Welsh EfW policy - technology assessment of high thermal efficiency solutions


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Welsh EfW policy - technology assessment of high thermal efficiency solutions.

Presented by Kathryn Warren, Senior Consultant, Waste Management & Resource Efficiency.

Presented at the Air & Waste Management Association’s 105th Annual Conference & Exhibition, San Antonio, June 19-22, 2012.

Published in: Business, Technology
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  • Having confirmed that a total conversion efficiency of 60% is only feasible when the EfW process includes heat recovery, WG then commissioned a further study to establish the economic implications of ‘heat-enabling’ EfW facilities in Wales.
  • The feasibility of meeting the conversion efficiency target was determined for the following three cases
  • The lowest network costs were associated with the South-West procurement area, which had a large potential heat customer in the vicinity of the EfW plant location,
  • In contrast, the Tomorrow’s Valley procurement area (mid Wales) had the highest network costs per unit network capacity due to the need to connect a large number of small loads distributed over a large area in order to achieve the necessary demand,
  • Welsh EfW policy - technology assessment of high thermal efficiency solutions

    1. 1. WELSH EFW POLICYTechnology Assessment of High Thermal Efficiency SolutionsKathryn Warren – Senior ConsultantWaste Management & Resource Efficiency, AEAAWMA 2012 A world leading19th – 22nd June energy and climate change consultancySan Antonio, Texas
    2. 2. Overview …. In 20 minutes ….. + Personal Welcome + Introduction to the topic + Aims of the research + Methodology applied + Outcomes of the work + Next steps + Lessons learned 2
    3. 3. A personal welcome + Kathryn Warren - Senior Consultant @ AEA in Waste Management & Resource Efficiency - 7 years of waste management experience - Focus on waste derived fuels, EfW, waste procurement + Role on the project - Project Manager + Acknowledgements - Welsh Government for giving permission to publish data - AEA for their support in allowing me to be here today 3
    4. 4. My sponsor … www.aeat.co.uk
    5. 5. Our US sponsors + We are here exhibiting with ERG - we acquired them in 2010 + Come and see us on Booth #118 - ERG and AEA Technology Group + Franklin Associates (ERG division) - extensive experience in all aspects of solid waste management (over 30 years of practice) - integrated solid waste master plans - full life cycle analyses of solid waste - waste stream evaluations for local, regional, state, and national agencies 5
    6. 6. Setting the Scene 6
    7. 7. The EU Landfill Directive + EU Landfill Directive – mitigating landfill’s environmental impacts - BMW reductions required to mitigate fugitive CH4 emissions - Pre-treatment of landfilled materials - Landfill waste acceptance criteria (WACs) - Landfill design, operation, completion and closure requirements + BMW includes commercial and industrial wastes and municipal waste streams + BMW Landfill targets for the UK - 75% of 1995 level by 2010 - 50% of 1995 level by 2013 - 35% of 1995 level by 2020 + Significant driver for innovation in technology solutions 7
    8. 8. The Need For Change in the UK (MSW) 60 50 Millions tonnes per annum 40 Non-biodegradable Municipal Waste 30 20 Biodegradable Municipal Waste Requiring Diversion 10 Biodegradable Municipal Waste Allowed to Landfill 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
    9. 9. Setting the Scene in Wales … + European and UK legislative drivers aim to divert waste from landfill and encourage more sustainable use of resources + The Welsh Government (WG) published its revised National Waste Strategy (2010) – Towards Zero Waste + The strategy sets a cap of 30% of residual waste to be treated in high efficiency EfW plants + WG wished to establish if setting a target for thermal conversion efficiency would be achievable + Policy positions taken by WG must be based on firm and robust evidence 9
    10. 10. About Wales + Part of UK + 3m population + 22 local authorities, including a mix of rural, urban and valley regions + Devolved Government + Target of 70% recycling by 2025 10
    11. 11. Research Aims 11
    12. 12. Research Aims To inform WG Policy …. 1. To conduct a technology review to determine which EfW technologies are capable of achieving a total conversion efficiency of 60% 2. To test the feasibility of district heating at a number of proposed EfW sites in Wales 12
    13. 13. Phase 1 – Technology Assessment 13
    14. 14. What technologies? + Assessed the current range of thermal treatment technologies - Combustion: mass burn, moving grate etc. - Advanced Thermal Treatments: Gasification, Pyrolysis + Examined the “Prime Mover” used for energy recovery - Looked at Steam Turbine, Gas Engine, Gas Turbine + Determined the efficiencies that could be achieved in “Power only” and using CHP at differing efficiencies 14
    15. 15. WG’s definition of efficiency Electricity Support Out Fuel In EfW Process Waste Heat Out Fuel In (CHP only) Conversion = [Electricity Out] + [Heat Out] Efficiency [Waste Fuel In] + [Support Fuel In] 15
    16. 16. Combined Heat & Power + For a standard steam turbine - the combustion process is used to raise steam - steam drives turbine to generate electricity in power only mode - excess energy from waste heat is lost to the environment + Combined Heat and Power (CHP) allows increased utilization of the embedded energy in waste + CHP allows ‘heat’ to be captured driving up overall efficiency and improving environmental performance + The research tested the potential performance of combustion and advanced thermal treatment technologies using electricity only and CHP at 40%, 60% and maximum efficiency conditions 16
    17. 17. WG’s Aspirational Efficiency Targets + It was proposed that different efficiency targets should be set for EfW facilities dependent on the EfW technology being used - Using research findings and current operational data to inform this + The target values have been set at such a level that an EfW facility will need to operate in CHP mode in order to comply - A clear policy steer for new developers 17
    18. 18. WG Aspirational Efficiency Targets EfW Technology Welsh Government Conversion Efficiency TargetCombustion 60%Gasification or Pyrolysis with Steam 60%Turbine Prime MoverGasification of Pyrolysis with Gas Engine 50%Prime Mover 18
    19. 19. Modeled efficiencies + Detailed performance modeling assessed technology configurations + Determined typical net efficiency for plant producing - Electricity only - CHP @ 40% net efficiency - CHP @ 60% net efficiency - CHP @ maximum efficiency conditions + Combustion and ATT scenarios modeled using steam turbines + ATT processes (where syngas produced) also modeled using reciprocating gas engine and gas turbine + Based on feedstock of 645,000 tonnes of residual waste with net calorific value of 8.6 MJ/kg - total MSW available in Wales for treatment by recovery 19
    20. 20. Technology Assessment Outcomes 20
    21. 21. Performance modeling resultsTechnology Energy use Power 40% 60% Max CHPType Only CHP CHP EfficiencyCombustion Conversion efficiency power 23% 18% 13% 8% Conversion efficiency heat 22% 47% 71% Total conversion efficiency 23% 40% 60% 79%Gasification Conversion efficiency power 22% 18% 12% 8%– steam Conversion efficiency heat 22% 48% 72%turbine Total conversion efficiency 22% 40% 60% 81%Gasification Conversion efficiency power– gas engine Conversion efficiency heat 23% 23% N/A 23% Total conversion efficiency 17% N/A 29% 23% 40% N/A 52%Gasification Conversion efficiency power 18% 18% N/A 18%– gas turbine Conversion efficiency heat 22% N/A 35% Total conversion efficiency 18% 40% N/A 53% 21
    22. 22. Summary of the findings + Technology configurations using steam turbine to recover energy performed in excess of the 60% target + Overall efficiencies of approximately 80% are deliverable + The performance modelling confirmed to the WG that a total conversion efficiency of 60% was achievable by combustion or gasification with a steam turbine - A policy based on this efficiency target (60%) would be appropriate from an environmental and technological perspective 22
    23. 23. Phase 2 – Achieving 60%efficiency by district heating 23
    24. 24. Waste Infrastructure Procurement + None of the local authorities in Wales are large enough to procure a residual waste treatment facility individually + WG has encourage the development of procurement ‘clusters’ + 6 procurement clusters have formed, and are working together to procure residual waste infrastructure + The reference sites identified by the clusters of local authorities as potential locations for future EfW plants were used in the next stage of the analysis - These sites may not be actual sites that are developed in the future 24
    25. 25. 25
    26. 26. Scenarios modelled + Case 1 (Municipal) - EfW plants procured under the existing municipal residual waste treatment programmes sized to receive only residual municipal waste arisings for a specified area + Case 2 (Commercial and Industrial) - Merchant EfW facilities handling C&I waste + Case 3 (Combined) - EfW plants procured under the municipal residual waste treatment programme sized to receive residual municipal and C&I waste arisings 26
    27. 27. District heating feasibility + Indicative heat networks arrangements were produced for each assessment case + The objective was to create a network that connected the EfW facility to a sufficient number of heat customers to achieve the target heat demand figure + Where there was insufficient demand large principal heat users, the heat network also drew upon smaller heat loads (e.g. industrial estates) identified through use of the DECC UK Heat Map 27
    28. 28. Wales Heat Demand Map 28
    29. 29. Key Heat Loads 29
    30. 30. Heat Mapping Outcomes 30
    31. 31. Heat Network Sizing ResultsProcurement Case Target Heat Available Heat Available DemandGroup Demand (MWh/y) Demand (MWh/y) exceeds Target Heat output?North Wales 1.MSW 187,000 255,500 TRUE 2. C&I 53,200 255,500 TRUE 3. Combined 643,900 429,800 FALSEMid Wales 1.MSW 31,100 31,900 TRUE 2. C&I 62,900 44,400 FALSE 3. Combined 232,000 44,400 FALSESouth West 1.MSW 204,300 1,100,000 TRUEWales 2. C&I 502,900 394,200 FALSE 3. Combined 755,700 1,100,000 TRUETomorrow’s 1.MSW 37,400 51,400 TRUEValley 2. C&I 49,000 69,700 TRUE 3. Combined 215,200 95,000 FALSEHeads of the 1.MSW 22,100 21,800 TRUEValleys 2. C&I 54,000 73,900 TRUE 3. Combined 76,100 80,700 TRUEProject Green 1.MSW 201,100 225,900 TRUE 2. C&I 174,000 225,900 TRUE 3. Combined 818,700 276,300 FALSE 31
    32. 32. Heat network findings + Case 1 - all six procurement groups were able to develop EfW CHP facilities capable of meeting the conversion efficiency target when plants were sized for MSW only + Case 2 - four our of six of proposed Merchant facilities to meet the efficiency target. Two were found not able to secure sufficient demand for heat in order to meet the conversion efficiency target. + Case 3 - only two out of six schemes had access to sufficient heat demand to meet the target conversion efficiency 32
    33. 33. Analysis of results + Schemes failing to meet the conversion efficiency target could attain only 19% to 67% of the heat output required to achieve the target + This indicates that the development of a single EfW facility large enough to accept both MSW and C&I arisings for a procurement area could lead to facilities being developed that would not be able to access sufficient heat demand + There would not be sufficient heat users in the vicinity to utilise the heat produced effectively + This suggests smaller and a more distributed network of facilities is more likely to meet the target, and is thus a potential new development for WG policy 33
    34. 34. Costing the heat networks + Network costs varied significantly between schemes + The cost of distribution for heat it was found that costs for the schemes modelled can vary between £12 and £142 per megawatt-hour of heat supplied + Thus, network costs for schemes that met the conversion efficiency target were between £0.9m and £23m 34
    35. 35. Costing heat networks – Example 1 1 35
    36. 36. Costing heat networks – Example 2 4 1 3 2 36
    37. 37. Conclusions 37
    38. 38. Conclusions + EfW schemes proposed in Wales should be able to access sufficient heat demand in order to meet the aspirational efficiency target + Procurement hubs must carefully consider the size of plants they ‘buy’ - those designed to treat both MSW and C&I waste may be too large to access sufficient local heat demand + WG have yet to implement mandatory targets for EfW conversion efficiencies - however, they remain confident that high efficiency EfW facilities are the best option for Wales to treat its residual waste 38
    39. 39. Next steps + Challenge is to secure the heat user in high efficiency scenarios - Municipalities, Waste Management Companies, Developers all have a role to play in securing these + Further analysis required to ensure that sufficient heat use can be identified and is deliverable - Case by case basis - Need to develop a Business Case for future sites / facilities + WG need to facilitate joined up thinking between waste procurement projects, planning authorities and waste management companies to make this a reality - Lessons to be learned fro the rest of the UK! 39
    40. 40. Lessons for the US + Petrol / Diesel / Energy prices are on the up! - Will renewable energy get a boost? + Evidence that 60% total conversion efficiency can be achieved - Will US decision-makers make this part of their strategies (sustainable solutions)? + Size does matter! + Location of plants is key if heat recovery is to be realised - Need to build this into local planning decisions and regional strategies 40
    41. 41. Thank you! 42
    42. 42. Come and see us …. Booth #118 Adam Read Shelly Schneider Practice Director - AEA Franklin Associates (ERG) Waste Management & Resource Waste Management & Resource Efficiency Efficiency cell: 0044 7968 707 239 tel: 913-800-8276 email: adam.read@aeat.co.uk email: Shelly.Schneider@erg.com web: www.aeat.co.uk web: www.aeat.co.uk