Human Ecology in Portuguese Literature: Images and concepts in Ferreira de Castro’s novels Ana Cristina Carvalho FCSH – UNL, Lisbon, Portugal 110 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Presentation aims an overview of the presence of Nature and Environment in the literary work of Portuguese writer Ferreira de Castro*, by interpreting on how six “Pórticos”* to his novels picture Portuguese and Brazilian landscapes (natural and humanized), and in what extent they reflect Ecology / Human Ecology concepts. * Artist who showed a particular “Way of felling the world” * Pórticos – Writer’s personal introductory texts 210 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
• Literature – expression of human thinking independent of science, contains in its different styles - novels and tales, dramatic texts, chronicals … - a potencial of difusion of ecological values • Literary language and culture plays a role in building human perception of Natural World Makes sense to cross SCIENCE Knowledge ART (Literature) knowledge Cross-disciplinary Ecocriticism 310 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Ecocriticism: Green studies, Enviromental literary criticism, Literary ecology … • Analysis and criticism of literary text concerning its content in Nature and ecological subjects • “Literary ecology” created in 1972 by Joseph W. Meeker: “the study of biological themes and relationships which appear in literary works” • “Ecocriticism” coined 1978 by American William Rueckert, although in 1923, Norman Foerster’s Nature in American Literature was pioneer book of this new academic field Today, we try to identify concepts of human and non-human nature in Ferreira de Castro 410 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Human Ecology: • Systemic and interdisciplinary approach to understand bio-socio-cultural dimension of human-being • Born in the 20’s of xxth century * - Chicago School - responding to the complexity of problems of Human population in American megacities • A scientific field relating ECOSPHERE to SOCIALSPHERE • Intersection NATURE Sciences HUMAN/SOCIAL Sciences SHE (Society for Human Ecology): Relation Arts (specialy Literature) - Ecology is one of its several departments 510 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Portugal… A strongly humanized territory - its Natural Patrimony strictly connected to human activity This connection was captured and pictured by high sensitivity of writer Ferreira de Castro His novels: • Example of how Literature shows no immunity to Nature • Reveal an influence of • local land rhythm • place spirit • environmental practices … linked to • human work • human well-being • human pain 610 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Ferreira de Castro (1898 - 1974) Stands out among Portuguese literary scene with work of great aesthetical and ethical density and wide outreach Between 1928 - 1974 writes ten novels picturing several areas of Portugal and Brasil, and wide Journey Literature His roots were rural and poor Portugal on early XXth century Leaves alone to Brazil at 12, and spends adolescence in Seringal Paraíso Worldwide translated during XXth century. Masterpiece Jungle was one of ten books most read in the world, acording to UNESCO, 1973 710 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Ferreira de Castro In Portuguese newspaper O Século, 1964, confesses an “irresistable fascination” for “great and green landscapes” and “it was in company of Nature that I wrote most of my pages” Human condition as a main literary character His fiction is fed by • solid humanistic ideals, • social conscience *, and • particular sensivity to vital dependence that links NATURE to PEOPLE EARTH to MAN 810 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Supreme Jungle A Selva 1930 Instinct O Instinto Supremo 1968 Emigrantes Brasil 1928 Portuga Cold Land Terra Fria 1934 Barroso Lands l Wool and Snow A Lã e a Neve 1947 Serra da Estrela Natural Park Fragments Os Fragmentos 1974 Vale do Guadiana Natural Park 910 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Brasil 3 stories of men seeking for a better life abroad… Emigrants • Scenario: Brasilian coffee farm of Piracicaba (S. Paulo state) Geographical approach: • Scale: Man - Homeland – Country – Europe – Oceans - World… • Movement: from a Continent to another, from North Hemisphere to South Hemisphere Jungle • Scenario: Human-being confronting Nature in Brasilian Amazonia – “Green magesty”: “Seringal” - rubber tree forest – state of Acre Man exploring a natural resource : • Poor South countries - workers submitting to forest vs. • Rich North countries - societies using those resouces Supreme Instinct • Scenario: same Amazonia, with its “Madeira” river • Defends Indian Parintintins – “popular heroes fighting without guns or blood” – attacked by white people Conservation instinct leads men to fight without keeling 1010 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Portugal Cold Land Story of mountain poor people seeking for better life in Spain • Scenario: Northern Portugal, within National Park of Peneda-Gerês • Natural Environment: Winter: snow, winds and woolves; Spring: cultivated fields and flowery plants • People living “between the mountain and the sky” – a landscape where “civilization” has not yet arrived and produces sullen peasants Ecology / Human Ecology concepts: • Habitat (Rural) • Land use: Agriculture • Adaptation and Resilience • Resistence and Survival 1110 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Portugal Wool and Snow Story of a people´s way from shepards and weavers to factory workers, from handmade to mechanical mass production • Scenario: Central Portugal - Serra da Estrela National Park • Natural Environment: peaks and valleys; granite and streams; creeping vegetation; snow and extreme cold… • Human Ec.: People and their sheep flocks, in extremely poor houses Ecology / Human Ecology concepts: • Mountain ecosystem • Climate conditions • Land use: Grazing, rye crops • Competition • Resistence and Survival 1210 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Portugal Fragments Story of a copper mine, and 2000 miners demanding better and healthier labour conditions • Scenario: Southern Portugal, Vale do Guadiana National Park • Natural Environment: Subsoil resource; Sunny and warm climate • Human Environment: village of houses with no windows, no light Ecology / Human Ecology concepts: • Over exploitation: Man and Earth • Pollution - Air - Visual - Health • Resistence and Survival 1310 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
So… In these 6 literary “Pórticos”: Classic Ecology : HUMAN Ecology : • Species – Population • Homo sapiens as special living • Comunity species • Ecosystem • Urban habitat: little villages; (jungle, forest, pastures…) rural comunities • Earth / Environment providing: • Exploitation and dependence • Natural Recources : Wood, wool.. • Human resources: inventivity, … • Pressures • Diversity of human groups and • Biodiversity settlements • Cooperation / Competition • Human cooperation / Inter and Intra-species Competition • Adaptation and Resilience* • Resistence** and Survival * Resilience – Capacity to suffer outside pressure and get back to inicial state ** Resistence – capacity to suffer outside pressure and survive 1410 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho .
Some REFERENCES ALVES, Ricardo A. .s/d. Ferreira de Castro. Catálogo do Museu. Sintra, ed. Câmara Municipal de Sintra, 95 p. BUELL, Lawrence. 2005. The Future of Environmental Criticism: Environmental Crisis and Literary Imagination. Malden, USA, Oxford, UK, Victoria, Australia, Blackwell publishing, 188 pp. COUPE, Laurence. 2000. The Green studies Reader: From Romanticism to Ecocriticism. New York, Routledge, 315 p. FRANCO, António C.. 1988. “O Significado da Selva na obra de Ferreira de Castro”, in Colóquio-Letras, Nº 104-195, Julho – Outubro, pp. 62-69. GARRARD, Greg. 2004. Ecocriticism. The New critical idiom. London and New York: Routledge, Australia, Monash University, 197 p. GLOTFELTY, Cheryl e FROMM, Harold (eds).. 1996. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. The University of Georgia Press, Athens and London, 409 p. Thank you for your attention10 th International Congress of SIEF - Lisboa, Abril 2011 Ana Cristina Carvalho . 15