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Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey
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Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journey

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Dr. Adam Read – Director Waste Management & Resource Efficiency, AEA …

Dr. Adam Read – Director Waste Management & Resource Efficiency, AEA

Presentation at Zero Waste Summit 2012, 22nd October 2012
Hilton on the Park, Melbourne

Published in: Spiritual
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  • •The regulatory changes required to implement the plan will be enacted in the Zero Waste Regulations 2011. These Regulations introduce a series of regulatory measures including: • Source segregation and separate collection of key recyclable materials: paper, card, glass, metals, plastic (co-mingling will only be accepted where the waste hierarchy is not undermined and the outputs from the MRF are of a comparable quality to those collected separately at the kerbside); • Source segregation of food wastes: in respect of separate food waste collections the Regulations will cover urban areas with a population over 125,000, other urban areas (10,000-125,000 population), and accessible small towns (3,000-10,000) and properties within 30 minutes drive of a settlement of 10,000 or more. The statutory requirement to collect food waste will be limited to households that can present a bin to the kerbside. It is hoped that current trials will enable clear best practice guidance to be made available promptly on, for example, food waste collection services to high density housing (high rises etc); • A ban on mixing separately collected recyclable materials; • A ban on landfilling the key recyclable materials;• A restriction on the inputs to thermal treatment facilities;• A ban on waste disposed of to landfill based on organic contentWhere separate food waste collection is not being offered, there will be a requirement on LAs to promote food waste prevention and/or home compostingThe timetable for introducing the measures is: 31/12/2013: Source segregation ●All business must present dry recyclables, and medium/large businesses in food waste production, food retail and food preparation must present food waste for collection ●Local Authorities must offer dry recyclables collection service and begin to roll-out food waste collections. 31/12/2013: Bans ●Ban on mixing segregated materials ●Ban on landfilling source segregated materials 31/12/2015: Source Segregation ●Small food production, food retail and food preparation businesses must present food waste for collection ●Local Authorities must complete roll-out of food waste collections 31/12/15: Bans Existing facilities must remove dense plastic and metals from residual waste prior to incineration. All new facilities will be required to comply with this requirement on commencement of the regulations ●Ban on the non-domestic use of food waste disposal units (macerators) and food waste digesters where the “treated” food waste is discharged into public sewers directly. 31/12/2020: Bans Ban on biodegradable material to landfill
  • http://www.organics-recycling.org.uk/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=410&Itemid=86http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=WR0209_8618_FRP.pdf
  • These savings could mean anywhere between 150-400k per partner.Question is can it be achieved or maintained on their own – savings tend to accrue from more than one source – each on their own can deliver a small saving – combined leads to even moreWhere do these savings come from
  • Actually, we are not an energy recovery nation. We have a lot of debate and high profile projects, but the overall proportion is low.
  • England has shown a steady rate of diversion from landfill. But were these relatively simple first steps?Scotland plateau mid decade – was this a trigger for more rigorous policy making?
  • The Carbon Metric Reporting System for Recycling Performance is intended to inform waste policy and to promote a reduction in the environmental impact of resource useThe Carbon Metric allows strategic decisions to be made about the end of life choices for materials and products based on their environmental impact, measured in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. It is designed to support the prioritisation of waste management options and materials in order to meet the Zero Waste Plan targets. Ecological foot printing measures the impacts of how we consume things and compares it to what the planet can cope with. It calculates how much land is needed to feed, produce energy and absorb the pollution and waste generated by our supply chains. Sustainability requires us to live within the planet’s environmental limits. This can be summarised as ‘one Wales: one planet’ as we are currently using three planets worth of resources, instead of the one available to us.
  • SIMONThis case study involves the use of the English and Wales Environment Agency’s WRATE LCA software. WRATE stands for “Waste and Resources Assessment Tool for the Environment”, and WRATE is a streamlined LCA tool that helps waste managers to assess the most environmentally preferable option for handling their waste, with a system boundary from waste arising to the point of final disposal, recycling or recovery.WRATE is particularly designed for the assessment of municipal waste arisings, but can also be used for commercial and industrial waste. The software is standardised and fully transparent, with over 150 default data sets, covering factors such as wheeled bins, waste collection vehicles and incinerators.A WRATE scenario starts with waste arisings, which are typically collected in containers before being transported to an intermediate bulking station. Further transport may be required before the waste reaches a treatment facility, which will result in materials being recycled, recovered or disposed.The diagram presented here is a significant simplification of actual WRATE scenarios... [cue to move to next slide]
  • Transcript

    1. Delivering high diversion municipal recycling in the UK – lessons from a 25 year journeyDr. Adam Read – DirectorWaste Management & Resource Efficiency, AEAZero Waste Summit 2012 A world leading22nd October 2012 energy and climateHilton on the Park, Melbourne change consultancy 1
    2. Presentation scope in 40 minutes+ Personal welcome+ Legislative drivers+ Public engagement+ Alternate Weekly Collections+ Commingling & Source Segregation+ Quality concerns+ Key materials and changing priorities+ Efficiency reviews and value for money+ Political debates and public demands+ So what about the Australian situation? 2
    3. A personal welcome 3
    4. My sponsor - www.aeat.co.uk 4
    5. UK Governance 5
    6. UK Governance+ UK is responsible for reporting to EU on policy progress+ National Administrations set policy and monitor performance - England - Scotland - Wales - Northern Ireland+ Local Government set strategy, deliver services and respond to local ‘demands’ - Funded by UK taxation - Funded by local Council Tax 6 - Elected ‘members’
    7. Implementation … nationally …+ Waste Strategy for England 2007 - Waste Review 2011 (some minor revisions in priorities)+ Scotland Zero Waste Plan 2010+ Wales Towards Zero Waste strategy 2010+ Northern Ireland Waste Strategy 2006 (now under review) 7
    8. Recycling Targets (legislated)Year England Scotland Wales2013 Recycling, preparation Municipal waste for reuse or composting recycling and of LA waste collected composting 52% from households: 50%2015 Recycle or compost at 58% least 45% recover value from 67% of household waste2020 Recycle or compost at 60% 64% least 50% recover value from 75% of household waste2025 70% No more than 5% of 70% all waste to go to landfill 8
    9. Government support on collectionsEngland • Help local communities develop fit for purpose local solutions for collecting and dealing with household waste and work with councils to meet households’ reasonable expectations for weekly collections, particularly of smelly wasteScotland • Separate collections of specific waste types, including food, to avoid contaminating other materials, increasing reuse and recycling opportunities and contributing to renewable energy targetsWales • 80% of the target for municipal waste recycling must be through source separated collections - as opposed to the sorting of mixed waste 9
    10. Basics of UK local government+ 353 Councils in England: - 27 Counties = waste disposal only - 6 joint waste disposal authorities in London, Manchester, Liverpool - 90 Unitary Authorities =waste collection and disposal - 236 District / Borough Councils = waste collection only+ 22 Councils in Wales (unitary)+ 32 Councils in Scotland (unitary)+ 26 in Northern Ireland (unitary) 10
    11. UK Headline Figures+ 26 M tpa of MSW (mostly from HHs)+ £3.4 billion spent by UK Councils in 2010/11 - Third biggest service spend for local government - Approximately £1.20 - £1.30 per week (£60 per year)+ Rubbish collection - The service with highest level of householder awareness!! - Any change is a public / political / media ‘banana skin’!+ Success story! - 7.5% recycled, composted or reused in 1996/7 - This had risen to 42% 2010/11 and is still improving ….+ Increasing privatisation - Waste collection services = 55% in-house - Waste disposal service 100% external 11
    12. The UK recycling revolution 12
    13. 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 10% 0% 1991/… 1993/… 1995/… Actual 1997/… 1999/… 2001/… Estimated 2003/… MSW Recycling rate progress … 2005/… 2007/… 2009/… 2011/… 2013/…13
    14. In the beginning … Landfill!+ UK aggregates mining meant disposal to land was a realistic and affordable option… only £15 / tonne until early 1990s! 14
    15. And mass burn incinerators ….+ In the days before pollution control …. pre 1990 EPA 15
    16. Recycling arrived in the 1980s …+ Concerns about oil prices and landfill void, coupled with growing public interest…. 16
    17. London’s first recycling officer (1982) 17
    18. Source segregation for target materials+ Evolution of the ‘rag and bone man’ - main targets = paper and glass, textiles etc. - some LAs looked @ multi-material capture in late 1980s 18
    19. Return of the incinerators …+ Closures in 1990s to meet stringent EU emissions controls….+ Birth of new facilities as alternative to landfill ….. 19
    20. Recycling targets take hold ….+ 1995 UK Government introduced a 25% recycling target for HH waste (50% of the recyclable content) - Acted as a spur for more innovation in collection schemes, bank siting etc. - Part of UK Government’s ‘Making Waste Work’ Strategy 20
    21. Public engagement 21
    22. Increasing media attention 22
    23. 23
    24. Most of the people, most of the time….. % Good Excellent Max.+ Recyclable % waste = 70 75 85+ % of households served = 80 90 99+ % of those participating = 80 95 99+ % effectiveness = 95 95 99+ Waste collected for recycling = 37% 61% 82% 24
    25. Communication Campaign Phase 1 Set Up Phase 2 Phase 3 Raising Brand Setting the scene awareness Guidance Content Telling residents that the new How to use the Copy what’s arriving scheme is on service Design and when its way 25
    26. Increasing performance 26
    27. 27
    28. Recycle for London… campaigning … 28
    29. 29
    30. Reaching target communities 30
    31. Spend now to save later…. + Investment in good communications should not be under- estimated + Critical in supporting the roll-out of new services designed to save money - AWC - Food waste collections + Crucial in improving service efficiency - Material quality - Capture rates + Will underpin home composting and waste prevention initiatives… 31
    32. 32
    33. Door-to-Door Advisors 33
    34. 34
    35. Campaign impacts+ Participation increase… - 50% on some Daventry Estates - 49% increase in Basildon - 30% increase in Maldon - 10% increase across Devon County+ Tonnage increase…. - 21% increase in Devon - 100% in Braintree - 19% increase in Kensington+ Increase number of calls / visits to website+ More complaints+ 5% increase in contamination 35
    36. Communications cost …+ £2 per HH is the accepted ‘norm’+ Need to invest upfront to help in-bed new schemes+ Consultation over scheme design can help avoid ‘failure’ but this takes time and effort!+ If you have contamination problems then talk to your residents!!!+ Don’t think you can save money by dropping comms ... YOU CAN’T! 36
    37. Doing more with less …. 37
    38. LA Recycling Top 16 - 1995+ Government set an aspirational 25% target for the year 2000 Adur Castle… North Devon East Devon Torridge Bath Tandridge Northampton Milton KeynesWest Somerset Chiltern Mid Devon Surrey Heath New Forest South Bucks Teignbridge 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 38
    39. Trends in the mid 1990s?+ Recycling rates increased as more Councils invested in kerbside collections+ Initially a surge in source separated materials - Paper - Cans+ Glass was encouraged to go to local ‘bring banks’+ Some Authorities learnt lessons quickly - A role for MRFs? - Including glass in commingled recyclables - Garden waste collections (charged) 39
    40. But recycling in the late 1990s …+ Was expensive….. - Landfill was still under %£50 per tonne - Some recycling collections were costing over £100 per tonne+ Needed to develop more ‘efficiency’+ Needed to get more recyclate out of the waste stream+ Needed to reduce the residual waste collection service - and reduce costs+ AWC came to the fore …. 40
    41. The rise of AWC 41
    42. Higher recycling…how was this achieved?+ Restriction of residual waste capacity through use of wheeled bins (with enforced policies) or collection of limited number of sacks - Makes use of recycling boxes more likely (90% participation)+ Enhancement of recycling services - Increased dry materials; Introduction of food and / or garden waste collections+ Savings made by reducing refuse collection - Reinvested into recycling services+ Impacts - Daventry District Council – increase in tonnage collected through ‘red & blue box scheme’ of 45% - Somerset Waste Partnership – increase in tonnage collected through dry recycling service of 50% 42
    43. Not always popular …. 43
    44. Making AWC a success …+ For any AWC system to succeed it requires - the backing of the elected council members - an effective communication and education campaign - and the collection of additional recyclables materials (such as garden waste)+ To assist local authorities in their decision making WRAP have published guidance on implementing AWC - offers step by step information on introducing AWC and includes criteria for the local authority to help them decide whether AWC is the right option for them 44
    45. Early communication is critical 45
    46. AWC yields more recyclables! 46
    47. AWC makes sense ….+ Cost of collection to 1 Council (a recent client)+ Switching saves money, allowing investment in other services (food waste for example?) Baseline AWC Annual cost of service £1,786,020 £1,447,453Cost per tonne (average) £59 £46 % saving in switching -19% (materials remain same) 47
    48. LA Recycling Top 20 - 2000 Daventry Eastleigh Preston Forest Heath& Lichfield Chiltern Melton St Edmundsbury New Forest Mid Sussex Tandridge Surrey Heath Adur South Hams Fareham Test Valley Reigate & Banstead South Bucks& StockportRichmond-upon-Thames 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 48
    49. Commingled collections+ Popular means of collecting recyclables …. Cheaper for collection authorities to implement …… sorting costs come downstream … 49
    50. The commingled explosion in England!Thousand tonnes 5000 4500 4000 Co-mingled 3500 Not co-mingled 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 50
    51. The benefits of commingled …+ Allow more materials to be collected @ the kerb - Glass - Plastics+ Speed of collection enhanced, so great collection efficiencies+ Easier for the public to use - Improves participation - Improves effectives - Contamination issues can be ‘sorted’ at the MRF 51
    52. MRFs+ Taking the pressure off the public …. And maximising efficiency! 52
    53. Landfill comes under threat …. 53
    54. Landfill Tax+ The landfill tax first came into effect on October 1st 1996+ The initial rate was £7 per tonne for normal ("active") waste, and £2 per tonne for inert waste+ Since 1999, the active waste tax has been increasing annually (the so-called landfill tax "escalator") - intention is add transparency (and cost!) to the future price of landfilling waste, so that alternative options become economically favourable - current rate of increase is £8 per tonne per year - certainty has encouraged ‘changed behaviour’+ Since April 2011, the tax on landfilling active waste has been £56 per tonne = major impact on decision-makers! - set to continue to increase to £80 per tonne in 2014/15 54
    55. UK Landfill Tax Escalator£90£80 When the Average ‘cost’ Landfill£70 started to Gate Fee =£60 bite! £50/t£50£40 Standard Inert£30 Average Landfill£20 Gate Fee = £20/t£10 £0 01.10.96 01.04.97 01.04.98 01.04.99 01.04.00 01.04.01 01.04.03 01.04.04 01.04.05 01.04.06 01.04.07 01.04.08 01.04.09 01.04.10 01.04.11 01.04.12 01.04.13 01.04.14 01.04.02 55
    56. Landfill Directive – everything changed!+ Scaling back of organic material to landfills compared to 1995 … 56
    57. The EU Landfill Directive+ EU Landfill Directive – address landfill’s environmental impacts - BMW reductions required to mitigate fugitive CH4 emissions - Pre-treatment of landfilled materials - Landfill waste acceptance criteria (WACs) - Landfill design, operation, completion and closure requirements+ BMW Landfill targets for the UK - 75% of 1995 level by 2010 - 50% of 1995 level by 2013 - 35% of 1995 level by 2020 BMW landfill allowance - England Base year 1995 2010 2013 2020 15,640,000 t 11,200,000 t 7,450,000 t 5,220,000 t 57
    58. The result …..+ Increasing attention in food waste collections+ Greater emphasis on organic material capture @ the kerbside - Paper - Cardboard - Textiles+ Need for more processing capacity to cope with new feed stocks+ Need to get the message across to ‘people’ about food waste segregation - and prevention! 58
    59. The UK waste sector responds ….+ Diverted over 9 M tonnes of MSW from landfill since 2000+ Capture organics for treatment - Around 110 authorities now provide a food waste collection service - Serving ~22% of English households+ Capture recyclables to meet recycling targets - Increased recycling from 11.2% to 42% - Collected an additional 6.5M tonnes of materials - 173 authorities now collect 5 or more dry recyclables at kerbside+ Prevent waste if possible - Average waste per person has reduced by 72kg since 2006/07 - Down to 281kg/person+ Deliver services more efficiently! - Joint working / Partnerships 59
    60. Food waste – new priority material 60
    61. Why food waste?+ Increasing national pressure concerning GHGs+ The need to reduce ‘emissions’ @ landfill sites+ Increasing attention on the value of composts and digestates in agriculture - Risings costs of other fertilisers+ 30% of the residual bin still being ignored by recycling schemes - 1-2 kg per week is being captured!+ Increasing worry about fossil fuel costs+ The Renewable Energy agenda and the rise of AD … 61
    62. Organic waste collections + c. 3.9mt of food & garden waste was collected by LA’s during 2007/08 - Garden waste: 1.8mt from CA sites & 1.4mt from kerbside - Food and garden waste: 435kt from kerbside - Food waste (source-segregated): 14kt + The number of local authorities collecting food waste grew by 44% between 2008 and 2009 alone!Number of local 150 137 95 authorities 100 78 80 58 50 20 36 5 6 10 15 0 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 62
    63. Segregated Food Waste Collections Over 1/3 of all LAs now offer a segregated collection (or one commingled with green waste) 63
    64. Bins & Caddies 64
    65. Liners … costly to distribute! 65
    66. @ the kerbside 66
    67. WRAP trials of smaller vehicles 67
    68. Helping the residents …. 68
    69. Enforcement+ Critical to control contamination …+ Would your political leaders support this? 69
    70. How do Residents React? + One offs? + Feedback to HH’s? + Repeat Offenders? + Harder line tactics? + Messaging ….. + Critical! 70
    71. Monitoring is key in the early months … 71
    72. Food waste yields … 72
    73. To recyclers in 2005/06 Council Rate System North Kesteven 51.5 AWC Rushcliffe 49.9 AWC South Cambridgeshire 49.4 AWC St Edmundsbury 48.6 AWC Huntingdonshire 48.0 AWC Melton Mowbray 47.1 AWC Waveney 46.6 AWC Forest Heath 46.1 AWC Teignbridge 45.4 AWC Lichfield 45.4 AWC 73
    74. Improving efficiencies…. 74
    75. IESE Partnership Pyramid All have respect and feel totally Co-ownership: responsible Joint core services & strategy Collaboration: Together we work on this and manage risks Joint communications/marketing Co-ordination: We will adjustperipheral services avoid Joint what we do to contracting overlap Cross-boundary working Co-operation: I will lend a hand procurement Joint commodity when I can Joint best practice sharing/training Co-existence: You stay on your turf and I’ll stay on JMWMS mine 75
    76. IESE Partnership Pyramid All have respect and feel totally Co-ownership: Highest efficiencies responsible 8-15%+ Joint core services & strategy Collaboration: Together we work on this and manage risks Joint Medium efficiencies communications/marketing Co-ordination: We will adjustperipheral services avoid Joint what we do to 2-8% contracting overlap Cross-boundary working Co-operation: Lower I will lend aefficiencies hand when I can Joint commodity procurement <2% Joint best practice sharing/training Co-existence: You stay on yourJMWMS I’ll stay on turf and mine 76
    77. Efficiencies Programme+ The Mayor’s Municipal Waste Management Strategy has a four- year programme (2011-2015) to identify and implement efficiencies in municipal waste management in London - £4.6 million budget over 4 years+ Themes - Joint Procurement for equipment (economies of scale) - Explore opportunities to jointly market recyclate - Framework contract for waste & recycling collection, street cleaning etc. - Re-use and Recycling Sites support & funds (targetting C&I waste) - Efficiency reviews of waste related services (consultant led) - Service Sharing (London-wide or local partnerships) - Best Practice Tools (twinning, mentoring and a brokerage service) - Model Specifications and Contracts (output specifications) 77
    78. Clyde Valley Partnership Model 78
    79. Complex analysis 79
    80. Cuts make the Headlines! 80
    81. Scope for change? + In the next 7 years over 130 authorities will be going out to market to procure a new waste collection scheme + This is an opportunity for a strong Government ‘steer’ - WAG have linked funding to the delivery of source segregated collections - Their evidence base suggests this is cheaper and more environmentally beneficial - Will DEFRA do something similar? No it is a LOCAL issue! + There is a great deal of scope for standardisation and joint working to save money without reducing the quality of services on offer - We must stop trying to be unique and look at what offers value for money and effective delivery! 81
    82. Partnership Efficiency Gains? + Somerset Waste Partnership = £1.5m per annum + Shropshire Waste Partnership = £1.1m per annum + Work in Progress - Example 1: £2.1m per annum in avoided costs against “do nothing” scenario - Example 2: Service savings over 09/10 – 19/20 = £15m - Example 3: Service savings over 09/10 – 17/18 = £10m (collection only) + Do you think your authority is inefficient? - They didn’t’ either! Until they took a closer look! 82
    83. Joint contracts …+ Aligned service design & delivery …. 83
    84. Co-collection of commercial waste?+ Lets start talking about materials! - Forget source - Drive up quality - Reduce the carbon footprint - Improve fleet efficiency 84
    85. Quality – the new king! 85
    86. Quality …+ Is about consistently delivering materials to the marketplace that are - effectively separated to meet customer requirements - compliant with national regulations and policies…. - at a cost that is acceptable 86
    87. Out of Spec input stream…. 87
    88. Quality Supply Chain Local Authority 88
    89. Since 2010 things have changed …+ Increasing concerns about quality from the end markets+ Less guarantees from Chinese & Indian reprocessors+ Returned loads from Indonesia and Brazil+ EA has clamped down on ‘waste’ exports+ UK and EU reprocessors continually setting the ‘bar’ higher in terms of quality and consistency+ Needs additional investment at MRF+ Needs more than 1 cycle @ MRF+ Now looking at evolution of service provision ….. 89
    90. Pushing up quality …. 90
    91. The return of source segregation …+ Ensures quality (reduces contamination)+ Immediate customer feedback 91
    92. Performance Today? 92
    93. Waste service provision TODAY+ Frequency of residual waste collection - 63% collect fortnightly or less frequently+ Type of recycling collection - 62% offer a form of co-mingling (single or two stream) - The rest offer a separate collection / kerbside sort+ Best council collection performance (2010/11) - Rochford District Council @ 66% recycle, compost, reuse - worst performance now @ 14% 93
    94. Collection systems in use … England Wales Scotland UKKerbside sort 42% 50% 47% 42%Co-mingled 43% 27% 34% 44%Co-mingled plus textiles 2% 0% 0% 2%Two stream 19% 23% 31% 19%Two stream plus textiles 4% 5% 3% 4%Other 2% 9% 6% 2%Single material 2% 0% 19% 3%No scheme 0% 0% 3% 0% 94
    95. Progress in England 95
    96. % reduction in MSW sent to landfill + HH recycling in 1.2 Reduction in MSW Landfilled (% 0f 2001/2 Wales = 48% (2011-12) England 1 Scotland - 4% increase on the previous year Wales 0.8 levels) + Recycling rate for 0.6 English councils 0.4 42.5% 0.2 + Scottish Authorities 0 = 39.8% 96
    97. 2010-11 recycling rates – 70% in sight! Rochford District CouncilSouth Oxfordshire District Council Surrey Heath Borough Council Bournemouth Borough Council Cotswold District Council Staffordshire Moorlands District… Stratford-on-Avon District Council Epping Forest Borough Council Suffolk Coastal District Council Harborough District Council Huntingdonshire District Council Cherwell District Council Teignbridge District Council Rutland County Council Lichfield District Council South Cambridgeshire District… West Lindsey District Council Mole Valley District Council Uttlesford District Council East Lindsey District Council 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0+ All bar one are ‘AWC’ …. 97
    98. 2010-11 recycling rates – commingling! Rochford District Council South Oxfordshire District Council Surrey Heath Borough Council Bournemouth Borough Council Cotswold District Council Staffordshire Moorlands District… Stratford-on-Avon District Council Epping Forest Borough Council Suffolk Coastal District Council Harborough District Council Huntingdonshire District Council Cherwell District Council Teignbridge District Council Rutland County Council Lichfield District CouncilSouth Cambridgeshire District Council West Lindsey District Council Mole Valley District Council Uttlesford District Council East Lindsey District Council 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 + Commingling is now definitely the norm …. 98
    99. Top 30 ‘dry’ authorities in 2010/11+ all but 2 of the top 30 authorities collect all or most of their materials co-mingled. …. touching 300 kgs/hh/year 99
    100. Continuing analysis …. led by WRAP! 100
    101. Kerbside collection yields 101
    102. Cost comparison… a ‘dark art’ ….+ hypothetical urban authority with 100,000 households. 102
    103. The rise of dual stream…+ The ‘hybrid’ collection system+ Commingled - Mixed plastics & cans go to a MRF - Paper kept separate with textiles+ Remove glass - Collect as a separate bin / bring banks+ Separate food waste (to AD) - Or mixed with garden waste (AD / IVC)+ Rationale - Glass contaminates paper and textiles - Glass can damage MRF - Ensures you don’t all foul of HSE (glass = heavy and noisy) 103
    104. All about quality and end markets …. 104
    105. KAT modelling+ WRAP’s kerbside assessment tool - Help define efficiency - Help model new options 105
    106. The Current Big Debates… 106
    107. Recycling Policy Innovations+ Key trends: - Segregated feedstocks - High quality outputs - Commercial waste and trade waste service delivery+ Zero Waste Regulations, Scotland: potential to affect policy in the UK - Segregated collections - Landfill bans are expected for wood and food+ LAs encouraged to take part in the market for trade waste, have to be competitive and service focused+ Co-mingled recycling will not be outlawed, but issues of quality are a high priority and will influence future decision-making+ Partnerships, service alignment, service frameworks etc. 107
    108. Increasing focus on C&I wastes … 108
    109. New WRAP guidance+ Focused on how sites can be developed by a range of parties to target C&I recyclables - Developed by AEA+ Headlines include ….. - Successful schemes in operation - Charging systems can work - Awareness raising and engagement are key - Target the right materials makes sense - Learn from the mistakes of others …. 109
    110. On street recycling …. 110
    111. Targetting recyclables not @ home … 111
    112. @ Newmarket High Street 112
    113. Driving best practice …. 113
    114. Materials are valuable …. 114
    115. It’s all about the money (revenue) 115
    116. DCLG weekly fund …. 116
    117. Weekly or fortnightly + Various research indicates householder preferences - 9% want to return to weekly + Costs for weekly collection = significantly higher + DCLG £250m fund for weekly collection – announces successful Councils in late October …. 117
    118. AWC rules ….+ Only 1 of 216 AWC authorities had applied to switch to ‘weekly’ residual waste collection! 118
    119. Unofficial details …. 119
    120. Standardisation of services? + Recent IPSOS MORI survey + 70% of residents would favour a consistent recycling service - Without variations in materials, frequency and container type + So can all authorities adapt existing ‘winning’ scheme design? + Perhaps authorities could go out and buy the same service together – save even more money! 120
    121. Will incentives save us? 121
    122. Do incentives drive higher recycling?+ Some evidence to date (little) – US experiences say yes!+ Incentives can help improve ‘poor performing’ areas+ Concern - rewarding those already committed? 122
    123. Just last week ….+ Green Points are proving popular in LB Bexley - Small trial targeting 1 of the poorest estates+ Still concerns about the impact this could have over a larger area+ More worries about the level of incentive required to make ‘a significant difference’+ Most of the sector remain undecided! 123
    124. Lunacy they cry! 124
    125. The carbon agenda ….+ BVPI for carbon?+ Ranking Council’s by Carbon Footprint?+ Differential taxation and charging schemes? 125
    126. Carbon in the equation ….+ Should carbon metrics be used to measure recycling in England?+ Already part of Scottish law – target materials are prioritised according to carbon savings! 126
    127. WRATE - LCA for Waste Management+ WRATE is the English and Welsh Environment Agency’s “Waste and Resources Assessment Tool for the Environment”+ Streamlined LCA tool for waste management only+ For municipal waste only+ A standardised and transparent model (150+ default data sets)+ Used to investigate the most significant stages in waste management 127
    128. Suitability for Australian market 128
    129. It’s better down-under ….+ Segregation and collection logistics are similar, but …+ UK urban centres are more compact+ In Australia: - Larger houses and gardens (more green waste) - More space for the many receptacles (more convenient to segregate) - Less multiple occupancy dwellings - Low levels of transience due to isolation and immigration laws - Less income disparity and living conditions and less variation in behaviour+ You guys have it easy!!+ You should be teaching us a thing or two …. 129
    130. Different Drivers+ European legislation (such as WFD and LFD) is the overarching driver of waste targets in the UK - Nothing similar in Australia+ The UK has to meet wider European targets or it faces hefty fines - There is no such impetus in Australia - Limits the motivation to implement new technologies.+ Significant focus given to particular waste streams through EU Directives (food, cars, batteries, WEEE, etc.) - Get transposed into English law.+ Responsibility for waste is more devolved than in the UK+ Are the public driving change……+ We had escalating landfill costs and taxation – it hurts! 130
    131. WRAP helped steer the ship+ Waste & Resources Action Programme - an arms length delivery body set up by UK Government - remits in Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland and England+ National communications campaigns - library of materials to use locally+ LA advisory service - support councils when rolling out AWC, undertaking service reviews, and embarking on procurement (now supporting joint working)+ Stacks of research into best practice - performance, yields, impacts etc. 131
    132. Summary & Lessons Learned 132
    133. Changing UK landscape+ UK progress has been forced - EU Landfill Directive - Increasing energy prices and decreasing landfill void - Public demand+ Government has set ‘statutory targets since 2000+ Major success factor has been the Landfill Tax+ Government policy has become aligned in the last 2 years+ Best practice exists, but each authority makes it’s own decision!+ Rapid recycling expansion has plateaued – we have covered all the low hanging fruit - Focus is now on hard to reach groups, high rise, difficult materials (mixed plastics etc.) 133
    134. Future policies to enhance recycling?+ 70% target for all UK (not just Scotland and Wales)+ MRF protocols for contamination+ Government funding aligned with clear policy - Scotland and Wales want kerbside sort (not MRFs)+ Landfill bans for target materials+ Segregated collections of key waste streams for all organisations - paper, card, metals, glass & plastic)+ Local reprocessing to harness materials / value - Drive economic growth in target UK regions+ EfW ban on recyclable materials? 134
    135. So where will we (UK) be in 2020?+ 70% UK average recycling rate - Top Authorities will be hitting 80%+ Full roll-out of food waste collections+ Increasing attention on waste prevention @ home+ Rapid expansion of ROTG systems+ Upturn in Local Authorities targetting ‘compatible’ C&I wastes+ More joint working - Joint decision-making / Joint service design / Standardisation+ Increasing concern about quality of materials - Emphasis on enforcement @ the kerb - Calls for more source segregation+ Improving data sets to inform decisions (best practice) 135
    136. 136
    137. The last slide … promise! I will be here all day if you want to catch up over coffee? Dr Adam Read Global Practice Director Waste Management & Resource Efficiency 07968 707 239 adam.read@aeat.co.uk www.aeat.co.uk 137

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