Environmental risks, opportunities and regulatory challenges

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Environmental risks, opportunities and regulatory challenges in the US and Europe: European perspective

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  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Source: U.S. DOE/EIA, updated 6/1/2011 available online: http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shaleusa5.pdfMy talk today will address shale gas wastewater and the strategies for its management.Wells in the Marcellus Shale formation are shown on this map as the red dots. Wells in other formations are shown as the black dots. To date, the majority of the Marcellus Shale growth has been concentrated in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. My discussion of wastewater generation and use will focus on Marcellus shale gas wells in Pennsylvania.
  • Environmental risks, opportunities and regulatory challenges

    1. 1. Environmental risks, opportunities andregulatory challenges in the US andEurope:European perspective Mark Broomfield, AEA Technology, UK
    2. 2. Overview of presentation Setting the scene Environmental and health risks of unconventional gas extraction • Literature review; stakeholder consultation • Preliminary risk assessment Review of control options • Environmental risk management • Carbon footprint: fugitive methane control European regulatory landscape • Existing acquis • Gap analysis • Options assessment Next steps • European Commission research • Supply chain analysis
    3. 3. Setting the scene Stage 1: Stage 2: Stage 3: Site Well design, Technical identification drilling, casing & hydraulic & preparation cementing fracturing Stage 4: Stage 5: Stage 6: Well completion, Well production Well management of (refracturing may abandon- wastewater be carried out) ment
    4. 4. Setting the scene Energy resources • 25% of Europe’s energy needs supplied by natural gas in 2008 • Substantial shale gas resources High volume hydraulic fracturing • New activity in Europe • Defined as >1,000 m3 fluid per stage HVHF in Europe • Introduced in Europe in the early 1980s. • Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in tight gas reservoirs in horizontal wells in the Soehlingen field in Germany, and in the South Arne field in Denmark • Hydraulic fracturing has been carried out elsewhere in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom • These fracturing operations did not use sufficient fluid to be classified as HVHF. • Exploratory drilling for shale gas with hydraulic fracturing in Germany, Poland and the UK commenced in 2010.
    5. 5. Setting the scene European Commission Context • February 2011: European Council concluded that Europe should assess its potential for sustainable extraction and use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels. • 2011 report commissioned by the European Parliament drew attention to the potential health and environmental risks associated with shale gas. • Half of EU Member States are interested in developing shale gas resources • However, several MS have prohibited, or are considering prohibiting, the use of hydraulic fracturing. • Several EU Member States are considering the appropriateness of national legislation, and may introduce national requirements for hydraulic fracturing. • Commission saw a growing need for a coherent approach to unconventional fossil fuels and in particular shale gas developments in an area where economics, finances, environment and in particular public trust are essential. • The Commission is investigating the impact of unconventional gas, primarily shale gas, on EU energy markets • DG ENV commissioned an initial assessment of the environmental and health risks and impacts associated with the use of hydraulic fracturing. • Concurrent research into carbon footprint commissioned by DG CLIMA
    6. 6. Environmental and health risksLiterature review • Focus on peer-reviewed research where available • Fast-moving area of engineering and science • Over 200 documents referenced, but many common data sources • Some key documents: • Draft New York State DEC SGEIS (2011) • Lechtenböhmer et al for European Parliament (2011) • Broderick et al (Tyndall Centre) (2011) • US EPA Drinking water study plan (2011) • Academic studies of specific issues (e.g. Davies et al. 2012; Considine et al. 2012) • API guidelines HF1, HF2, HF3 • Papers published by Society of Petroleum Engineers • IEA Golden Rules; Empfehlungen des Neutralen Expertenkreis
    7. 7. Environmental and health risks Stakeholder consultation • Engaged with a range of specialists from Europe and North America • Regulators • Geological surveys • Academic specialists • Useful feedback in specific areas • Peer review of final report
    8. 8. Environmental and health risks Project phaseEnvironmental Site Well design Well Overall ratingaspect identification drilling, Well abandonment Fracturing Production across all and casing, completion and post- phases preparation cementing abandonment Individual siteGroundwater Moderate- Not applicable Low High Moderate-High Not classifiable Highcontamination HighSurface water Moderate- Low Moderate High Low Not applicable Highcontamination HighWater Not Not Not applicable Moderate Moderate Not applicable Moderateresources applicable applicableRelease to air Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Not Not NotLand take Moderate Moderate Not classifiable Moderate applicable applicable applicableRisk to Not classifiable Low Low Low Moderate Not classifiable Moderatebiodiversity Not Moderate –Noise impacts Low Moderate Moderate Low Not applicable classifiable High NotVisual impact Low Low Low applicable Low Low-moderate Low - Moderate NotSeismicity Not applicable Low Low Not applicable Not applicable Low applicableTraffic Low Low Moderate Low Low Not applicable Moderate
    9. 9. Environmental and health risks Project phaseEnvironmental Site Well design Well Overall ratingaspect identification drilling, Well abandonment Fracturing Production across all and casing, completion and post- phases preparation cementing abandonment CumulativeGroundwater Moderate- Not applicable Low High High Not classifiable Highcontamination HighSurface water Moderate- Not Moderate Moderate High Moderate Highcontamination High applicableWater Not Not Not Not applicable High High Highresources applicable applicable applicableRelease to air Low High High High High Low High Not Not NotLand take Very high High Not classifiable High applicable applicable applicableRisk to Not classifiable Low Moderate Moderate High Not classifiable Highbiodiversity Not NotNoise impacts Low High Moderate Low High classifiable applicable NotVisual impact Moderate Moderate Moderate applicable Low Low-moderate Moderate Not NotSeismicity Not applicable Low Low Not applicable Low applicable applicable NotTraffic High High High Moderate Low High applicable
    10. 10. Environmental and health risks Preliminary environmental and health risk assessment • Structured risk assessment • Defined quantitative/qualitative criteria • Limited by available data • Focused attention on key risks • Cumulative impacts, requiring consideration at initial stages of exploration • Very high: Land take • High: Groundwater contamination, accidents/spillages, water resources, air pollution, noise, traffic • Enables priority areas for future research to be identified • High/very high impact areas • Biodiversity impacts • Long-term post-abandonment phase
    11. 11. Control options Reviewed regulatory and technical control measures • Appropriate siting of developments, to reduce above and below- ground risks • Measures and approaches to reduce land disturbance and land- take • Measures to address releases to air and to reduce noise during drilling, fracturing and completion • Measures to address water resource depletion • Measures to reduce the negative effects caused by traffic • Measures to improve well integrity and to reduce the risk of ground and surface water contamination • Measures to reduce the pressure on biodiversity
    12. 12. Control optionsAspect Description of measure Creation of a national database of public sources of informationDatabase Develop database of baseline water quality and quantity, and geologic information across a shale gas formation, prior to the commencement of HVHFPeer review Funding to enable peer review of regulatory activity Identifying zones which are off-limits to hydraulic fracturing if required for environmental protectionZoning (general) Prevent HVHF in reforestation areas, wildlife management areas and high quality aquifers Prevent HVHF in areas specified for protection of groundwater Minimum distance to private water well: 150 m Minimum distance to public water well or reservoir: 300 m Minimum distance from well to surface watercourse: 90 m Minimum distance from disturbance to surface watercourse: 90 m Minimum distance to watersheds used for drinking water supply: 1,200 mBuffer zones Minimum distance to residential areas: 1,600 m (where possible) Distance within which detailed investigation of noise mitigation is needed: 305 m Require site-specific separation from abandoned wells and other potential pathways for fluid migration Require additional containment to prevent surface water impacts for sites within 800 m of surface water supply locations Notification to local communities when drilling is plannedNotification Notification to water suppliers in the event of spills or leaksMitigation credit Voluntary ecological initiatives within critical habitats that would generate mitigation creditssystem which can be used to offset future developmentEnvironmental Encourage or require accreditation for shale gas installation operators to secure ongoingmanagement environmental improvementssystems
    13. 13. Control optionsAspect Description of measureDatabase Creation of a national database of public sources of informationSurface andwater quality Surveys of water quality and levels to be carried out before, during and after HVHF operationsmonitoringAir quality Surveys of air quality to be carried out before and during HVHF operationsmonitoringPit liners Require pit liners to be installedSecondary Require secondary containment for storage of specified hazardous fluidscontainmentSpill control Require spill control plans to be produced and maintainedplans Minimum spacing of well pads of one per 2.6 square km, with all the horizontal wells in the unitWell spacing drilled from a common well pad Specify minimum well spacingMinimise habitat Implement mitigation measures to minimise ecological impacts.fragmentationMinimise impactson sensitive Develop and implement a specific mitigation plan and monitor in sensitive wildlife areashabitatsInvasive species Develop and implement an invasive species mitigation planplan Locate sites away from occupied structures and places of assembly Implement management measures to minimise noiseNoise mitigation Implement barrier methods to minimise noise Carry out noisy operations during the day
    14. 14. Control optionsAspect Description of measureSeismicity Monitoring of seismic activity with intervention in the event of events occurringmonitoringVisual impact Standard measures to minimise visual impacts with regard to site location, lighting andmitigation paintwork Road use agreement/transportation plan covering vehicle routeing and timing Use existing roads where possible Locate access roads away from residential areas Centralise gathering facilities to reduce truck traffic Minimise impacts of new road construction via design and use of appropriate standards; build inMinimise impacts mitigation at design stageof traffic Limit truck weights Vehicles to conform with highest emissions standards Unnecessary idling to be prevented Carry out effective maintenance Repair road damage, or make payments to allow damage to be repaired Use temporary pipeline for water transportationSite selection Comprehensive assessment to identify optimum siteManagement Staff selection, training and supervision in environmental protection Maintain land used for gas extraction to a suitable standard to enable restoration so far as possibleLand restoration Stockpile surface soils for use in restoration Loose soil should be covered with geotextiles or other materialsPace of Limiting the pace of development could reduce some acute effects associated with shale gasdevelopment development
    15. 15. Control optionsAspect Description of measure Use cut areas for surface impoundment construction to avoid unnecessary increases in facilitySite layout footprint Avoid the use of surface impoundments and reserve pits where possible Avoid the use of surface impoundments and reserve pits in flood zones or other sensitive areas Silt fences, sediment traps or basins, hay bales, mulch, earth bunds, filter strips or grassedMinimise risks swales can be used to slow runoff and trap sediment from leaving the site.from liquid Where possible, activities should be staged to reduce soil exposure and coincide with a seasonstorage and of low rainfallhandling Contingency planning and training to address spillage risks Visual inspection of primary containment before hydraulic fracturing is carried out Use conductance monitors for rapid detection and assessment of spillagesMinimise risksfrom temporary Pipelines should not be located on steep hillsides or within watercoursespipelines Surface casing to extend to at least 30 m below aquifers Surface casing to extend to at least 15 m below aquifersExtent of surface Surface casing to extend below aquiferscasing Surface casing to extend to at least 30 m below ground level Surface casings should be cemented before reaching a depth of 75 metres below underground sources of drinking water.Extent of Production casing should be cemented up to at least 150 metres above the formation whereproduction hydraulic fracturing will be carried outcasing
    16. 16. Control optionsAspect Description of measure Pressure tests of the casing and state-of-the-art cement bond logs should be carried out Regulation and inspection regime needed to confirm effective repair of defective cementing Measure compressive strength with benchmarks between 2.1 and 8.3 MPa, based on setting times between 4 and 72 hoursWell integrity Include well integrity measures in permit specified under Mining Waste Directive Complete cementing and isolation of underground sources of drinking water must be carried out prior to further drilling Casing centralizers should be used to centre the casing in the hole Testing of well integrity should take place at construction, and throughout the lifetime of the well Fracturing at depths of less than 600 m requires a specific permit Fracturing not permitted with a separation of less than 46 m between fracture zone and aquiferMinimum depth Fracturing at depths of less than 600 m or with less than 300 m separation between fracturefor hydraulic zone and aquifer requires a specific analysis and reviewfracturing Fracturing with a separation of less than 600 m between horizontal section of well and aquifer should not be permittedMulti-stage Maintain hydraulic isolation between porous zonesfracturing Operators should disclose publicly the chemical constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluid, including product name and purpose/type; proposed composition of fracturing fluid by weight;Disclosure and proposed volume of each additive Operators should disclose publicly the results of well integrity tests Emissions from diesel engines to conform with highest applicable standards Use natural gas powered engines and compressors where feasibleDrilling engines Use electrically driven engines and compressors where feasible Use selective catalytic reduction to reduce emissions from drilling rig engines
    17. 17. Control optionsAspect Description of measure Drillers should select fluids to minimise the environmental hazard posed by drilling wastesDrilling fluids Separation of drilling fluids and processing to facilitate re-use Use closed-loop systems to reduce drilling time, drilling fluid use and surface disturbance Develop guidance for use of diesel fuel in HVHF fluid Prohibit use of diesel fuel in HVHF fluid Prohibit use of specified volatile organic compounds in groundwater zoneComposition of Use of specified volatile organic compounds in HVHF fluid requires prior authorisationHVHF fluid Select appropriate additives to minimise environmental impacts Minimise biocide use, e.g. via use of UV disinfection techniques in place of chemical biocides Select proppants which minimise the HVHF treatment required Develop and use an integrated water management systemWater resource Require use of alternative sources of watermanagement Avoid sensitive areas for water withdrawalsControl of Implement precautions to prevent invasive species from water storage by cleaning vehicles andinvasive species appropriate disposal of surplus water Predictive modelling to optimise fracturing strategies Share data from nearby fracturing operations Ensure equipment compatible with composition of fracturing fluidControl of HVHF Use all available techniques to minimise risk of fracturing taking place outside the targetprocess reservoir Thorough planning and testing of equipment prior to fracturing operations Development of contingency plan prior to fracturing operations Detailed monitoring of process during fracturing operations
    18. 18. Control optionsAspect Description of measure Develop pre-treatment standards for discharges of shale gas extraction wastewater to municipal wastewater treatment plants Establish treatment requirements/discharge limits for treatment and final discharge of wastewater Re-use waste water where possibleWastewater Store waste water in storage tanks, or in double lined lagoons constructed with regard to localmanagement topography Ensure receiving treatment works is capable of handling wastewaters Install on-site wastewater treatment if appropriate Measure the composition of the stored return water Use closed-loop systems manage and reprocess waste waters Develop and adopt air emission standards for methane, air toxics, ozone-forming pollutants, and other airborne contaminants Require Reduced Emissions Completions to be carried outEmissions to air Prohibit venting of gases, and minimise use of flaringfrom well Control of VOC emissions by combustion for any tank emitting more than 6 tons VOCs per yearcompletion Prohibit use of open-top or blow down tanks Specify required reductions in uncontrolled VOC emissions Use low-bleed or no-bleed pneumatic controllers Replace glycol systems with alternatives Survey well head equipment to identify and address leakageLeakage to air Use equipment with low potential for leakageduring operation Automatic fail-safe equipment on pipelines Reduce the number of storage tanks on siteTemporarily Set requirements for plugging and inspection of shut-in wellsabandoned wells Inspect and maintain wellheads every 90 days
    19. 19. Control optionsAspect Description of measure Plug with 30 m of cement every 760 m and at least 30 m cement at the surface, with 30 m of cement in horizontal section Plug with 15 m of cement above every zone to be protected Plug at least 15 m below the deepest perforation and 15 m above the shallowest perforation Plug at least 15 m above and below the base of the deepest usable aquifer Plug at least 30 m above and 15 m below each fluid-bearing stratumPermanent well Plug from 15 m below to 15 m above the base of the treatable water zoneabandonment Set requirements for inspection of abandoned wells Ensure a micro-annulus is not formed at temporary plugs Carry out ongoing monitoring programme Maintain records of well location and depth indefinitely Transfer ownership and liability to competent authority on surrender of permit to ensure long- term management Remove surface impoundments as soon as possible when no longer neededWell pad Remediate well pads on an ongoing basis to facilitate return to original conditionsrestoration Well sites must be restored as soon as possible after the end of extraction operations All operators are required to have financial security for the wells through performance bonds onBonding an individual well or a field of wells Operators should work cooperatively with regulatory agencies and other stakeholders toWider area promote best practices, and improve communication with local communities.development Neighbouring operators work together to ensure efficient provision of gas collection and water treatment infrastructureTransboundary Competent authorities should co-operate in jointly meeting regulatory requirementsco-operation
    20. 20. Legislative review Aim of legislative review • To identify potential uncertainties regarding the extent to which shale gas exploration and production risks are covered under current EU legislation • To identify those risks not covered by EU legislation • To draw conclusions relating to the risk to the environment and human health of such operations in the EU Gap analysis • Inadequacies in legislation • Potential inadequacies – uncertainty in applicability • Potential inadequacies – uncertainty in MS implementation
    21. 21. Legislative reviewGaps identified in legislative review • EIA Directive Annex I threshold for gas production • EIA Directive Annex II definition of “deep drilling” • EIA Directive scope: no requirement to address geological features • Water Framework Directive: definition of “pollutants” • Mining Waste Directive/IPPC: no relevant BREF document • Air and noise emission limits for larger off-road machinery • Coverage of Environmental liability directive • Applicability of IPPC Directive/Industrial Emissions Directive • Classification under MWD • Applicability of Seveso II Directive • Member State implementation of a number of directives
    22. 22. Next steps Next phase of European Commission studies • Development of risk framework • Member state implementation • Mitigation of climate impacts of possible future shale gas extraction Our work • Regulatory guidance • Supply chain market analysis • Ongoing regulatory support in US
    23. 23. Supply chain KEY Common to DEVELOPMENT conventional and Chemical unconventional Ecology EXPLORATION manufacturing Greater or different Survey design Liaison with Monitoring and planning pipeline operator requirement with Chemical supplier unconventional Engineering EIA Specialist New requirement Environmental Environmental expertise drilling/casing for unconventional management management suppliers Generator plant SEA Road, site and Engineering Compression plant pad preparation Horizontal drilling Planning Frack project Financial Audit/ due Public relations manager advice diligence Road and site Risk construction assessment Water supply Planning Public Water pond relations construction Waste and water Financing AS FOR treatment/disposal EXPLORATION Drill rig Regulatory PHASE liaison DATA SELECT TRIAL DRILL/ TRIAL DATA SELECT WELLPAD SITE PIPELINE DRILLING/ REVIEW TEST SITE FRACK ANALYSIS PRODUCTION ZONE IDENTIFICATION CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION FRACKING Public Pipeline connectivity relations Logistics Planning Site Production gathering preparation EIA Analysts Personnel messing, catering, ABANDONMENT WORKOVERS PRODUCTION COMPLETION sanitation, accommodation etc Monitoring Trial data acquisition Technical/ Ecology engineering expertise Geology and Reprocessing Site restoration Well maintenance Green Water Sludge Geophysics of historical data completion treatment/ disposal Gravimetry Gravimetry expertise recycling Analysis and Environmental disposal Well plugging interpretation monitoring Geochemical Geochemical Legal survey survey Road repair Services Environmental Technical/ 2D Survey management 2D Survey construction Expertise Infrastructure Landscape Repair analysis 3D Survey 3D Survey Political/ EM Survey EM Survey Geopolitical DECOMMISSIONING PRODUCTION ED58399_SC_v4

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