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Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics
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Perth Museums - Part 1 copyright basics

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  • In case anyone asks – definition of ‘archive’ under Copyright Act extends to “bodies, whether incorporated or unincorporated, maintaining a collection of documents or other material of historical significance or public interest for the purpose of conserving and preserving that material (and not to derive a profit)”.
  • Originality does not require that the idea or concept underpinning the form of expression is original or inventive, or need an assessment of the artistic merit or quality of the work. Merely that expression ‘originate’ with the author and not be derived or copied from someone else. Copyright does not protect facts! Shopping list capable of copyright protection? Well, information (i.e. List of ingredients and quantities used in recipe) is not protected. Doesn’t need to be novel, merely skill or labour on the part of the copyright owner. Here, copyright owner would have exclusive right to photocopy, reproduce, etc the list – not copyright protection in information in the list.
  • Beyonce choreography infringement! Billboard music awards performance
  • John Cage 4’33 composition Oral histories? Recordings of traffic, bird noises?
  • Writer of instruction manual, taker of photograph. CA also allows for works of joint authorship. Consider instances in which author will not be first owner of copyright – signed agreement, employee creating work as part of usual duties, commissioned photograph, portrait, engraving; under the direction or control of Cth Newspapers/magazines – generally copyright is divided between the employees and the employers (unless agreement stating otherwise). Before 1 May 1969 copyright is owned solely by the employer. Between 1 May 1969 – 30 July 1998, newspaper owns rights for certain purposes including publication but journalist generally owns rights for all other purposes including copying and book publication. Post 30 July 1998, author owns copyright in book publication and photocopying, newspaper proprietor owns copyright for all other purposes including publishing in magazines, broadcast and electronic publication. Freelance journalists? Generally own their own copyright. Commissioned photographs – before 30 July 1998, client owns copyright . After 30 July 1998, photographer owns copyright unless it was for a private/domestic purpose. Sound recordings – post 1 January 2005, both performer and person who owns recording medium. Performers have limited rights pre 1 January 2005, considered copyright held by record company Oral histories? Recordings of traffic, bird noises? Exercise – identifying the copyright owner; what about copies of copyright works?
  • Yes – artistic work While it could be the maker of the poster, likely done in course of employment so film studio Google search date of release of movie – 1959 release, pre implementation of AUSFTA so 50 years protection, expired in 2009. Let’s go through the first film example together
  • As a result of the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, on 1 January 2005 the period of protection for copyright material was extended to 70 years. . However, no revival of copyright that expired pre 1 January 2005 (cf. Golan in the US). Prior to AUSFTA, 50 years from end of year in which creator died. I.e. If an author died before 1956, works will be out of copyright. Published editions – 25 years from end of year of first publication ACC has good tables for duration of copyright – cannot show them to you though without infringing copyright. Note – sound recordings pre 1969
  • Mark Twain, died in 1910, unpublished letters offered for sale on microfilm in 2001, extending copyright duration to 2048 – almost 140 years after his death! Copyright duration in film works with script, music, etc Unpublished works with unknown authors and ‘publication’ occurring with deposit - CAL and the State of NSW, the Full Federal Court found that artistic works were published after being deposited in the archives of the Registrar-General of Land Titles to be made available to the public. The Court took a broad construction of what constitutes an act of publication by interpreting it to include the public being able to access the works by visiting the Registrar-General, their local council, and other methods.
  • Depends whether the copy has appropriated the expression of the original work – and there must be degree of similarity between the two. Qualitative question Ask – is there infringement in an article extract? Newspaper headline? Examples of names, titles or slogans which courts have held were not protected by copyright include: • Exxon, a word invented as the name of a corporation; • Opportunity Knocks, the title of a television program; • The Man who Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo, the title of a song; and • “ The resort that offers precious little”, an advertising slogan.
  • Explain difference between ‘TPM’ and ‘ACTPM’ – access control TMP. It will always be an infringement to circumvent an ACTM, unless an exception applies – for collecting societies,
  • Explain difference between ‘TPM’ and ‘ACTPM’ – access control TMP. It will always be an infringement to circumvent an ACTM, unless an exception applies – for collecting societies,
  • Transcript

    • 1. COPYRIGHT IN THE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTEllen BroadExecutive OfficerCopyright Law and Policy Adviser t: 02 6262 1273Australian Libraries Copyright Committee w: digital.org.auAustralian Digital Alliance e: ebroad@nla.gov.au This slide show is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence
    • 2. PART 1: UNDERSTANDING COPYRIGHTConfusing by Guudmorning ! http://www.flickr.com/photos/kristiand/3223044657/
    • 3. Copyright law in Australia gives copyright holders exclusive rights to do certain things with their material. But it is recognised that...Copyright law must strike a balance between providing an incentive to createworks and allowing users (and other creators) reasonable access to copyright material.
    • 4. Requirements for copyright protection:Can only be form of expression of informationExpression must be in material formThe work must have an authorThe work must be original originality of expression not underlying idea Drugged shopping list, by way opening http:// www.flickr.com/photos/book_slut/13334413 68/
    • 5. What is protected?•Literary works•Musical works, including accompanyinglyrics•Dramatic works, including accompanyingmusic•Artistic works•Animations, software•Choreographic works•Films•Sound recordings•Published editions•Broadcastings
    • 6. Types of literary and artistic works incollecting institutions: Books Manuscripts Poetry Periodicals and Journals Dissertations and theses Reports Speeches Photographs Pamphlets/brochures Textbooks Reference works Catalogues Paintings, cartoons, sketches Directories Games Websites and online works E-mail messages
    • 7. Musical worksOriginal compositions and newarrangements of original compositionsCopyright holder is the author of the workBUT copyright in a musical work isdistinguished from copyright in the soundrecording of that work.The creator of the original musical workhas the right to authorise or make thefirst recording of that work.Is silence capable of being copyright? Ave Maria – Free Sheet Music for Piano by Cantorion.org http://www.flickr.com/photos/cantorion/5104621221/
    • 8. Subject matter other than works:Films Sound recordingsCommercialsDocumentaries Recordings in any formatRaw footageTV programs Copyright holder is the maker of theHome movies sound recording – i.e. the record company and performer – distinguish fromOne motion picture may have layers of copyright in musical workcopyright, in the:Score If a live performance, each performer isMusic also considered a maker of the soundLyrics recording.ScriptScreenplayFilm recording
    • 9. What rights are protected?•Reproduction - copying of a work in anyformat•Publication – right to make the workpublic for the first time•Public performance and communication –including electronic communications•Adaptation – i.e. translations
    • 10. Moral rightsRelatively new – introduced in 2000Not a ‘copyright right’Inalienable rights which cannot be assignedInclude:AttributionPrevention of false attributionEnsuring integrity of authorship – right toobject to mutilation, distortion, any actprejudicial to author’s honour or reputation
    • 11. Who is the owner of copyright?Generally the “author” of the work– the person who translates theidea into a material form.In sound recordings, the “maker”of the work – can be performersand record producersFilms – generally producer of thefilm; but only in moving image and Newspaper clippings table by carmichaellilibrarysound – layers of copyright http://www.flickr.com/photos/carmichaellibrary/3820957471/Published editions – copyrightowned by the publisher ...don’t forget moral rights!
    • 12. EXERCISE – IDENTIFYING COPYRIGHT WORKSAND OWNERS OF COPYRIGHT Example 1 – a movie poster donated to the collecting society 1. Is this a ‘work’ capable of copyright protection? 2. Who is the ‘author’ likely to be? 3. Do I need permission to use this work? Movie Poster, by DidbyGraham http://www.flickr.com/photos/didbygraham/3592696631/
    • 13. Duration of copyrightIf a work is published during the life of the author – generally 70years after end of year of author’s death (literary, dramatic,musical, artistic works)Film and sound recordings – generally, 70 years from end ofyear of first publication – remember there may be a number ofunderlying works in one film or CD!Television and sound broadcast – 50 years from end of year inwhich broadcast madePhotographs – generally, 70 years after the end of the year ofauthor’s deathCrown copyright?...unpublished works?
    • 14. Unpublished worksIf material was never published,copyright would not expire‘publish’ – make available to public as awholeWorks unpublished at the date of theauthor’s death, or which do not have aknown author from which to calculatethe date of death (orphan works) –copyright term begins from date of firstpublication after death
    • 15. Infringement of copyrightGenerally, copyright is infringed if the work, or a “substantialpart” of the work, is used without permission in one of theways exclusively reserved by the copyright owner.Copyright can also be infringed where there is:AuthorisationImportationCommercial dealings with pirate materialAllowing the use of a venue for infringingperformance/screening Celebrity Shorts 1 Screening 12 by Canadian Film Centre http://www.flickr.com/photos/cfccreates/5804695110/
    • 16. Circumvention of Technological Protection Measures (TPMs)Digital ‘locks’ preventing people from using works in certain ways and/or accessingcopyright works.Exceptions allowing the circumvention of TPMs:Where the copyright owner permits itRegion coding (DVDs, games)Interoperability with computer programsMaking of preservation copiesProviding works to users and other libraries under section 49 and 50
    • 17. Video: Copyright – Forever Less One Day by CGPGreyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=tk862B!

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