opinion surveys organized by AFNIC/20 Minutes (2007) and AFNIC/Metro Panel (2008, 2009). This chapter aims to provide a summary of the main results from a number of opinion surveys commissioned by AFNIC concerning perceptions and uses of domain names in France: ● AFNIC/20 Minutes survey (2007)30, 800 Internet users surveyed online from 21 – 25 March 2007, ● AFNIC/Metro Panel opinion survey (2008)31, 1,265 Internet users surveyed online, 7 – 14 March 2008, ● 2009 AFNIC/Metro Panel online survey of 1,042 Internet users, 30 March to 16 April 2009. Due to the surveys’ circumstances, the panels used in these studies consisted of online readers of the newspapers “Metro” and “20 Minutes”: they are not necessarily representative of the whole French population. They do however provide a reliable picture of the online population – the one likely to be in contact with domain names, either as web users or as holders of names. Familiarity with the domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• More and more of the survey respondents know that .fr domain names can now be registered by individuals (71% in 2008, compared with 63% in 2007); they get word of this mainly through the media (advertising and media buzz) or by word of mouth (friends, acquaintances or work colleagues). Nearly half of them now think they can name some registrars – but there is still confusion between registrars and ISPs. Some respondents had already registered personal domain names (14%), most often bundled with a provider’s other services (74%). Two thirds of those respondents who had registered an .fr domain name only owned one. One in ten had already deleted a domain name, or was redirecting it to another .fr domain name. The panellists had considerable experience of Internet technology: half of them had already set up a website, blog or personal webspace; and on average each had three e-mail addresses. - 100 -
    • Values associated with the .fr domain ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The .fr domain is primarily associated in these respondents’ minds with being a French speaker (63%), and with values connected with the idea of national community (belonging 31%, closeness 20%). The domain also, but to a lesser extent, puts them in mind of the values of the French Republic (liberty, equality, fraternity), as well as other values with a positive connotation (friendliness, originality, humour, fellow- feeling) or practical advantages (availability, diversity). These results have indeed changed little from year to year. Values associated with the .fr domain names, 2009 (Source: AFNIC/Metro online survey) French language; 63% Belonging; 31% Closeness; 20% Key values mentioned by respondants Liberty; 16% None of these; 13% Originality; 12% Image of .fr: Availability; 9% A geographical perception Friendliness; 7% (French speaker - Belonging - Closeness) more than values Humour; 6% Fraternity; 6% Equality; 6% Diversity; 5% Fellow-feeling; 2% Other; 2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % of replies Figure 56 – Values associated with the .fr domain names Acquisition of .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The registrar or Internet Service Provider remains a decisive factor in the decision to register a domain name for half the respondents, suggesting that Internet users feel a need for advice here. Cost is still the main consideration when choosing a domain (two thirds of the panel); next come the clarity of the various offerings and the simplicity of the registration interface. - 101 -
    • As for those who cannot see themselves registering a name, this is essentially because they have no use for one (almost unchanged, at 60%): most of the respondents do not find it very clear how domain names are used and what the user benefits are; this finding is in line with the way the French market for domain names is lagging behind those of other countries such as Germany or the United Kingdom. The perceived expense associated with having a domain name is now a decisive factor against it in far fewer cases (only one person in 10), indicating that there is now widespread awareness that registration charges for the .fr domain have fallen. Acquisition of .fr domain names, 2009 (Source: AFNIC/Metro Panel online survey) 46% My registrar or ISP might have influenced my choice (Yes / Perhaps) The factors that influenced my choice were: 66% The charges 42% Clear offer 38% Simple registration interface 36% Bundled services Characteristics 22% Confidence in the registrar What I go by in selecting a registrar: 66% The charges 42% Clear offer 36% Simple registration interface 25% Bundled services 24% Confidence in the registrar I've never registered a personal domain name, because… 60% I see no point 11% It costs rather a lot 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % of replies Figure 57 – Acquisition of .fr domain names Use of the .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Though many registrations had been made with no clear intention as to how it would then be used (4 respondents out of 10), those wanting to use a .fr domain name for an personalised e-mail address have doubled since last year (one third of the panel) and now outnumber those wanting to enhance their online presence (website or blog). Of the various extra services sought in addition to a domain name, privacy protection (anonymized Whois) comes top, ahead of e-mail hosting and security services such as anti-virus, or anti-spam. - 102 -
    • Chapter 19 Disputes over domain names in France ● Source of data: AFNIC, WIPO. This chapter gives figures on the disputes concerning domain names in France: disputes over the .fr domain, and disputes over other domains where one of the two parties is in France. Disputes over .fr domain names ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Disputes concerning .fr domain names may be handled by means of various procedures, allowing for a graduated response: ● the opportunity for a third party to contact the administrative contact of a domain name with restricted publication (i.e. personal information are not published in Whois directory), without disclosing their identity or guaranteeing that this person will respond, ● post-registration checking that the name conforms to the domain’s rules, either at AFNIC’s initiative or at the request of a third party with a legitimate reason for enquiring, without disclosing who is involved (Article 17 of the Charter), ● third-party claim to resolve breaches of the Decree of 6 February 2007 (Decree / Order covering French TLDs management), without disclosing who is involved (the PREDEC procedure), ● disclosing, at the request of a third party, the name and other details of an individual holder registered under restricted publicity, if a protected mark has been reproduced exactly or nearly so (typosquatting, dotsquatting, &c.), ● disclosing a name holder’s contact details following a court judgement, ● blocking of domain names by AFNIC for obvious violations of the Charter (Article 17), ● ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) procedure by expert’s decision, administered by the Arbitration and Mediation Centre of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), ● Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) by online recommendation, administered by the Paris Centre for Mediation and Arbitration (CMAP), ● alternative dispute resolution (ADR) by mediation, administered by the FDI or Forum des droits sur l’internet [Internet Rights Forum], in the case of .fr domain names registered by individuals (www.mediateurdunet.fr), ● legal proceedings in the appropriate courts. The details of these various procedures are available online at the AFNIC website32. - 103 -
    • The figures below show the number of ADR proceedings instituted and cases dealt with directly by AFNIC in each month since 2006. These are numbers of proceedings, not numbers of domain names: a case may cover more than one name. It should also be noted that these figures are for those proceedings known to AFNIC; they do not necessarily include all cases brought in connection with the .fr domain. Numbers of ADR proceedings have changed little over time; most are handled by WIPO and concern individuals’ registrations. The total number of proceedings dealt with by AFNIC is rising – understandably, given the overall growth of the .fr domain, especially after it was made available to individuals in June 2006. Proceedings to disclose contact details of a name holder (at the request of a third party or following a court judgement) are the commonest, on average; their numbers are changing little over time. The PREDEC procedure has also been in regular use since it was set up in July 2008 (Figure 58), which shows it meets a genuine expectation on the part of a certain number of those involved. Changes in the number of proceedings dealt with by AFNIC concerning disputes over .fr domain names 120 PREDEC proceedings 100 Updating Whois database Disclosure of name-holder PREDEC set up Eligibility check No. of proceedings /month 80 Ad hoc checks 60 .fr domain available to individuals 40 20 0 N t-06 pt 6 N t-07 N t-08 6 Fe -08 ar 08 Ap -08 Fe -09 9 ne 8 ne 9 Au u l y 8 ar 09 M r-06 gu - 0 8 M - 09 O 06 D -06 O 07 Ja -06 D -07 D -08 Ja -07 Ja -08 M - 08 O -08 pt 7 g u -0 6 7 ar 07 Ap -09 gu - 0 7 ar 06 ne 6 A u uly 6 S e t-08 M r-07 Ap 06 Ap - 0 7 Au u l y 7 ne 7 Se t-0 -0 Fe n-0 J -0 Ju y-0 Ju -0 Se t-0 Fe n-0 J -0 J -0 Ju y-0 Ju y-0 M br- - - M br- M br- M br- - n n ch ay r ov ec ov ec ov ec pt r ch ch ch c c c s s s a Ja a a Months Figure 58 – Changes in the number of proceedings dealt with by AFNIC concerning disputes over .fr domain names - 104 -
    • At the end of June 2009 only 30 of all the 1,460,000 .fr domain names in the AFNIC database were involved in an ADR process (13 of them concerning individuals and 17 corporate bodies), compared with 53 a year earlier. As to names blocked by AFNIC, those registered by corporate bodies remain stable at around 1,400 names, while the number of those held by individuals remained below 100, after peaking in mid-2008. The so-called PREDEC procedure for resolving obvious breaches of the Decree of 6 February 2007 has done well on the whole; nearly 100 cases have been brought in its first year33. This procedure has now found its place in law practices and among intellectual property consultants, and is steadily becoming a feature of the French legal landscape alongside ADR procedures (Table 12). Statistics on dispute resolution proceedings for obvious breaches of the Decree dated 6 February 2007 (PREDEC procedure), to 23 July 2009 Cases brought before AFNIC PREDEC procedure set up 22 July 2009 No. of cases brought 92 Number of cases admissible 75 Decisions given by AFNIC, to 23 July 2009 64 Decisions given by AFNIC Name transferred 40 Complaint rejected 24 Decree Article invoked Article R20-44-43 (R20-44-43 (names of French institutions) 20 Article R20-44-45 (intellectual property rights) 59 Table 12 – Figures on the PREDEC procedure The .fr domain names that have been the subject of PREDEC proceedings include cases of attempted cybersquatting, typosquatting, dotsquatting (names obtained by prefixing “www” to a legitimately-held domain name), names of municipalities registered by someone else, etc. - 105 -
    • UDRP disputes handled by WIPO ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The figures given below come from statistics provided by the Arbitration and Mediation Centre of WIPO (the World Intellectual Property Organisation) on UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy) proceedings34. They only relate to proceedings of this kind brought before the body in question, given that disputes over the various domains can also be handled by means of other procedures and by other bodies, such as the Paris Mediation and Arbitration Centre and the Forum des droits sur l’Internet for the .fr domain, or ADNDRC (the Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre), CAC (the Czech Arbitration Court), CPR (the International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution) or the NAF (National Arbitration Forum) in the case of generic domains. The figure below shows, for various TLDs, the changes in the number of domain names involved in UDRP proceeding handled by WIPO (Figure 59). Most of the names are understandably .com domains, which is the biggest TLD in terms of number of names registered. Next come .net, .org and .info domains. We can also see that there was a sharp rise in disputes in 2000, followed by a few calmer years once the dotcom bubble had burst. They regained their previous peak in 2005. Changes in the number of domain names involved in a WIPO UDRP proceedings, by domain (Source: WIPO) 3,000 2,500 No. of domain names involved in proceedings 2,000 .com .net .org 1,500 .info .fr .mobi 1,000 .biz 500 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Years Figure 59 – Changes in the number of domain names involved in WIPO proceedings - 106 -
    • The changes over time in the number of domains involved in UDRP proceedings show that the relative situation of the various TLDs can change greatly from one year to another. The .fr domain, however, has since 2005 been one of the TLDs most often subject to dispute resolution proceedings, per domain name. This situation reflects the importance attached by French holders to the policing of their country-code names, which they regard as a strategic priority, being more liable therefore to think it worthwhile to take action to vindicate their rights than in the case of less valued domains. The figure below shows the breakdown, for .fr domain names, of the UDRP proceedings handled by WIPO in 2008, in terms of the final decisions given by the experts at the conclusion of those proceedings (Figure 60). It can be seen that in a great majority of cases the complainant’s case was upheld: more than the half of the proceedings in fact ended with a transfer of the domain name in question. In a third of cases the proceedings ended without a decision, for example after the parties came to an amicable arrangement. Only in 7% of cases was the complaint rejected and the defending party allowed to keep the disputed domain name. Lastly, there were a very few situations in which the name was deleted, i.e. taken away from the defending party without being transferred to the complainant. WIPO UDRP decisions - Cases for .fr domain names - 2008 (Source: WIPO) Name deleted 3 2008: Complaint rejected 5% 4 56 decisions given by WIPO 7% in proceedings on .fr domain names Name transferred Settled without a decision 31 18 56% 32% Figure 60 – Outcome of WIPO proceedings on .fr domain names - 107 -
    • The breakdown of outcomes in UDRP proceedings handled by WIPO changes little from year to year (Figure 61). WIPO UDRP decisions - Cases for .fr domain names, per year (Source: WIPO) 70 60 Settled without a decision Complaint rejected 19 50 Name deleted 18 Name transferred 40 6 No. of decisions 2 4 3 30 20 6 3 35 3 31 3 3 1 10 17 11 13 5 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 (to August) Years Figure 61 – Changes in outcomes of WIPO proceedings on .fr domain names - 108 -
    • The figures below give a breakdown by country of origin of complainants (Figure 62) and defendants (Figure 63) involved in UDRP proceedings handled by WIPO between 1999 and 2009. The USA has by far the greatest share in both figures, due to its predominance on the Internet. France accounts for some 11% of the complainants and 3% of the defendants: it would appear therefore that French firms are more often victims than perpetrators of cybersquatting activities. Breakdown of WIPO UDRP proceedings by country of complainant between 1999 and Aug 2009 (Source: WIPO) India; 1.0% Denmark; 1.1% Other countries; 9.6% Japan; 1.1% Sweden; 1.4% Australia; 1.8% Netherlands; 2.0% Canada; 2.0% United States; Italy; 3.3% 42.9% Spain; 4.6% Switzerland; 5.1% Germany; 5.7% United Kingdom; 7.5% France; 10.9% Figure 62 – Countries of origin of most complainants in WIPO proceedings This figure – 11% of complaints from French organizations in the case of disputes over generic domain names – should be compared with that of 2.5% for names registered in France under such domains. The contrast highlights the tendency of French firms to take legal action rather than conduct defensive registrations beforehand. They can accordingly be seen to register fewer names than their counterparts in other countries, but to be more vigilant over infringements of their trademarks in the sphere of domain names. - 109 -
    • Breakdown of WIPO UDRP proceedings, by country of defendant between 1999 and Aug 2009 (Source: WIPO) Other countries; 17.4% Bahamas; 1.1% Panama; 1.1% Switzerland; 1.4% United States; 39.2% Russia; 1.4% Italy; 1.5% Germany; 1.5% India; 1.6% Netherlands; 1.7% Australia; 2.3% France; 3.2% South Korea; 3.9% Spain; 4.5% United Kingdom; 8.4% Canada; 4.7% China; 5.1% Figure 63 – Countries of origin of most defendants involved in WIPO proceedings The figure above shows, on the other hand, that while French firms are admittedly less frequently found defending than complaining, the proportion of disputes in which they appear as defendants (3.2%) is still greater than the proportion (2.5%) of names registered in France, so far as the generic domains are concerned. This difference might lead one to suspect that there are professional cybersquatters to be found in France. So far as the language used in UDRP proceedings at WIPO is concerned, English is very predominant (nearly 9 cases in 10). Approximately 4% of UDRP cases were conducted in French in 2008. It is also worth noting that the number of proceedings conducted in Dutch grew considerably. - 110 -
    • Part Seven: Conclusions Chapter 20 Market trends and prospects This chapter gives a review of the past year and offers an analysis of the trends and prospects for the French domain name industry with particular focus on .fr. Review of the year ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In 2008/2009 the .fr domain remained one of the fastest-growing: with an annual growth rate of 25%, it has weathered the economic storm better than the majority of generic or country-code domains. This vigorous growth, particularly noticeable after the domain was opened to individuals in June 2006, brought the .fr domain above the 1.5 million mark on September 10, 2009. The breakdown of domain names registered in France shows rapid and sustained growth for the .fr domain, which currently represents 33% of all registrations, alongside an eroding of the .com market share and relatively little change in the other domains used. Domain names’ rate of renewal in .fr has now stabilised at a high level (83%). The .fr domain also stands to benefit from some solid sources of future growth. This is especially the case in the individuals’ market, where the number of names registered per head of population is still fairly low by comparison with other industrialised countries. It is also the case in the corporate market (as French firms tend to lag somewhat in setting up websites). An additional source of growth is the secondary market, where .fr now ranks among the most vigorously growing in terms of turnover and selling prices, as a result of stronger perceptions of the intrinsic value of having a French domain name on the part of everyone involved in the market. France’s relative under-development of e-commerce to date may also prove to be yet another source of growth for .fr. The forecasted take-off of this sector in the coming years supports this hypothesis, for it would encourage a catching-up by French business in terms of online presence, as well as a demand for domain names among e-commerce firms, for whom it would be an intangible but valuable component of their working capital. On March 30, 2009 AFNIC has launched its EPP service, which is a standardized protocol for automatic exhanges related to registration between registrars and the AFNIC information system. This major transition proceeded without a hitch, as the e-mail and web-based registration interfaces remained available in parallel. Two months later, the EPP interface was already being used for 62% of queries and 40% of new .fr domain name registrations. The new protocol improves the speed and security of exchanges between registries and their registrars; it also has the undeniable advantage of being used by many generic and national domains. This means that the introduction of EPP could well bring new international players (who are already using the technology for other domains) into the market for the .fr domain, for it would considerably reduce their software development costs. - 111 -
    • Outlook ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 186 million domain names have so far been registered around the world, and the demand for them is still growing. Against this background ICANN set about creating some new Top Level Internet Domains in June 2008. As a result, many new domains could be introduced in the next few years. There is a proliferation of gTLDs projects now being proposed: geographic ones (.paris, .berlin, .africa, etc.), cultural and linguistic ones (.bzh for the Breton community, .cym for the Welsh, and .gal for Galicia, etc.), and subject-specific ones (.eco, .food, .sport, and others). Businesses may well also apply for a new flavour of TLDs: “corporate” gTLDs. Lastly, thanks to IDN technology it will become possible for new domains to be available not only in the Latin alphabet but in other forms (Chinese characters, Cyrillic alphabet, etc.). The first round of new gTLD application should be opened in 2010, once the rules have been finalised. ICANN has already published three successive editions of the Draft Applicant Guidebook. Each edition has invited comments, which have elicited a certain number of obstacles, mainly concerning issues of funding, protection of geographic names and protection of brands. As part of this process of creating new domains, AFNIC will be offering its experience and its registry infrastructures to prospective applicants, provided their project’s vision and values suit AFNIC’s philosophy and responsibility to the .fr domain. The City of Paris has recently announced (early October 2009) that it has selected a consortium led by AFNIC and fromed with CORE (which manages the Catalan .cat domain) to assist with its ICANN application and subsequently operate the .paris gTLD. This new gTLD, which will most likely prove popular given the great reputation of Paris and the general fondness inspired by its name, will no doubt feature prominently in future editions of this Report. The greater clarity about the fees charged by all market players as well as on the quality of service offered to end users, could likewise prove a significant theme for development of this Report in coming years. - 112 -
    • - 113 -
    • About AFNIC AFNIC is a non-profit association (under the 1901 Act) set up by the French authorities in December 1997 to manage the .fr and .re domains, two Internet Top Level Domains for French territories (France and Reunion Island). AFNIC’s members include individuals and legal entities, five of whom are appointed by public authorities (two by INRIA for historical reasons, two by the French Industry Ministry and one by the French Research Ministry). The other five members are elected from among registrars (two), users’ representatives (two) and the International College (one). AFNIC works to encourage growth of the .fr domain by establishing flexible rules and facilitating automation of the registration process, while still making sure that all parties are in a position to insist on their rights. This objective is allied to a cost-conscious charging system which has enabled AFNIC to cut its fees to €4.80, under a third of the €15 charged in 2002. Thanks to its expertise in DNS and Internet technologies, AFNIC is also committed to an active programme of Research and Development with a view to maintaining that expertise and extending it as the Internet continues to make massive technological strides. That R&D effort directly benefits AFNIC’s customers and members through the services which depend on the outcome of such endeavours. Lastly, AFNIC has decided to make the most of its core capabilities – the technical management of Internet domain registries – by getting involved in the programme for creating new gTLDs which ICANN started in 2008. It is accordingly helping to guide many projects through the ICANN application stage as well as in the subsequent management of the new domains once allocated. The City of Paris, among others, has chosen AFNIC as its technical manager for the coming .paris domain. As a disinterested and independent body, AFNIC is in a proper position to act as lead monitor for an ongoing exercise in observation and reporting which brings people and organizations the benefit of research work they could not consider undertaking individually. - 114 -
    • About Télécom & Management SudParis Télécom & Management SudParis (formerly INT) is a public body coming under the Economics, Finance and Industry Ministry. It is a member of the Institut Télécom, of the Management Schools Section of the Conférence des Grandes Écoles and of the EFMD (European Foundation of Management Development). The campus of Télécom & Management SudParis hosts a management school (the Télécom École de Management) and an engineering college (Télécom SudParis), which share teaching facilities for their student managers and engineers, as well as a business incubator (Télécom & Management SudParis Entrepreneuriat), a lifelong learning centre and a research centre. Télécom & Management SudParis has 2,000 students, 200 teaching and research staff, 150 doctoral postgrads, 20 research groups and more than 15 research platforms. It has partnerships with five colleges offering doctoral courses, and itself offers five national Masters diplomas, six Science Masters, seven specialist Masters, one Executive MBA and four Summer Schools. Télécom École de Management offers all-round management training together with advanced teaching in telecommunications, IT and information systems. Télécom SudParis provides generalist training in ICT. The lifelong learning centre benefits from the expertise of the research centre and both schools. This twofold capability, combined with the research work and continuous close relations with businesses, enables the lifelong learning centre to offer a range of training solutions to meet firms’ particular situations. The research centre is organized into eleven teaching/research departments: Information systems, Electronics and Physics, IT, Languages and Personal Development, Networking Software, Telecommunications Networks and Services, Communications, Images and Information Processing, Advanced Research and Techniques for Multidimensional Imaging Systems, Law, Economics, Finance and Sociology and Management, Marketing and Strategy. Télécom & Management SudParis also hosts the SAMOVAR laboratory (a joint CNRS/GET- INT Research Unit) and the CEMANTIC laboratory. Télécom & Management SudParis has for many years maintained strong links with manufacturing industry and with telcos and service providers, so as to strengthen its research and development activities. Its annual R&D budget is enhanced by external subsidies from a wide range of enterprises, including France Télécom, Bouygues Télécom, SFR, Motorola, Alcatel and EDF, in addition to national research programmes such as RNRT, RNTL, RIAM and RNTS. Télécom & Management SudParis is also involved in European research programmes, including projects for IST, ITEA and Actions Marie Curie. - 115 -
    • Contents Overview ..................................................................................................................... 2 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 6 Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report? ......................................................... 6 Executive summary .................................................................................................... 7 France’s favourite domain - .fr ............................................................................................. 7 A regular and steady increase in the use of the domain name pool .............................. 8 Registrants still young and urban ......................................................................................... 9 The growing concentration among registrars ..................................................................... 9 Technology and security ....................................................................................................... 10 .fr domain names are mainly used on the Web for business purposes........................... 11 Major changes ahead ........................................................................................................... 12 Part One: Background ............................................................................................... 13 Chapter 1: Background facts & figures: the Internet in France ......................................... 13 Household equipment ..........................................................................................................................13 Internet users........................................................................................................................................13 Internet access ......................................................................................................................................14 Firms’ Internet Use ..............................................................................................................................15 Chapter 2: Background facts & figures: domain names around the world...................... 18 Use of the various domains around the world .......................................................................................18 Geographical breakdown of domain names .........................................................................................22 Chapter 3: Background facts & figures: domain names in France ................................... 23 Chapter 4: Trend in numbers of .fr domain names ............................................................. 25 Individuals and legal entities.................................................................................................................26 Renewal of .fr domain names ...............................................................................................................27 Part Two: .fr domain names ...................................................................................... 29 Chapter 5: Number of domain names per holder .............................................................. 29 Individuals ...........................................................................................................................................29 Legal entities .......................................................................................................................................30 Trend ...................................................................................................................................................31 Chapter 6: Lexicographical structure of .fr domain names............................................... 32 Length of .fr domain names .................................................................................................................32 Use of hyphens and numerals in .fr domain names...............................................................................33 Terms used in .fr domain names...........................................................................................................34 Proportion of letter/numeral combinations actually registered as .fr domain names ..............................36 Investigations using various lists of names ............................................................................................37 Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names ..................................................................37 Proportion of French first names and surnames registered as .fr domain names ....................................38 Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registered as .fr domain names .........................39 Proportion of company names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names .....................................40 - 116 -
    • Part Three: Holders of names ..................................................................................... 41 Chapter 7: Location of individual holders of .fr domain names ........................................ 41 Preliminary remarks .............................................................................................................................41 Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals .........................................................................41 Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants ......................................42 Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................46 Chapter 8: Location of legal entities holders of .fr domain names ................................... 49 Preliminary remarks .............................................................................................................................49 Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities.......................................................................50 Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities, per 1,000 legal entities..................................51 Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................54 Chapter 9: Location of individual and legal entities holders of .fr domain names ......... 56 Total number of .fr domain names (individuals and legal entities together) ..........................................56 Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................57 Chapter 10: Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names ............................................ 59 Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names .......................................................................59 Changes in the age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names ................................................61 Part Four: Registrars .................................................................................................... 62 Chapter 11: Registrars ............................................................................................................ 62 Number of registrars of .fr domain names ............................................................................................62 Location of registrars of .fr domain names............................................................................................63 Chapter 12: Types of service offered and charges ............................................................ 67 Services offered by registrars .................................................................................................................67 Registrars’ charges.................................................................................................................................68 Chapter 13: Analysis of the registrar market ....................................................................... 70 Number of .fr domain names per registrar............................................................................................70 Entire market (individuals and legal entities) ..............................................................................70 Lorentz curves.............................................................................................................................72 The market for individuals ..........................................................................................................72 Corporate market .......................................................................................................................73 Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names (numbers of domain names managed) .........74 Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names (in terms of new domain names registered) ..75 The market for ICANN-accredited registrars ........................................................................................76 Figures on registrars operating in the .fr domain and ICANN-accredited for generic domains at the same time ...................................................................................................................................78 Chapter 14: Analysis of the secondary market ................................................................... 79 Players involved in the secondary market for domain names.................................................................79 DN Journal figures on the worldwide secondary domain names market ..............................................80 Sedo statistics on the worldwide secondary domain names market .......................................................81 Sedo statistics on the secondary market for .fr domain names ..............................................................85 - 117 -
    • Part Five: Technologies .............................................................................................. 87 Chapter 15: Data on DNS servers.......................................................................................... 87 Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name ......................................................................................87 Number of .fr domain names per DNS server ......................................................................................88 Statistics on requests received by authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC .................................89 Chapter 16: Data on the use of IPv6 ..................................................................................... 91 Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addresses .....................................................................................91 .fr domain names supporting IPv6 .......................................................................................................92 Part Six: Uses................................................................................................................ 94 Chapter 17: Use of .fr domain names on the Web ............................................................. 94 Reponses from Web servers associated with .fr domain names ..............................................................94 Types of website associated with .fr domain names ...............................................................................96 Sector of activity of websites associated with .fr domain names ...........................................................99 Chapter 18: Perception of .fr domain names ...................................................................... 100 Familiarity with the domain names ......................................................................................................100 Values associated with the .fr domain ...................................................................................................101 Acquisition of .fr domain names ..........................................................................................................101 Use of the .fr domain names.................................................................................................................102 Chapter 19: Disputes over domain names in France ........................................................ 103 Disputes over .fr domain names ...........................................................................................................103 UDRP disputes handled by WIPO ......................................................................................................106 Part Seven: Conclusions ............................................................................................ 111 Chapter 20: Market trends and prospects ........................................................................... 111 Review of the year ................................................................................................................................111 Outlook ...............................................................................................................................................112 About AFNIC ............................................................................................................... 114 About Télécom & Management SudParis ................................................................ 115 Contents ..................................................................................................................... 116 List of tables ................................................................................................................. 119 List of figures ................................................................................................................ 120 List of notes .................................................................................................................. 122 Glossary ....................................................................................................................... 124 - 118 -
    • List of tables Table 1 – French Internet statistics, 2009 ........................................................................................ 14 Table 2 – French firms’ Internet use ................................................................................................ 16 Table 3 – French firms’ website functions........................................................................................ 17 Table 4 – Impact of one promotion on .fr domain names ............................................................... 28 Table 5 – Use .fr domain names ...................................................................................................... 34 Table 6 – Comparison of the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names and all French adults ....................................................................................................................... 61 Table 7 – Concentration indices: entire market for .fr domain names registered by individuals and legal entities ...................................................................................... 71 Table 8 – Concentration indices: market for .fr domain names registered by individuals ............... 73 Table 9 – Concentration indices: market for .fr domain names registered by legal entities ............. 74 Table 10 – Concentration indices: world market in generic domain names .................................... 78 Table 11 – Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names ........................................ 98 Table 12 – Figures on the PREDEC procedure ............................................................................... 105 - 119 -
    • List of figures Figure 1 – European firms’ broadband Internet use ........................................................................ 15 Figure 2 – European firms: websites ............................................................................................... 16 Figure 3 – French firms: websites .................................................................................................... 17 Figure 4 – Number of domain names per Top Level Domain .......................................................... 19 Figure 5– Annual growth in the number of domain names per Top Level Domain ......................... 20 Figure 6 – Changes in “adjusted” number of domain names, by type of domain ............................ 21 Figure 7 – Breakdown of generic domain names by country ........................................................... 22 Figure 8 – Breakdown of domain names registered in France ......................................................... 23 Figure 9 – Changes in the total number of .fr domain names ......................................................... 25 Figure 10 – Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals ............................................ 26 Figure 11 – Renewal of .fr domain names ....................................................................................... 27 Figure 12 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (individuals) ................................................. 30 Figure 13 – Number of .fr domain names per holder, corporate bodies .......................................... 31 Figure 14 – Length of .fr domain names ......................................................................................... 33 Figure 15 – Words most commonly used in .fr domain names ........................................................ 35 Figure 16 – Proportion of letter/numeral combinations actually registered as .fr domain names ... 36 Figure 17 – Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names ......................................... 38 Figure 18 – Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registered as .fr domain names ........................................................................................................................ 39 Figure 19 – Proportion of French company and trademark names registered as .fr domain names ....................................................................................................................... 40 Figure20– Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals, per 1,000 inhabitants (Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 43 Figure 21 – Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants (Overseas) ....................................................................................................................................... 44 Figure 22 – Top 10 departments by number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants ...................................................................................................................... 45 Figure 23 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals (Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 46 Figure 24 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals (Overseas) ....................................................................................................................................... 47 Figure 25 – Top 10 departments by annual rate of growth in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals ................................................................................................................. 48 Figure 26 – Country breakdown of .fr domain names registered by corporate bodies..................... 50 Figure 27 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 52 Figure 28 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies (Overseas) ....................................................................................................................................... 53 Figure 29 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities (Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 54 Figure 30 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities (Overseas) ....................................................................................................................................... 55 Figure 31 – Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 57 Figure 32 – Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names (Overseas) ................... 58 Figure 33 – Comparison of age pyramids: individual holders of .fr domain names, and the French population .............................................................................................................. 60 - 120 -
    • Figure 34 – Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names ............................................ 62 Figure 35 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France) ........................... 64 Figure 36 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Overseas).............................................. 65 Figure 37 – Charges for .fr domain names ...................................................................................... 68 Figure 38 – Main registrars ranked by total numbers of .fr domain names ..................................... 71 Figure 39 – Historical levels of concentration indices for the registration market of .fr domain names: total stock of managed names, and new names registered.............................. 75 Figure 40 – Country breakdown of ICANN-accredited registrars ................................................... 76 Figure 41 – Distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar ..................................... 77 Figure 42 – Dearest country-code domain names sold in the secondary market ............................. 80 Figure 43 – Turnover on Sedo, by domain....................................................................................... 82 Figure 44 –Median prices of domain names sold on Sedo .............................................................. 83 Figure 45 – Number of .fr domain names for sale on Sedo, by broad industrial classification ........ 84 Figure 46 – Monthly figures for deals in .fr domain names done on Sedo ....................................... 85 Figure 47 – Monthly mean prices of trades in .fr domain names on Sedo ....................................... 86 Figure 48 – Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name ............................................................. 88 Figure 49 – Number of requests received by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domain ........................................................................................................................... 89 Figure 50 – Percentage of the .fr domain names supporting IPv6 ................................................... 92 Figure 51 – Changes in the percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6 ................................ 93 Figure 52 – Categories of code returned by Web servers associated with .fr domain names............. 95 Figure 53 – Domains redirected to by .fr domain names................................................................. 96 Figure 54 – Types of website associated with .fr domain names ...................................................... 98 Figure 55 – Sector of activity of business of websites associated with .fr domain names ................. 99 Figure 56 – Values associated with the .fr domain names ................................................................ 101 Figure 57 – Acquisition of .fr domain names .................................................................................. 102 Figure 58 – Changes in the number of proceedings dealt with by AFNIC concerning disputes over .fr domain names....................................................................................................... 104 Figure 59 – Changes in the number of domain names involved in WIPO proceedings ................... 106 Figure 60 – Outcome of WIPO proceedings on .fr domain names.................................................. 107 Figure 61 – Changes in outcomes of WIPO proceedings on .fr domain names ............................... 108 Figure 62 – Countries of origin of most complainants in WIPO proceedings ................................ 109 Figure 63 – Countries of origin of most defendants involved in WIPO proceedings ...................... 110 - 121 -
    • List of notes 1 Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment, ITC and e-commerce statistics, December 2008, http://www.industrie.gouv.fr/sessi/tableau_bord/tic/tic.html 2 ARCEP, Le marché des services de communications électroniques en France au 1er trimestre 2009 [The French market in electronic communication services in Q1 2009], http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=10135 3 ARCEP, Le Suivi des Indicateurs Mobiles [Monitoring Indicators of Mobile Use] - figures for 30 June 2009, http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=35 4 INSEE, Enquête sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication et le commerce électronique 2008, [2008 ICT and e-commerce survey], http://www.insee.fr/fr/publications-et-services/irweb.asp?id=tic08 5 WebHosting.info, http://www.webhosting.info/ 6 AFNIC, Statistics, http://www.afnic.fr/actu/stats 7 Ministry of State Education, Liste de fréquence des mots de la langue française écrite, http://eduscol.education.fr/D0102/liste-mots-frequents.htm 8 Olivier Bacquet, Dubois-Buyse graduated spelling list, http://o.bacquet.free.fr/db2.htm 9 Christophe Pallier, Liste de mots du français, April 2004, http://www.pallier.org/ressources/dicofr/dicofr.html 10 Wikipedia [French version] under “prénom” [first name], http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pr%C3%A9nom 11 QuelPrenom.com, http://www.quelprenom.com/ 12 Beaucarnot Généalogie, Palmarès des noms de famille français, 1 January 2006, http://www.beaucarnot-genealogie.com/contenu/noms-de-famille/accueil-noms-de-famille/6-palmares-des- noms-de-famille-francais/ 13 Geopatronyme.com, Les noms les plus portés en France, http://www.geopatronyme.com/cdip/national2.htm 14 Wikipedia, Liste des communes françaises de plus de 50 000 habitants, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communes_de_plus_de_50_000_habitants 15 Lexilogos, Population des villes de plus de 10 000 habitants en 2006, http://www.lexilogos.com/population_communes.htm 16 INSEE, Code Officiel Géographique, http://www.insee.fr/fr/methodes/nomenclatures/cog/ 17 Wikipedia, CAC 40, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAC_40 18 Wikipedia, Classement des plus grandes entreprises françaises en 2006, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classement_des_plus_grandes_entreprises_fran%C3%A7aises_en_2006 19 L’Expansion.com, Les 1 000 premiers groupes français et leurs filiales en termes de CA (industrie, services et commerce)[The 1000 leading French groups and their subsidiaries by turnover (manufacturing, services and commerce), http://www.lexpansion.com/economie/classement/ 20 Fortune, Fortune Global 500, Annual ranking of the world’s largest corporations, http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2009/ 21 Wikipédia, Cartographie des marques, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartographie_des_marques 22 INSEE, Annual population estimates for 1 January, by region, department, sex and age, 1990 – 2007, http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=estim-pop&reg_id=99 23 INSEE, Démographie des entreprises et des établissements 2008 - champ marchand non agricole, http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=fd-sidemo08 24 INSEE, Demographic summary 2008, http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=bilan-demo&reg_id=99 25 Dot and Co, ICANN Registrars, http://www.dotandco.net/ressources/icann_registrars/index.fr 26 DN Journal, Year-To-Date Sale Charts, http://www.dnjournal.com/ytd-sales-charts.htm 27 Sedo, Rapport Sedo du marché des noms de domaine en 2008 [Secondary domain name market in 2008], 10/02/2009, http://www.sedo.fr/links/showhtml.php3?Id=2302 - 122 -
    • 28 Sedo, Sedo’s Q2 Domain Market Study Shows Market Continues to Grow, 10/08/2009, http://www.sedo.com/links/showhtml.php3?Id=2453 29 AFNIC, DNSwitness, http://www.dnswitness.net/ 30 AFNIC, Bilan d’image du .fr un an après son ouverture aux particuliers [Survey of perceptions of the .fr domain one year on from its first availability to individuals], 22 May 2007 http://www.afnic.fr/actu/nouvelles/general/CP20070522 31 AFNIC, 2008 Survey of perceptions of the .fr domain: review of perceptions of the .fr domain: a good image, in a domain names market about which the general public still knows too little, 26 May 2008, http://www.afnic.fr/actu/nouvelles/general/CP20080526 32 AFNIC, Legal References, http://www.afnic.fr/doc/ref/juridique 33 AFNIC: Un an après son lancement, la procédure PREDEC de l’AFNIC a trouvé ses marques [One year after launch, AFNIC’s PREDEC procedure has found its bearings] http://www.afnic.fr/actu/nouvelles/226/ un-an-apres-son-lancement-la-procedure-predec-de-l-afnic-a-trouve-ses-marques 34 WIPO, Domain Name Dispute Resolution Statistics, http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/domains/statistics/ - 123 -
    • Glossary ADR Alternative Dispute Resolution ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line AFNIC Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération ARCEP Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes - French Electronic and Postal Communications Regulator ccTLD country-code Top Level Domain CMAP Centre de Médiation et d’Arbitrage de Paris - Paris Mediation and Arbitration Centre CR Concentration Ratio, a commonly accepted measure of market concentration DNS Domain Name System EPP Extensible Provisioning Protocol, a protocol for exchanges among registries and registrars FDI Forum des droits sur l’Internet - Internet Rights Forum gTLD generic Top Level Domain HHI Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, a commonly accepted measure of market concentration ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers IDN Internationalized Domain Name INSEE Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques - French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies IP Internet Protocol IPv6 Internet Protocol - version 6 PREDEC Procédure de résolution des cas de violations manifestes des dispositions du décret du 6 février 2007 - Dispute resolution procedure for obvious breaches of the provisions of the Decree dated 02/06/2007 Registry Body (association, company, etc. ) in charge of managing the database of a TLD, or of IP addresses for a specified region SEO Search Engine Optimization SMEs Small and Medium-sized Enterprises - 124 -
    • SQL Structured Query Language, a standardized language for interrogating or manipulating a relational data- base TLD Top Level Domain UDRP Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy URL Uniform Resource Locator WIPO World Intellectual Property Organisation Whois Service for searching registry databases for information on a domain name or IP address - 125 -
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    • www.afnic.fr - afnic@afnic.fr Immeuble International - 78181 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex - France Phone: +33 1 39 30 83 00 - Fax: +33 1 39 30 83 01 Siret: 414 757 567 00022 - APE: 6311Z - TVA n° FR 72 414 757 567 Copyright 2009 AFNIC Every quotation or reproduction must mention the source: “French Domain Name Industry Report - 2009 Edition - www.afnic.fr” This document is printed on 100% recycled paper. - 127 -
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