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Choosing a food waste collection scheme

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Insight into the technical issues that local authorities should address when considering separate food waste collections. Presented by AEA's Brian Mayne at RWM with CIWM, September 2012.

Insight into the technical issues that local authorities should address when considering separate food waste collections. Presented by AEA's Brian Mayne at RWM with CIWM, September 2012.

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  • 1. Choosing a Food Waste collectionscheme …Brian MayneWaste Management & Resource EfficiencyAEA 12th September 2012Presented @ RWM(2012)
  • 2. Who am I? + Waste & Resource Efficiency Consultant at AEA + Fellow of the Chartered Institution of Wastes Management + CIWM Centre Councillor + Chartered Environmentalist + ISWA International Waste Manager International Status. + Expert Advisor to the National Assembly of Wales on waste management + Local Government & Consultancy background 2
  • 3. My sponsor - www.aeat.co.uk 3
  • 4. Why Food Waste?+ Around 6.7 million tonnes of food waste is produced by UK households – that’s about one-fifth of total household waste. Collecting food waste separately for recycling offers a wide range of potential benefits, e.g.: - contributing to targets for diverting biodegradable waste from landfill; - improving recycling rates; - reducing waste disposal costs as landfill costs increase; - reducing environmental impacts associated with landfill (toxicity in leachate, landfill gas emissions, etc.); - reducing greenhouse gas emissions by removing the putrescent content from landfill sites; - production of compost and liquid fertilisers for use as a soil improver; - generation of heat and power through anaerobic digestion (AD) linked to combined heat and power plant or through use as a direct fuel; and - complementing alternate weekly collections of refuse by collecting the 4
  • 5. Wider Context – The Jigsaw+ Reduction makes sense - Priority activity to save money & resources+ Love Food Hate Waste Campaigns+ Community Composting initiatives - The Big Society+ Renewable Energy Agendas - AD feedstock+ Agricultural Agendas - Fertilisers - Digestates - Soil structures+ But need good collection systems! 5
  • 6. Don’t forget prevention! 6
  • 7. Composition counts!+ Links back to WHY food waste ….+ Data is key for any decisions on future direction - Strategy / service design+ How much food waste do you have?+ Does it warrant separate collection or ‘lose it’ with your garden wastes? - Impacts on costs+ NLWA waste composition - Food waste = 28.5% in the waste stream!! - Made it a priority to collect and treat separately …. 7
  • 8. Collection Options+ Universal Service? - All HHs get the same?+ Kerbside+ Bring banks+ Bins?+ Vehicles?+ Manpower+ And what about commercial properties? 8
  • 9. Options for collecting food waste• Collect food separately with bespoke vehicle• Collect food separately but at the same time as other wastes with a split bodied vehicle or a compartmentalised vehicle• Collect food and garden waste together in a single vehicle 9
  • 10. Combined systems+ WRAP identified; - Lower capture of food waste - High captures of garden waste - Residents disposing of food waste in the residual bin in the intervening week? - Less willing to put food in the garden bin? - Suitability of feedstock for treatment option 10
  • 11. Bins & Caddies 11
  • 12. Bulking Food Waste+ Why do it? - Distance to treatment facility (>20km) - Time to travel (> 40 mins) - Transport costs (fuels) - Environmental impacts of additional vehicle movements - Joint Working (shared facilities) uncertainty - Interim facility in use for short term - Food waste trial under evaluation 12
  • 13. Thinking Holistically+ The whole supply chain …. Collections Bulking Treatment 13
  • 14. Considerations+ Collection Vehicle Type - Tipping operation will dictate bulking - Stillage, pod, rear-end loader+ Transfer Site space & cover - Skips / vehicles/ tipping+ Source segregated or Co-mingled - Composition & Volume+ ABPR compliance! 14
  • 15. Options Assessment+ What options are you considering?+ What criteria to use?+ What weightings are important? 15
  • 16. Collection Options: Hackney  Population 216,000  Dwellings 101,189  51% estate based households  62% of street level properties are flats  Highly transient population  All 19 wards are in the most deprived nationally  52% BAME population  Changing demographic and housing stock 16
  • 17. Collection Options: Hackney Kerbside Estates • 7 & 21 litre caddies • 10 litre vented caddy • Weekly kerbside • Communal food waste bin collections • Twice weekly collection • 51,000 properties • 12,500 properties (potentially) • Expanded to 8,500 Jan 2012 • Sent to IVC • Liners provided • Sent to IVC 17
  • 18. Liners … 18
  • 19. The Liner Debate+ On-going WRAP study headlines …+ Residents like liners and they can increase participation BUT - They can be expensive - They need to be distributed regularly (direct or via a local network) - May not be favoured by your treatment facility (contaminants)+ If you consider using liners - Make sure you get a good deal (2.5p per liner or less!) - Try and buy in bulk for better value - Limit the thickness (thicker liners cost more but may not be required) - If you sell liners make sure you cover your whole costs…. 19
  • 20. CBA for Liners in Hackney+ Hackney kerbside liner trial - participation up by 7.5% - but would cost £121k per year+ Estates – liner costs? - £30k per annum! - So not used!!!!! 20
  • 21. Roll Out+ Big Bang Approach! - Blanket deliveries - Everyone changes at once - Increased people @ call centre - Home advisors on the streets - Cheaper if it works (less people and less time involved)+ Staged? - Test the idea - See how communications / media approaches work - Learn lessons and update materials / messages - Smaller team (employed for longer) - Deal with confusion from areas …. o on or off? 21
  • 22. Roll Out in Hackney (1) Kerbside Estates • Big Bang Approach • 2 phased roll outs • Blanket deliveries • Door stepping delivery (2007) • Blanket delivery (2010) 9/17/2012 22
  • 23. Roll Out in Hackney (2) • 10 liner roll starter pack given to all HHs • Initially a retail network for selling the liners • Only 1 type allowed @ NLWA • Shops were happy to be involved • Some sold them above the advertised price • London Waste have now relaxed this stipulation • residents can use any liner with the compostable logo on! 9/17/2012 23
  • 24. Communications 1+ Literature+ Displays+ Help line+ Website+ Home advisors+ Doorsteppers+ Language issues+ Graphics+ Distribution methods+ Roadshows 24
  • 25. Communications 2 Set Up Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Brand Raising Setting the scene awareness Guidance Content Telling residents that the new How to use the Copy what’s arriving scheme is on service Design and when its way 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Campaigning 27
  • 28. Addressing mis-conceptions 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. Communications in Hackney Kerbside Estates9/17/2012 30
  • 31. Contamination+ What can your processing facility cope with?+ Liners or plastic bags?+ Bones?+ Food Packaging?+ Stuff …..+ How do you deal with it? 31
  • 32. Quality Feedstock ? 32
  • 33. Enforcement+ Do you?+ Would your political leaders support this? 33
  • 34. How do Residents React? + One offs? + Feedback to HH’s? + Repeat Offenders? + Harder line tactics? + Messaging ….. + Critical! 34
  • 35. Monitoring 1+ Data - What do you need? - How do you get it?+ Participation rates? - Need a monitoring protocol+ Capture Rates? - Service effectiveness…+ Use data to target campaigns or service design / delivery+ Validating data - with other LA’s? - with WRAP http://www.wrap.org.uk/local_authorities/research_guidance/food_waste/sepa rate_food_waste.html 35
  • 36. Monitoring 2 36
  • 37. Data is important ….+ Participation rates+ Capture rates+ Tonnages collected+ Contamination 37
  • 38. Hackney’s data+ Participation rate - Estates = 14% - Kerbside =25%+ Capture rate - Estates = 10% - Kerbside = 12.5%+ Tonnages collected - Estates = 0.33 kg / hhld / wk (average across all households served) - Kerbside = 0.48 kg / hhld / wk (average across all households served)+ Contamination levels - No loads rejected in the last 6 months - Estates: crew monitor contamination on a ‘site basis’ and report back where problems exist; reinforced by waste team comms - Kerbside: crew use contamination cards 38
  • 39. Settling Down Period+ Some residents will decrease their food waste arisings - Visual impact of ‘wastage’ - New users come on line - Old users stop+ Be careful about the design of your system - Too much / Too little capacity+ Monitor and inform decisions - Constant evolution ….. 39
  • 40. Reinforcing the message - businesses 40
  • 41. Commercial Food Wastes + Is this the next BIG step? + Good News Stories exist - The Savoy introduced food waste collection and it paid for itself in terms of avoided disposal costs! + But still not considered a ‘core opportunity’ - Price can be too high for SME’s (usually pay by volume not weight) + Need to look at joint collection points? - SME joint collection trials (WRAP funded) + Business Improvement District joint procurement - Buying power of a number of business - Service tailored to their needs – sharing of bins etc. + The future might be co-collection with MSW…. 41
  • 42. Commercial Food Waste Collections+ You need to consider: - What to collect ? - When to collect ? - Collection methods / options ? - Operating costs ? - Charging methodology ? - Opportunity to sell liners and periodic cleaning of bins ?+ Could C&I food waste collections be aligned with domestic collections?+ Absolutely… it is a valuable raw material!! 42
  • 43. Commercial Food Waste Collections+ You need to consider: - What to collect ? - When to collect ? - Collection methods / options ? - Operating costs ? - Charging methodology ? - Opportunity to sell liners and periodic cleaning of bins ?+ Could C&I food waste collections be aligned with domestic collections?+ Absolutely… it is a valuable raw material!! 43
  • 44. Costs+ It is not possible to give a specific cost per tonne or cost per household figure for food waste collections as it will be different in each Authority. It will be affected by: - number of loaders; - local wage levels; - if existing vehicles are utilised e.g. adding to an existing kerbside service or new vehicles are leased or purchased; - requirement for any vehicle modifications; - vehicle running costs and fuel; - containers provided to residents (dependant on size and quality); - type and number of liners provided to residents; - round efficiencies in terms of size, set out rates, pass rates and crew productivity; - level of capture or diversion achieved; - communications approach adopted; and monitoring requirements. 44 - http://www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/food_waste_collection_guidance_-_amended_Mar_2010.pdf
  • 45. Costs (Kerbside Analysis Tool Chart) 45
  • 46. Food waste collection scheme (Costs) http://www.wrap.org.uk/sites/files/wrap/food_waste_collection_guidance_-_amended_Mar_2010.pdf 46
  • 47. In Summary+ The thought process for a successful food waste scheme…. - Compositional analysis - Collection options - Cost Benefit Analysis - Roll-Out - Communications - Contamination - Monitoring - Data usage - Settling down - Learning lessons (your and others) … - Co-collecting with C&I food wastes …. 47
  • 48. Good Morning!Find out more visit our stand (20-L69) 49