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This presentation is simply based on final year embedded systems based project entitled "ACCIDENT PREVENTION AND SECURITY SYSTEM FOR AUTOMOBILES". This project represents an automobile which has a security system of its own to prevent and detect accidents using GPS Module, GSM module and Alcohol sensor as well.

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  • The embedded technology is used to prevent accidents due to drunk driving and over speeding.If accidents occur in remote areas, the feature of auto-providing the accident area to the emergency centres for help and support is also provided. On the other hand, the security for the vehicle is also enhanced. This is made possible because the theft vehicle area can be known to the user .
  • This module can be easily interfaced with it AT commands over TTL serial interface, which makes it easy to connect it to microcontrollers, computers, and other devices. This modules comes with a connector for connecting it to PCBs and boards.
  • The circuit is designed to control the buzzer. The buzzer ON and OFF is controlled by the pair of switching transistors (BC 547). The buzzer is connected in the Q2 transistor collector terminal.When high pulse signal is given to base of the Q1 transistors, the transistor is conducting and close the collector and emitter terminal so zero signals is given to base of the Q2 transistor. Hence Q2 transistor and buzzer is turned OFF state.When low pulse is given to base of transistor Q1 transistor, the transistor is turned OFF. Now 5v is given to base of Q2 transistor so the transistor is conducting and buzzer is energized and produces the sound signal.
  • For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D1 and D4 conduct, whereas diodes D2 and D3 remain in the OFF state. The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL.For the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D2 and D3 conduct whereas, D1 and D4 remain OFF. The conducting diodes D2 and D3 will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the current flows through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. Thus a bi-directional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave.

    2. 2. INTRODUCTION The population of our country has been increasing rapidly which indirectly has increased the vehicle density and lead to many road accidents. The main causes of accidents include drunk driving, use of mobile phones, collision of vehicle with obstacles, over speeding etc. A lot of accidents are happening now-a-days because of increased vehicle density, violating rules and carelessness. The aim of this project is to minimize the road accidents occurring due to drunk driving which cause the loss of invaluable human life and other valuable goods, to avoid the theft action by making the car password enabled, detecting accidents and thus tracking the accidental vehicle to serve emergency medical services to the victim present inside the vehicle. 2
    4. 4. WORKING 4
    6. 6. COMPONENTS USED Microcontroller ATmega 328 Accelerometer LCD display 16*2 GPS Module GSM modem Alcohol sensor MQ3 Diode bridge IC7805 Voltage Regulator Buzzer L293D Motor Driver IC DC Motors Accessories 6
    7. 7. Alcohol sensor MQ-3 A semiconductor sensor for Alcohol detection. Has very good sensitivity and faster response to alcohol. Suitable for detecting alcohol concentration in breath, like a common breathalyzer (portable alcohol detection). Provides an analog resistive output based on alcohol concentration. The drive circuit has one resistor. The resistance of the sensor reduces when alcohol concentration increases. The sensor gives output as per the condition of the breath through the logic circuit which is sent to the microprocessor. The MQ-3 sensor has good resistance to disturb of gasoline, smoke and vapor. SPECIFICATIONS Power supply needs: 5V  Interface type: Analog  Pin Definition: 1-Output , 2-GND and 3-VCC 7
    8. 8. GPS MODULE An ultra high sensitive and smart antenna GPS module. Embedded with GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna Enables high performance navigation in most stringent applications and solid fix even in harsh GPS visibility environments. The two main data that we get from the GPS module are current date and time based on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)  our current position coordinate in terms of latitude and longitude. 8
    9. 9. GSM SIM300 The SIM300 is a all in one GSM/GPRS engine that works on frequencies EGSM 900 MHz, DCS 1800 MHz and PCS1900 MHz.. The physical interface to the mobile application is made through a 60 pins board-to-board connector, which provides all hardware interfaces between the module and customers’ boards except the RF antenna interface. The keypad and SPI LCD interface will give you the flexibility to develop customized applications. 9
    10. 10. Two serial ports can help you easily develop your applications. Two audio channels include two microphones inputs and two speaker outputs. This can be easily configured by AT command. SIM300 provide RF antenna interface with two alternatives: antenna connector and antenna pad. The antenna connector is MURATA MM9329-2700. And customer’s antenna can be soldered to the antenna pad 10
    11. 11. ACCELEROMETER An accelerometer is a device that measures nongravitational accelerations. The former provides information on taps and other handset motions allowing the development of 'gesture' user interfaces while the latter provides information on the accelerometer orientation. Accelerometers are used in tablet computers and digital cameras so that images on screens are always displayed upright. Also used in aero planes. Using this we can measure tilt. 11
    12. 12. 5V Buzzer This buzzer is an electromagnetic type audio signaling device. Consists of a number of switches or sensors connected to a control unit It has a coil inside which oscillates a metal plate against another, which when given voltage difference produces sound of a predefined frequency as a warning in the form of continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping sound. Compact, pin terminal type electromagnetic buzzer with 2048 Hz output. 12 5V
    13. 13. MICROCONTROLLER: ATMEGA 328 FEATURES 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller 32KB ISP flash memory 1024B EEPROM 2KB SRAM 23 general purpose I/O lines 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible timer/counters with compare modes internal and external interrupts serial programmable USART SPI serial port a 6-channel 10-bit A/D converter programmable watchdog timer with internal oscillator five software selectable power saving modes The device operates between 1.8-5.5 volts 13
    14. 14. IC 7805 Voltage regulator integrated circuit. member of 78xx series. maintains the output voltage at a constant value of +5V regulated power supply. First pin is for input, second for ground and third for output. 14
    15. 15. BRIDGE RECTIFIER The Bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. The circuit has four diodes connected to form a bridge. For the positive half cycle D1 and D4 conduct D2 and D3 remain in the OFF state. For the negative half D2 and D3 conduct D1 and D4 remain OFF. Thus a bi-directional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave. 15
    16. 16. ACCESSORIES The adapters are the device that has inbuilt circuitry for converting the 230V AC in to desired DC like +5V adapter, +12V adapter, +9V adapter and many more. Basically IC is sensitive to short circuit or voltage so in place of that we first install the bases of the IC with same number of pins and before placing the IC’s we check all voltage points of the IC then mount the IC once proper configuration is assured. Power Jack is basically a connector to connect the adapter output to the board directly. 16
    17. 17. In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another Connectors are wire connection and interface to connect two different points Berge strip is also type of connector. It is of two types male or female. This is also used for making electrical connections to mount some components. A DC connector (or DC plug, for one common type of connector) is an electrical connector for supplying direct current (DC) power. 17
    18. 18. LCD DISPLAY LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module. A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data. 18
    19. 19. L293D Motor drivers act as current amplifiers and designed to control 2 DC motors. L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). 19
    20. 20. 20
    21. 21. DC MOTOR A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. DC motors are used to run machinery, often eliminating the need for a local steam engine or internal combustion engine. DC motors can operate directly from rechargeable batteries, providing the motive power for the first electric vehicles. 21
    22. 22. ADVANTAGES This method of analyzing or detecting the presence of alcohol in breath is relatively a quick analysis as compared to other techniques. The sensors used in this project are smaller in size, not so bulky, hence can be carried. The project based on this technology is self sufficient within itself and thus can be used as a safety system for any vehicle and the human being driving it by preventing the accidents to occur. The system isn’t police dependent. In case if we are drunk, our family members will drive us safely in that case. Also unauthorized access to the car and rash driving is not possible. 22
    23. 23. DISADVANTAGES May read all hydrocarbons (organic vapors) and may habitually produce false positive alcohol readings caused by smoker’s and car exhaust CO as well as many other environmental vapours and gases. This senor is partial pressure sensitive and therefore may change sensitivity with change in altitude and elevation. This sensor may be sensitive to changes in ambient temperature, humidity and breath-flow patterns and may give false readings if not adjusted or recalibrated to account for ambient or surrounding air temperatures. The temperature of the subject is also very important. On the other hand, products such as mouthwash or breath spray can "fool" breath machines by significantly raising test result. for example, LISTERINE MOUTHWASH contains 27% alcohol. The system cannot prevent accidents due to others fault however if any mishap happens the system sends a message to the family members. 23
    24. 24. CONCLUSION This project introduces the vehicle alcohol detection, discusses new alcohol detection and control system design and implementation. In view of the designer's ability and level and electronic product development continued to develop in this system, there are many disadvantages, only in the laboratory test stage, many standards are not mature, but also for the extension and optimization of the system and the complex problem, need further study. 24
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