Association learning+technology report


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Association learning+technology report

  1. 1. ASSOCIATION LEARNINGJune 2011 + TECHNOLOGY State of the Sector written by Jeff Cobb and Celisa Steele published by Tagoras 800.867.2046
  2. 2. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 Copyright and Disclaimer The Fine Print © 2011 Tagoras, Inc. All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. ***** Purchase of Association Learning + Technology 2011: State of the Sector entitles the purchaser to use of a single copy of this document. If the purchaser is an organization, Tagoras authorizes the reproduction of no more than five copies of this document, including electronically transmitting such copies, for use solely by employees of the purchaser. Quoting from this report on a limited basis for the purposes of creating articles, blog posts, and other publications is considered within the realm of “fair use.” Other than as provided for above, no portion of the material copyrighted herein may be reprinted or published in any form without the prior written consent of Tagoras, Inc. To purchase additional copies of this document, please visit ***** The contents of this document are based on data gathered from a variety of sources. While we deem these sources, including subjective estimates and opinions of the report authors, to be reliable, Tagoras does not guarantee the accuracy of the document’s contents and expressly disclaims any liability by reason of inaccurate source materials. Declaration of Independence This report was independently researched and produced by Tagoras. Tagoras does not accept any form of compensation for including specific individuals, organizations, or companies in its research. Nor does Tagoras compensate any individual, organization, or company for contributing to the report, other than providing a complimentary copy of the report to organizations profiled in one of the case studies included in the report. 2COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER
  3. 3. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 Table of Contents Association Learning + Technology 2011 Executive Summary | 7 Introduction to Association Learning + Technology | 10 The Overview | 12 Participant Demographics 12 Interviews 13 Purpose, Benefits, and Barriers 14 The Operational Perspective | 19 Products: What’s Offered 19 E-learning Products and Services 19 The Appeal of Webinars 20 Cleaning up the Webinar’s Image 20 Beyond a Narrow Definition of Webinar 22 Newer Products: What’s Emerging 23 Social Learning 23 Mobile Learning 27 Virtual Conferences 29 Process, Personnel and Tools: How It Gets Done 34 Process Examples 34 Adequacy of Resources 35 Where to Turn for Help 37 Departments Responsible for E-learning 38 Prevalence of Outsourcing 38 The Cost of Expertise 40 Authoring Tools 43 Instructional Designers 44 Summary 46 3TABLE OF CONTENTS
  4. 4. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 Trends and Predictions 46 Questions to Consider 47 The Business Perspective | 48 The Revenue Imperative 48 Strategy 49 Return on Investment 53 The Impact of the Economy 54 Product 56 Continuing Education and Certification 57 Pricing 62 Pricing in Trade Associations Versus Professional Societies 62 Pricing and Formats 62 Pricing and Certification 66 Pricing and Age of Program 67 Pricing Strategy and Models 67 Discounts 69 Distribution 69 Market Penetration 70 Promotion 70 Relationship with Marketing Department 72 Competition 73 Summary 75 Trends and Predictions 75 Questions to Consider 76 The Technology Perspective | 79 End User Concerns 79 Webinar Platforms 81 Learning Management Systems 81 4TABLE OF CONTENTS
  5. 5. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 LMS and LCMS Packages 85 Gray Areas 86 E-learning and AMSes 87 LMS/AMS Integration 87 E-learning Guidelines and Standards 89 Key E-learning Standards in Brief 90 Summary 91 Trends and Predictions 91 Questions to Consider 91 Satisfaction, Success, and the State of the Sector | 94 Portrait of Success 95 E-learning Providers on Success 96 Summing Up Success 98 Voices from the Sector on the Current State of Learning and Technology 98 E-learning Providers on the State of the Sector 98 Associations on the State of the Sector 99 Appendix A: Participating Organizations | 100 Appendix B: Survey Data | 101 About Tagoras | 121 Case Studies Buy-In, Flexibility, and Regulation: Keys to the Midwest ENERGY Association’s E-learning Kingdom 17 Extending Value Virtually: American Nurses Credentialing Center 41 E-learning Solves Business Problems: National Air Duct Cleaners Association 51 E-learning to the Rescue: Society for Technical Communication 60 Webinars Get the Organization on the E-learning Map: Restoration Industry Association 77 Education Focus and Proactive Mindset Fuel E-learning Success: Escrow Association of Washington 93 5TABLE OF CONTENTS
  6. 6. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 Additional Tagoras Reports Virtual Conferences, LMSes, and Learning 2.0 Virtual conferences and trade shows are quickly emerging as one of the most significant new trends in the association sector. Association Virtual Conferences: State of the Sector provides the most comprehensive assessment available of how this important new approach to meetings and education is being used by trade and professional associations. If you are charged with developing a virtual event strategy for your organization, this is a must-have resource. Learn more at conferences. Association Learning Management Systems is just what you need if you would like to dramatically reduce the time and costs associated with choosing the right learning management system. We’ve narrowed the field of LMS providers down to a small group dedicated to serving associations and experienced in meeting association needs. We asked the providers to respond to an extensive questionnaire and provide a demonstration of their system. Learn more at association-lms. The free Learning 2.0 for Associations offers a basic overview of how the rise of the social Web has impacted the way that learning happens and how organizations can begin incorporating social media approaches into their traditional online and offline learning activities. Learn more at learning20. 6ADDITIONAL TAGORAS REPORTS
  7. 7. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 Executive Summary Association Learning + Technology 2011 Association Learning + Technology 2011: State of the to reach more learners were Sector represents a major effort to assess the state of among the biggest benefits technology-enabled learning in the association identified by survey market and provide insight into how its role in the respondents. Overall, sector may evolve in the coming months and years. organizations report that they It represents a wholesale update of Association E- are more satisfied (74.3 percent) learning 2009: State of the Sector, published by than not (25.6 percent) with Tagoras some 15 months ago. their e-learning initiatives. In three of eight specific areas We renamed the report because many limit the term these organizations report e-learning to self-paced online courses and do not being more dissatisfied than use it for Webinars, Webcasts, or other forms of satisfied—and then only educational experiences online, especially the marginally: usage, such as burgeoning areas of informal and social learning, This report course enrollments (44.9 versus We wanted it to be clear in the title that we think represents a 43.5 percent); revenue expansively about the role technology does and can generation from their offerings wholesale update of play in association learning. However, to avoid (39.7 versus 37.0 percent), and Association wordy constructions throughout the report, we do the staff time required to E-learning rely on the term e-learning. When you see it, develop the offerings (38.2 2009. remember e-learning is used broadly and not versus 38.1 percent). relegated to a narrow slice of potential technology- enabled learning. While there has been a somewhat greater tendency for larger associations to have already embraced e- At the core of the report is a survey of associations learning, we have seen this tendency decline over conducted at the end of 2010. Some 375 the years. There is clearly significant e-learning organizations responded to the survey, providing activity among smaller organizations. More than extensive data about how they are using e-learning, half (57.5 percent) of the organizations that reported what tools and technologies they employ to create using e-learning in our 2008 survey had annual and deliver learning, and the business practices that budgets of $5 million or less. In the 2010 survey, this support their e-learning initiatives. To supplement number rose to 63.3 percent. this data, we conducted in-depth interviews with 27 associations and 9 learning technology and service The Operational Perspective providers to the sector. Most of the associations surveyed or interviewed for this report use a combination of in-house and The Overview contract resources to produce their e-learning Out of 375 responses to the survey, 77.4 percent offerings, and the majority of those offerings take were from individuals who indicated their the form of Webinars. Real-time Webinars and organizations are currently using some form of e- Webcasts came out on top with organizations learning. An additional 16.0 percent indicated they currently delivering e-learning while recorded plan to start using e-learning within the coming 6 to Webinars and Webcasts topped the list for 12 months, and 6.6 percent indicated that they have organizations planning to deliver e-learning in the no plans to start using e-learning in the coming 12 next 12 months. months. For organizations currently delivering e-learning, Not surprisingly, associations use e-learning mainly 39.7 percent use professional instructional designers to deliver professional development to members, —almost 10 percent fewer than those that do not and cost-effectiveness, convenience, and the ability (49.1 percent). 7EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  8. 8. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 Among the tools that organizations use to develop percent, public social networking sites rose from 8.9 e-learning, Microsoft PowerPoint tops the list—not percent to 24.5 percent, and Web video sites went surprising since it is often the basis for Webinar from 7.3 percent to 17.5 percent. The slice of presentations as well as on-demand courses. associations not using social media as part of e- learning dropped from 47.6 percent to 34.9 percent, In most cases, association e-learning initiatives are and only 7.7 percent of associations planning e- managed by an education department (which, at learning in the next 12 months say they will not use small organizations, may mean a single person who any social media, though the majority (53.8 percent) wears many hats). There was a general sense among simply aren’t yet sure whether social media will interviewees that networking and knowledge- play a role. sharing among peers in the sector is growing, but opportunities are still rare. The Business Perspective Social media is attracting some interest in the The majority (55.5 percent) of survey respondents association e-learning community but leaves much currently using e-learning charge members for at room for growth. The dominant social tool for least some of their e-learning offerings, and another current e-learning initiatives is social networks (44.6 sizable chunk (31.5 percent) charge for all their percent, combining public and private networks), offerings. The average price per content hour for followed by discussion forums (36.2 percent). A few organizations currently offering e-learning to both tools made marked leaps among associations doing members and nonmembers is $57.82 while the most e-learning since the last report. Microblogging (e.g. common level of discount for member course Twitter) jumped from a mere 2.4 percent to 20.1 purchases is from 20 to 29 percent. Interviews conducted for this report as well as the survey data suggest that most organizations do not have a formal e-learning strategy in place or a formal approach to pricing their offerings. Only 22.0 percent of survey respondents reported having a formal, documented e-learning strategy, and only 23.9 percent indicated that their organizations have a formal, documented process for setting prices. On average, organizations using e-learning reach 19.5 percent of their membership base with their offerings. Most organizations provide some form of credit—for example, continuing education units or a On average, organizations using e-learning certificate—to their learners. reach 19.5 percent of their membership base with their offerings. With respect to marketing methods, targeted e-mails dedicated specifically to e-learning rank first. Among organizations currently offering e-learning, 73.9 percent characterized targeted e-mail as absolutely necessary. Notably, pay-per-click advertising—seen as very important or absolutely necessary by only 5.8 percent of respondents—was almost dead last, beating out only faxes. The Technology Perspective Among survey respondents with current e-learning programs, GoToMeeting (44.2 percent) and WebEx (25.0 percent) lead the pack of Webinar platforms, 8EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  9. 9. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 and Adobe Connect (16.1 percent) and Microsoft • An increase in the amount of on-demand Live Meeting (14.3 percent) are the only other two educational content offered by organizations named systems to reach double digits. • An increased focus on instructional design along with development of in-house Under half (45.9 percent) of the respondents that instructional design capabilities or use of currently offer e-learning report using a learning contractors management system (LMS) or planning to within • Relatively slow adoption of social media for e- the next 12 months. Among those organizations that learning purposes until organizations develop have both an LMS and an association management strategies and business models for products system, the majority (76.7 percent) either have that integrate social media with more already integrated or planned to integrate the two traditional content systems. • An increase in competition that will, in turn, be a significant factor in the adoption of more Knowledge of and adherence to common e-learning sophisticated marketing practices guidelines and standards in the sector continues to be quite low. Adherence to the Shareable Content New, relevant resources and a more cohesive Object Reference Model (SCORM) was considered professional network for e-learning in the sector very important or absolutely necessary by only 22.1 may be the most valuable byproducts of these percent of respondents currently using e-learning. changes in association e-learning. The State of the Sector E-learning has arrived in the association sector but remains far from mature. While most organizations (74.4 percent) indicate general satisfaction with their e-learning initiatives, they are more likely to be dissatisfied than satisfied in specific areas like enrollment levels and revenue generation. Notably, only 15.0 percent characterize their e-learning as very successful. We found that these organizations were significantly more likely than average to do the following: • View revenue generation as a key benefit. • Make use of professional instructional design. • Have a formal, documented e-learning strategy. • Have a formal, documented product development process. A range of factors—from the current state of the economy, to technology advances, to the rise of new generations—point to growth and to a clear opportunity for e-learning to transition into a more significant, more strategic part of the mix of services associations provide to members. As this transition occurs, it is likely to be accompanied by the following: • Growth in implementation of learning management systems and integration of these with association management systems 9EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  10. 10. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 Introduction to Association Learning + Technology About This Report Association Learning + Technology: State of the Sector, indicated they have no plans to start using e- is a follow-up to our report Association E-learning learning in the coming 12 months. 2009: State of the Sector, the first major effort to assess the state of e-learning in the association market and It is important to note that we were purposely provide insight into how the role of e-learning in broad in defining e-learning. In our experience, a the sector may evolve in the coming years. significant number of organizations limit the term e- learning to self-paced online courses and do not use While the primary focus of this report continues to it for Webinars, Webcasts, or other forms of be traditional online education, the change in title educational content delivery online. In an attempt for this edition acknowledges the wide range of to ensure that survey participants took into account ways in which technology has expanded to enhance all forms of online education, the following learning both online and off. As with the previous definition was presented prior to asking report, our hope is that the information here will organizations whether they use e-learning to deliver prove useful in providing points of reference and education: perspective to organizations planning e-learning initiatives or hoping to integrate technology E-learning, also known as computer-based effectively into their general education initiatives. training or online distance education, refers to computer-enabled learning carried out by At the core of the report is a survey of associations individuals or groups outside of a physical conducted from November 18, 2010, to December classroom, either over the Internet or an internal 23, 2010. We received 375 responses to this survey. network. There are many methods of e-learning Out of these responses, 77.4 percent were from such as Webcasts, self-paced tutorials, podcasts, individuals who indicated their organization is facilitated discussions, etc., but for the purpose of currently using e-learning. An additional 16.0 this survey, any activity in which a user receives percent indicated they plan to start using e-learning instruction via a computer counts as e-learning. within the coming 6 to 12 months, while 6.6 percent To add to the data collected through the survey, we also conducted phone or e-mail interviews with 27 associations and 9 providers of e-learning technologies and services to the sector. These interviews were conducted with the promise of 6.6% anonymity so that interviewees could feel comfortable speaking openly. Only in few limited 8.0% instances, and with the permission of the interviewee, are the sources of quotations or other 8.0% Does your organization currently using e-learning to deliver education? (349 responses) Nearly 78 percent of respondents to the 2010 survey reported currently using e-learning—up from 61.1 percent per the 2008 survey, which was the basis for the Association E-learning 2009 report. 77.4% Currently deliver e-learning Planning to deliver e-learning in next 6 months Planning to deliver e-learning in next 12 months No plans for e-learning for at least next 12 months 10INTRODUCTION
  11. 11. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 information revealed in the report. Our frequent use of quotations from the interviews is purposeful—we heard from many interviewees that they Partial data from the do not have sense of what their peers are doing or where to go to find out online survey is what other organizations are doing. Our hope is that the extensive use of included throughout quotations will help a voice for e-learning in the sector emerge. this report. See Appendix B for the In addition to quoting frequently from the interviews, we have also raw survey results. crafted brief case studies to highlight the efforts of some of the organizations we interviewed. These were done with the organizations’ The chapters on the permission, and we tried to be diverse in selecting the organizations. The operational, business, case studies span a range of industries and feature associations of varying and technology size and geographic focus. perspectives end with a summary of trends Finally, we (the two authors of this report) have each worked in e-learning and a list of questions for more than a decade and have worked specifically with associations for for organizations to the better part of that time. Throughout the report we provide our own ask themselves. analysis of the information collected through the survey and the interviews, and we draw on our own experience to offer perspectives that may not be readily apparent from the data. Our approach to doing this is relatively conservative, based on the limitations naturally imposed by a non-statistical survey, but also on an understanding that the association sector is, by its nature, quite diverse and fragmented—and that broad conclusions must be put forward cautiously. The report is structured into the following sections: 1. The executive summary 2. This introduction 3. An overview that discusses demographic data, the purposes of association e-learning, and the barriers to and benefits of e-learning 4. A chapter on operations and e-learning that looks at what’s produced and how, including emerging trends like social learning, virtual conferences, and mobile learning 5. A chapter that takes the business perspective, looking at the strategy that drives e-learning initiatives, expenses and income, marketing, and competition 6. A chapter on e-learning technology, including the end user point of view and the organizational standpoint 7. The state of e-learning in the association sector based on our analysis of the survey data and interviews, including a look at the common characteristics of associations satisfied with and successful in their e-learning initiatives 8. Six case studies of associations engaged in e-learning, distributed throughout the report 9. A series of appendices that provide a list of participating organizations, the raw online survey data (parts of which are cited throughout the report), and information about Tagoras (publisher of this report) and us (Jeff Cobb and Celisa Steele, authors of this report) Our sincere hope is this report proves useful to associations as they assess their e-learning initiatives or contemplate throwing their hats in the e-learning ring. 11INTRODUCTION
  12. 12. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 The Overview Demographics, Purpose, Benefits, and Barriers This section provides demographic data, discusses the purposes for which associations undertake e- 2.4% 3.4% 3.1% learning and looks at the perceived benefits of and barriers to adopting 12.8% 5.9% online education technologies. 11.7% Participant Demographics As the demographic data provided at the end of this document 14.5% indicates, responses to the survey were distributed across a broad 9.7% range of organizations—from those with a very small staff and relatively small membership base to those with more than 250 staff 36.6% members and budgets greater than $50 million per year. What is your organization’s The largest clusters of survey annual budget? respondents overall were nationally (290 responses) Less than $100,000 $100,001 to $500,000 Most organizations $500,001 to $1,000,000 $1,000,001 to $5,000,000 focused organizations (40.5 had budgets $5,000,001 to $10,000,000 $10,000,001 to $25,000,000 between $1 million $25,000,001 to $50,000,000 $50,000,001 to $100,000,000 percent), organizations with annual and $5 million. More than $100,000,000 budgets between $1 million and $5 million (36.6 percent), and organizations with staff of between 1 and 5 individuals (23.7 percent). The most common membership size was between 1,001 2.0% and 5,000 individuals (24.1 percent). 5.0% The clusters were the same for the group of 27.2% respondents indicating current use of e- 21.6% Which best describes the learning, though with a slightly larger geographic focus concentration of organizations with a national of your organization (i.e., focus (45.4 percent). Overall, organizations which best indicates the areas indicating they are currently using e-learning 3.7% in which you were more likely than the group as whole to actively solicit membership)? (301 be nationally or internationally focused (73.6 responses) percent versus 67.7 percent) as opposed to Organizations with a 40.5% national focus were the biggest group. focused on a region, state, or locality. They were also somewhat more likely to have more than 10 staff (67.3 percent versus 59.0 Single community or municipality focus percent). Multiple community focus in one state Single state or province focus While there has been a somewhat greater Multistate or multiprovince focus tendency for larger associations already to National focus International focus 12THE OVERVIEW
  13. 13. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 3.0% The largest Which of the following best characterizes your 8.3% groups of survey organization? (300 responses) 4.0% respondents were from nationally Charitable or philanthropic organization focused Trade association 35.3% organizations Professional society with annual Educational institution budgets between $1 million and $5 Other 49.3% million, 1 to 5 staff have embraced e- percent people, and 1,001 learning, we have seen compared to to 5,000 individual this tendency decline 60.0 percent). members. over the years. There is clearly significant e- Most (70.6 percent) of the respondents currently learning activity among offering e-learning indicated that they do offer some smaller organizations. form of credit for e-learning. (See the chapter “The More than half (57.5 Business Perspective” for a discussion of credit and percent) of the e-learning.) organizations that INTERVIEWS reported using e-learning in our 2008 survey had The organizations we interviewed in follow-up to annual budgets of $5 the online survey were somewhat less diverse million or less, and 18.1 demographically than survey respondents, almost percent had budgets of necessarily given the smaller sample size. $1 million or less. In the Nonetheless the group was quite diverse in terms of 2010 survey, 63.3 percent industries served, geographic focus, size of staff, of organizations that size and type of membership (i.e., individual versus reported using e-learning organizational), and experience with e-learning, had budgets of $5 million although all are currently engaged in e-learning. or less and 24.8 percent The providers we interviewed were also quite had budgets of $1 million diverse, ranging from Webinar service providers or less. like KRM, to learning management system A majority of 2010 survey respondents indicated providers like WBT Systems, to individual that their organization has been using e-learning to consultants like Ellen Behrens. Each of the providers deliver education for three or more years (61.1 offered a unique perspective based on their percent), with a growing percentage (22.2 percent in approach to e-learning and the types of clients 2010 versus 15.6 percent in 2008) of respondents served. reporting using e-learning for more than five years. While more professional societies (80.4 percent) are currently delivering e-learning than trade associations (67.9 percent), the trade associations are 10.0% more likely than professional societies to have been 22.2% using e-learning for three years or more (65.7 28.9% How long has your organization been using e-learning? (270 responses) Less than 1 year 1 to 2 years 38.9% 3 to 5 years More than 5 years 13THE OVERVIEW
  14. 14. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 Purpose, Benefits, and Barriers survey participants. Respondents in this group were almost equally likely to be from trade associations As part of our survey, we asked respondents to (36.1 percent) as from professional societies (34.5 provide input on their organization’s purposes for percent). using e-learning as well as some of the benefits and barriers they experienced. Among both our survey participants and our interviewees, cost-effectiveness, convenience, and As in our 2008 survey, most respondents using or the ability to reach more learners remain the biggest planning to use e-learning indicated professional benefits associated with e-learning. More than 70 development for members and nonmembers as percent of survey respondents who are using or their primary and secondary purposes. The portion planning to use e-learning indicated convenience that indicated using e-learning for staff training and the ability to reach more learners as benefits. remained relatively low. Among those using e-learning, the importance of We also asked organizations to indicate whether cost-effectiveness remained about the same between they used e-learning for training chapters or the 2008 and 2010 surveys. For those planning e- volunteers or as a tool for advocacy and issue learning, however, its importance as a benefit education. Given that an organization may or may dropped quite a bit—from 78.7 percent to 64.8 not have chapters, make extensive use of percent. It is too early to tell whether this drop volunteers, or engage in advocacy, we found it reflects a general shift in perceptions of e-learning, interesting that a relatively sizable group of but it may be that organizations are realizing that respondents indicated that they use or plan to use e- implementing and managing a successful e-learning learning for advocacy and issue education. These program often does not cost dramatically less than numbers are similar to those reported by 2008 place-based alternatives. 95.6% Professional development for members 85.5% 69.5% Professional development for nonmembers 54.4% 29.0% Training for staff For what 16.4% purposes does your organization 22.1% use or plan to Advocacy and issue education use e-learning? 18.2% Check all that apply. Most respondents 29.4% indicated Training for volunteers professional 30.9% development for members and nonmembers as their primary and 33.1% secondary Training for affiliated organizations or chapters purposes. 27.3% 7.0% Other Current e-learning (272 responses) 14.5% Planned e-learning (55 responses) 14THE OVERVIEW
  15. 15. ASSOCIATION LEARNING + TECHNOLOGY 2011 For your organization, what are the three key benefits associated with e-learning? Please check only the three that your organization considers most important. Convenience, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to reach more learners were among the biggest benefits respondents associated with e-learning. 78.5% 73.0% 72.7% Current e-learning (270 responses) 71.5% 69.1% Planned e-learning (55 responses) 65.5% 50.9% 37.8% 25.5% 18.1% 12.7% 10.4% 6.7% 3.6% 3.3% 3.0% 1.8% 1.8% Other Ease of tracking continuing education for learners Reduction of risk by diversifying product line Ability to generate revenues Convenience for learners Opportunity for learners to direct their own learning Ability to reach more learners Cost-effectivness versus other modes Instructional effectiveness versus other modes Another area in which we saw percentages shift of end users (43.4 percent), and staff time required was revenue generation—the potential for e- to develop e-learning (40.0 percent) were the top learning to generate revenue was given more three barriers to e-learning cited by respondents weight by respondents in 2010 than by respondents with programs already in place. There continues to in 2008. While 31.8 percent of those already using e- be significantly less concern about technology skills learning indicated the ability to generate revenues among those who plan to offer e-learning (24.1 as an important benefit in 2008, 38.1 precent did so percent), likely reflecting an overall sense that end in 2010. Among those planning for e-learning, the users have become much more comfortable with e- percentage jumped from 29.5 to 51.9 percent. learning. Concern about financial return was higher among the group planning to offer e-learning (51.9 As with the 2008 survey, concern about return on percent) as was concern about the amount of staff financial investment (41.5 percent), technology skills resources that will be required to develop e-learning 15THE OVERVIEW