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Optical Networking Trends & Evolution Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Optical Networking Trends & Evolution
    Christoph Glingener
    March 2011
  • 2. Optical Networking Trends & EvolutionOutline
    Technology status and evolution
    Coding & Modulation
    Optical Layer
    Protocols
    & multi-layer integration
    Management & Control
    Coding&Modulation Optical Layer Protocols / Multi-Layer Management/Control
    SDO
    CDCF
    ROADM
    H-Amp
    100G
    G.709
    OSS
    Ethernet
    MTOSI
    GMPLS
    Multi-
    layer
    Solution requirements – system/component technologies – costs !
  • 3. Channel Codingand ModulationCurrentandfuturekeyrequirements
    Today
    Mostly 10G OOK
    40G was a transition step to coherent, DSP-based technologies
    OOK, DPSK, DQPSK, PM-QPSK
    Commercial success and further lifetime questionable !
    PM-QPSK 100G coherent (1st generation) picking up
    What‘s next ?
    400G, 1T ?
    Maximise spectral efficiency vs. reach ?
    Minimise costs !
    Get flexibility by Software Defined Optics (SDO)
    Today
    RS-FEC
    Concat.-FEC
    Turbo S-FEC
    channelcoding
    andmodulation
    ?
    OOK
    DB
    DPSK
    PM-QPSK
    2.5G
    10G
    40G
    100G
  • 4. Channel Codingand ModulationRelative COGS oftransponders
    100G coh
    normalized on 2011 10G cost
    needstobe
    adressed !
    Cost efficiency of 40G questionable – need low cost 100G option !
  • 5. Coding
    Add. NCG smaller vs. increasing OH
    1 dB add. by soft-in decoding
    Modulation
    single pol., SSMF, 100km spans, ideal Raman, no DC, WDM with 5 channels
    Channel Codingand ModulationWherearethelimits ?
    14
    9
    8
    13
    7
    12
    6
    11
    5
    10
    4
    9
    3
    8
    2
    7
    1
    6
    0
    5
    0
    5
    10
    15
    1
    1.1
    1.2
    1.3
    Shannon limit
    Gaussianch.
    fibercapacitylimit [1]
    500km
    Shannon limit
    for ideal FEC
    256QAM
    Shannon limit
    soft
    2000km
    2 bit
    hard
    64QAM
    8000km
    Spectral Efficiency (bits/s/Hz)
    Net CodingGain [dB] for BER=1e-15
    16QAM
    100G implementations
    8PSK
    QPSK
    Shannon limit
    Gaussianchannel
    G.709
    BPSK
    -1.5
    20
    25
    1.4
    1.5
    transmission rate
    SNR/bit (dB)
    [1] Essiambre, et al., “Capacity Limits of Optical
    Fiber Networks,” JLT, vol. 28, no. 4, Feb. 2010.
    Scale by Superchannel/OFDM & spatial diversity (polarization/fiber)
  • 6. Channel Coding and ModulationWhat do we need to get there ?
    High speed DSPs/DACs/ADCs : power limitation !
    Photonic Integration
    Photonics are dominating optical transceiver size & cost
    Options : InP, hybrid, CMOS photonics
    Adapted from Fujitsu Microelectronics
    ≈1 mm
    Oclaro : 40 Gb/s InP DQPSK Encoding Chip
  • 7. Channel Coding and Modulation400G ?
    480 Gb/s (incl. 15% FEC OH)
    Nyquist WDM spectral shaping
    Total BW = #subcarriers x symbol rate
    Only noise limitations considered
    Overall power remains constant
    Channel granularity: 50 GHz
    PM-64QAM
    Capacity x reach = const.
    PM-8QAM
    PM-QPSK
    PM-16QAM
    PS-QPSK
    100GPM-QPSK
  • 8. Channel Coding and Modulation1T ?
    1200 Gb/s (incl. 15% FEC OH)
    Nyquist WDM spectral shaping
    Total BW = #subcarriers x symbol rate
    Only noise limitations considered
    Overall power remains constant
    Channel granularity: 50 GHz
    Capacity x reach = const.
    PM-16QAM
    PM-8QAM
    PS-16QAM
    PM-QPSK
    100GPM-QPSK
  • 9. Channel Codingand ModulationµWave Radio (fixed) Evolution
    SDR, AMC
    Adaptive Modulation
    andCoding
    1970
    1980
    1990
    2000
    XPIC
    Cross Polarization
    InterferenceCanceller (see PM)
    Analogue AM/FM
    0.5/0.2 Bit/s/Hz
    Req. S/N @ BER 1E - 3[dB]
    Net Efficiency [Bit/s/Hz]
    QPSK
    1/2
    2
    QPSK
    3/4
    2
    16QAM
    3/4
    4
    16QAM
    5/6
    4
    QPSK
    uncoded
    2
    16QAM
    1/2
    4
    16QAM
    uncoded
    4
    64QAM
    1/2
    6
    64QAM
    2/3
    6
    64QAM
    3/4
    6
    64QAM
    5/6
    6
    64QAM
    uncoded
    6
    128QAM
    5/6
    7
    256QAM
    5/6
    8
    Code rate
    Bit/Symbol
    Note : only convolutional coding considered
    Source : Detecon
  • 10. Channel Codingand ModulationµWave Radio – Adaptive Modulation & Coding (AMC)
    AMC to offer variable link ranges, data rates, availability
    @ BER 1E-11
    All overhead considered
    16-QAM, 25 min non-availability/year
    VBR
    CBR
    64-QAM, 115 min non-availability/year
    UBR
    VBR
    CBR
    4-QAM, 5 min non-availability/year
    CBR
    Hitless switching
    Between PHY modes
    FIXED sliced spectrum given
    Source : Marconi (now Ericsson)
    Hitless AMC for flexible usage of a FIXED sliced spectrum
  • 11. Channel Coding and ModulationSoftware-Defined Optics (SDO) ?
    Reach [km]
    1100
    125
    2500
    250
    5000
    500
    350
    Baseband
    processor:
    Equalizer,
    Modem,SD-FEC
    Baseband
    processor:
    Equalizer,
    Modem,SD-FEC
    DAC
    DAC
    64-QAM
    Programmable400Gb/slinecard
    300
    IQ-Mod x
    IQ-Mod x
    32-QAM
    DAC
    DAC
    250
    49-QAM
    16-QAM
    200
    LO laser
    LO laser
    25-QAM
    DAC
    DAC
    8-QAM
    Data Rate [Gb/s]
    150
    400Gb/sIF
    IF#130 Gbaud15% SD-FEC50-300 Gb/s
    9-QAM
    IQ-Mod y
    IQ-Mod y
    100
    DAC
    DAC
    4-QAM
    LO laser
    LO laser
    50
    OTL4.4x3
    DPSK
    ADC
    ADC
    0
    IQ-x
    Coherent
    RX
    IQ-y
    IQ-x
    Coherent
    RX
    IQ-y
    -5
    0
    5
    10
    15
    OSNR Margin [dB]
    ADC
    ADC
    OTNProc. &
    Mux.
    ADC
    ADC
    QPSK
    ADC
    ADC
    IF#230 Gbaud15% SD-FEC50-300 Gb/s
    16QAM
  • 12. Exploitation of excess system margin
    Increased capacity on shorter paths
    Better utilization on spectral resources, less interfaces
    0.25
    100G
    150G
    200G
    0.2
    0.15
    Percentage of Routes
    0.1
    0.05
    0
    Source : DICONET Project
    500
    600
    700
    800
    900
    1000
    1100
    1200
    1300
    1400
    Channel Coding and ModulationReach variation – SDO Example
    Link Length [km]
  • 13. Channel Codingand ModulationSummary
    Software Defined Optics
    Not fixed at 400G, 1T – fix/slice the spectrum !
    Adaptive Modulation & Coding (AMC)
    Universal Core Interface ?
    Component Needs
    High Speed integrated ADCs/DSPs/DACs
    Photonic Integration !
    … keep questioning the requirements
    Is maximum spectral efficiency and reach the dominant goal ?
    Costs ? churn rates ? fiber shortage ?
    Today
    RS-FEC
    Concat.-FEC
    Turbo S-FEC
    channelcoding
    andmodulation
    SDO
    OOK
    DB
    DPSK
    PM-QPSK
    2.5G
    10G
    40G
    100G
  • 14. Optical Layer – Line SystemCurrentandfuturekeyrequirements
    Today‘scorelinesystem design targets
    C-band, 96chs, 100Gb/sPM-QPSK Coherent, 2000+ km
    Supported by optical amplification
    Low nonlinear fiber signal degradation
    Raman booster & pre-amplifier
    Improved OSNR
    Hybrid Raman + EDFA pre-amplifier
    What‘snext ?
    Reduce losses
    Improve OSNR performance
    Increase transient suppression
    Today
    opticallayer
    gain/power control
    variable gaincontrol
    ?
    linesystem
    8 ch
    96 ch non-DCx
    160 ch C+L
    EDFA
    Raman
    hybrid
  • 15. Optical Layer – Line SystemFully integrated EDFA/Raman amplification
    Performance of different hybrid amplifiers
    Improved net noise figures by hybrid amplification
  • 16. Gain controlled
    Output power=+21dBm & NF=4.5dB
    Transient event =1usec & Add/Drop=16dB
    Gain excursion<1.5dB
    Self saturated
    Output power=+21dBm & NF=4.5dB
    Transient event =1usec & Add/Drop=19dB
    Gain excursion<0.4dB
    Optical Layer – Line SystemTransient suppression
    Increased transient suppression by fill lasers or self-saturation
  • 17. Optical Layer – Line SystemSummary
    Flexibility, enhanced system margin supported by
    Reduced losses
    ROADM design, low loss fiber ?
    Improved OSNR
    Hybrid amplification
    Increase transient suppression
    Self-saturated EDFAs
    Fast VOA integrated with EDFAs
    Component needs :
    High power pump sources
    Low relative intensity noise Raman pump sources
    Today
    optical layer
    gain/power control
    variable gain control
    Transient immune,
    hybrid amplification
    line system
    8 ch
    96 ch non-DCx
    160 ch C+L
    EDFA
    Raman
    hybrid
  • 18. Optical Layer - SwitchingROADM - Functional Definitions
    Colorless
    Directionless
    Contentionless
    Flexgrid
    Colorless
    Directionless
    Contentionless
    Colorless
    Directionless
    Directionless
    Fixed A/D
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    Line
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    A/D
    WDM
    WSS
    WDM
    WSS
    WSS
    TX
    TX
    TX
    TX
    TX
    • Local channels
    fixed in color
    and direction
    • Any direction
    • 19. Local channels
    fixed in color
    • Any direction
    • 20. Any color
    • 21. Individual color
    only per A/D path
    • Any direction
    • 22. Any color
    • 23. Color re-use on
    same A/D path
    • Any direction
    • 24. Any color
    • 25. Color re-use on
    same A/D path
    • Flexible channel
    Bandwidth
    1xN WSS, Flexgrid
    1xN WSS
    1xN WSS
    WSS
    WSS
    WDM
  • 26. Optical Layer – SwitchingCurrentandfuturekeyrequirements
    Functional Requirements
    8 degrees, scalable
    Full A/D capacity, scalable
    Colorless – Directionless - Contentionless
    Flexgrid – max. 80/96 channels @ 50 GHz
    No single-point-of-failure (SPOF)
    Ease-of-use
    Physical Requirements
    Minimum loss, SNR degradation, crosstalk
    Optimum filtershape (cascading)
    Switching time ?
    Today
    optical layer
    100 Ghz
    Flexgrid
    50 Ghz
    ?
    switching
    colorless
    contenionless
    directionless
    FOADM
    2D-ROADM
    MD-ROADM
  • 27. …

    Optical Layer - SwitchingROADMs … andthisishowitcouldlooklike
    IL = 9 dB
    Per degree
    No single-point-of-failure
    Scalable in directions and A/D capacity
    Minimum loss
    IL = 9 dB


    Here : Twin WSS architecture
    Could be splitter (check IL and Isolation)
    1x16 WSS
    1x16 WSS
    Line
    9 ports
    Up to 96 channels per port
    … but : all WSS need to
    beFlexgrid and are
    not available today
    IL = 6 dB
    A/D
    1x4 Comb
    1x4 Comb


    Scaling to reach full
    add/drop capacity
    w/o only 25% A/D capacity
    (need 768:24 = 32 feeds !)
    passive fiber
    arrangement
    IL = 1 dB

    IL = 9 dB
    8 x24 WSS
    8 x24 WSS
    100% add/drop
    capacity for all degrees
    (768 ch.)

  • 28. Optical Layer - SwitchingROADMs … it‘s all aboutcompromises !
    IL = 6 dB
    Restrict to max. 6 degrees …
    … or scale with couplers
    On line side or WSS output side
    Insertion Loss !!!
    Per degree
    IL = 6 dB




    1x9 WSS
    1x9 WSS
    Line
    4 ports
    Upto 96 channels per port
    Many different options (incl. reduction of A/D capacity)
    Cascading WSSs
    Combining WSS and multicast switches (PLC)
    Monolithic switch plus splitter and filters

    Insertion Loss : in any case multiple amplifiers included !
    A/D
  • 29. Optical Layer – SwitchingExample :MD – CDCF ROADM
    1x9 Line module
    A/D 1st stage
    A/D 8-channel IF
    EDFA-RAMAN
    EDFA-RAMAN
    SHUFFLE
  • 30. Optical Layer – SwitchingSummary
    CDCF ROADMs are here today !
    Ideal components not available today
    Realization with supporting technologies possible
    Avoid internal amplification as much as possible
    Ensure steep passbands, proper isolation
    Component needs :
    Line side WSS : 1xN Flexgrid with N as large as possible
    A/D WSS : NxM with M as large as possible
    Optical Power Monitoring
    Must be Flexgrid too
    Needed on line and add/drop sites
    Today
    opticallayer
    100 Ghz
    Flexgrid
    50 Ghz
    NG-CDCF
    switching
    colorless
    contenionless
    directionless
    FOADM
    2D-ROADM
    MD-ROADM
  • 31. Protocols and Multi-Layer IntegrationCurrent and future key requirements
    G.709 / OTN
    Scalable wrapping, multiplexing and switching technology
    Evolved to be more Ethernet friendly
    ODUflex support channelization of TDM & packet interfaces
    Hitless resizing provides for in-service channel sizing
    Need to support future bitrates and transparent timing
    Ethernet, MPLS-TP, MPLS
    All evolving and having their play
    Multi-layer integration is the key challenge
    Today
    T-MPLS
    MPLS-TP
    ?
    transport
    packet
    EFM
    CFM
    Y.1731
    1G
    10G
    40G/100G
    Protocols
    ?
    SONET
    SDH
    TDM
    G.709v3
    G.709v1
    G.709v2
  • 32. Includesrichprotection, OAM options
    Plus richandevolvingprotection, OAM, … standards (802.1/2/3,Y.1731,…)
    Protocolsand Multi-Layer IntegrationOTN+ETH PHY evolution
  • 33. Protocols and Multi-Layer IntegrationMPLS-TP and Ethernet
    Both, Ethernet and MPLS extended with Transport Profiles (TP)
    OAM, protection, traffic engineering, static and dynamic options, …
    Comparison is difficult
    MPLS-TP might have benefits in MPLS interworking (but …)
    Ethernet is the data link layer, always !
    The clever bit is to ensure seamless interworking
    MPLS, VPLS
    Service VLAN
    MPLS PW
    Tunnel VLAN
    Link VLAN
    MPLS Link
    Ethernet, GFP
    ODU switching
    OTN Framing, FEC, OAM
    Optical switching and transport
    Multiple options to achieve the same !
  • 34. Protocolsand multi-layerintegrationMulti-layer network study - results
    US, 46 Nodes, 18 Tb/s, 1:1 packet:TDM-> 2:1
    10GbE (grey)

    OTU2 (grey)
    typicalrange
    23%savings

    Packet
    Switch(MPLS)
    OTU2 (grey)

    10GbE (grey)

    10GbE (grey)

    OTU2 (grey)

    Hybrid Packet/
    Circuit Switch
    (MPLS/ODU)

    OTU4
    (grey)
    Packet
    Switch(MPLS)
    Circuit
    Switch
    (ODU)
    Circuit
    Switch
    (ODU)
    OTU4
    (colored)


    96 l
    DWDM
    96 l
    DWDM
    Contentionless
    MD-ROADM
    OTU4
    (colored)
    OTU4
    (colored)




    96 l
    DWDM
    96 l
    DWDM
    96 l
    DWDM
    96 l
    DWDM
    Contentionless
    MD-ROADM
    Contentionless
    MD-ROADM
    Up to 23% savings with an integrated switch
    Autenrieth, et.al., “Benefits of Integrated Packet/Circuit/Wavelength Switches
    in Next-Generation Optical Core Networks”, NFOEC 2011, NMC4
  • 35. Protocols and Multi-Layer IntegrationSummary
    G.709 / OTN
    Extend to higher (flexible !) datarates
    Ethernet, MPLS-TP, MPLS
    Core Networks : MPLS (over OTN)
    Multi-layer integration
    Provides significant saving potentials
    Interaction of the layers needs attention !
    Today
    T-MPLS
    MPLS-TP
    MPLS/MPLS-TP
    transport
    packet
    EFM
    CFM
    Y.1731
    IEEE 802.1/2/3
    1G
    10G
    40G/100G
    400G/1T
    Protocols
    Integrate
    SONET
    SDH
    400G/1T ?
    TDM
    G.709v3
    G.709v1
    G.709v2
  • 36. Management andControlCurrentandfuturekeyrequirements
    Private, TDM and lambda services
    Packet services
    MPLS / Ethernet
    ODU switching
    OTN Framing, FEC, OAM
    Optical switching and transport
    Today
    OSS Integration
    ?
    management
    andcontrol
    Corba
    TL-1
    XML/MTOSI
    SNMP
    Q
    ASON
    GMPLS
  • 37. Management andControlKey enabler : multi-x control plane
    Multi-Degree
    Auto-discovery of topology (OSPF-TE)
    Constraint-aware path computation
    Automated signaling (RSVP-TE)
    Mesh networking, agile endpoint selection, tunable origination and regeneration
    Multi-Region
    Transport networks growing in size and complexity
    Formerly islands, regional networks are linking up
    Multi-Layer
    Flexible, agile WDM transport layer, integrated Ethernet/MPLS layer, integrated OTN TDM layer
    Multi-Service
    Automated Restoration
    Fault detection/reporting, dynamic channel re-route
    Embedded Intelligence in Every Element
    Multi-Vendor
    Protocol standardization, proven Interoperability
    GMPLS core, OIF & ASON compatibility
  • 38. Management and ControlOne Tool to handle the complexity : PCE Architecture
    Separate where computation is needed from where it’s performed
    Path Computation Client (PCC)
    Requesting path computation services (can be NE, NMS, Tool, PCE)
    Path Computation Element (PCE)
    Performs path computations on behalf of PCCs or other PCEs
    Standardized toolbox approach
    Distributed, centralized, hybrid approaches
    Sees nodes <E,F,G,H>
    Sees nodes <A,B,C,D,E>
    “compute A to H”
    “compute E to H”
    Sees self
    PCE
    PCE
    PCC
    “E->F->G->H”
    “A->B->C->D -> E->F->G->H”
    Addressing the complexity in a standardized way
  • 39. Management andControlSummary
    Interoperable network automation by standardized architecture
    IETF: Routing Area, multiple working groups e.g. PCE
    OIF: User-to-Network / Network-to-Network IAs (UNI/E-NNI)
    ITU-T: Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON)
    TMF : Management frameworks and interfaces (e.g. MTOSI)
    Future needs are endless !
    Multi-layer definitions/interactions
    resource sharing, provisioning, protection, restoration, OAM interaction, …
    OTN extensions
    Optical constraints (wavelength, path, OSNR,…)
    … many more !
    Today
    OSS Integration
    Automated
    top down
    multi-layercontrol
    management
    andcontrol
    Corba
    TL-1
    XML/MTOSI
    SNMP
    Q
    ASON
    GMPLS
  • 40. SummaryThe programmable & automated optical network
    Today
    OSS Integration
    Automated
    top down
    multi-layer control
    management
    and control
    Corba
    TL-1
    XML/MTOSI
    SNMP
    Q
    ASON
    GMPLS
    T-MPLS
    MPLS-TP
    MPLS/MPLS-TP
    transport
    packet
    EFM
    CFM
    Y.1731
    IEEE 802.1/2/3
    1G
    10G
    40G/100G
    400G/1T
    Protocols
    It won’t get boring !
    SONET
    SDH
    400G/1T ?
    TDM
    G.709v3
    G.709v1
    G.709v2
    100 Ghz
    Flexgrid
    50 Ghz
    NG-CDCF
    switching
    colorless
    contenionless
    directionless
    FOADM
    2D-ROADM
    MD-ROADM
    optical layer
    gain/power control
    variable gain control
    Transient imune,
    hybrid amplification
    line system
    8 ch
    96 ch non-DCx
    160 ch C+L
    EDFA
    Raman
    hybrid
    Integrate
    RS-FEC
    Concat.-FEC
    Turbo S-FEC
    channel coding
    and modulation
    SDO
    OOK
    DB
    DPSK
    PM-QPSK
    2.5G
    10G
    40G
    100G
  • 41. Thank you !
    Specialthanksto :
    Finisar, Fujitsu Microelectronic, JDSU, Oclaro, Juniper & ADVA
    cglingener@advaoptical.com
    IMPORTANT NOTICE
    The content of this presentation is strictly confidential. ADVA Optical Networking is the exclusive owner or licensee of the content, material, and information in this presentation. Any reproduction, publication or reprint, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited.
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