Global logistics strategies
 

Global logistics strategies

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Global logistics strategies Global logistics strategies Document Transcript

  • %< $5& $9,625< *5283 0$5&+  *OREDO /RJLVWLFV 6WUDWHJLHV:KDW ,V *OREDO /RJLVWLFV" *OREDO *RRGV RFXPHQWV ,QIR 0RQH  &UHDWLQJ 9DOXH $FURVV (QWHUSULVH 5HFHQW $5& 5HVHDUFK )LQGLQJV  *OREDO /RJLVWLFV 6ROXWLRQV  6WUDWHJLHV IRU 6XFFHVV (%XVLQHVV 0DQXIDFWXULQJ 6WUDWHJLHV IRU ,QGXVWU ([HFXWLYHV
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  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! Ã:KDW ,V *OREDO /RJLVWLFV"Globalization has been a trend for some time, but it only gained momentumover the past two decades thanks to advancing technology, improving politi-cal/economic environments, and the elimination of trade barriers.These forces led to the creation of the "virtual corporation," where a companydelegates a majority of its business functions, such as manufacturing and dis-tribution, to partners are usually located in different parts of the world. Forexample, semiconductor wafer fabrication is usually donein the US, assembly is in Asia or Mexico, and final test 7KH UDSLG ULVH LQ JOREDO WUDGH LV FUHDWLQJ D KHLJKWHQ QHHG IRU VROXWLRQVand distribution is done somewhere else. The virtual cor- WKDW SURYLGH ERWK DJLOLW DQG YLVLELOLWporation essentially coordinates the activities of its IRU LQWHUQDWLRQDO ORJLVWLFV WUDQVDFWLRQVpartners to meet customer commitments, minimize costs,and maximize profits.Mergers and acquisitions are increasing as companies seek to gain marketshare, expand their product footprint, and enter new markets. Often, the ac-quired company is located in a different geographic region. The new entity,therefore, becomes a global company instantaneously. The same is true forcompanies that establish relationships with distribution partners overseas.The World Trade Organization says the value of traded merchandise in-creased from $124 billion in 1948 to $11.2 trillion in 1999 (or $13.8 trillion ifcommercial services are included). The US was the leading exporter and im-porter of merchandise with over 12 percent of total exports and 18 percent oftotal imports. From 1998 to 2000, the total value of US imports and exportsincreased from $2.03 trillion to $2.5 trillion (source: US Census Bureau).The emergence of e-commerce, particularly business-to-business (B2B) activi-ties, has spotlighted globalization. The Internet and related technologieshave enabled the creation of new business models such as marketplaces, ex-changes, and application service providers (ASPs). These technologies arefacilitating collaboration between business partners, particularly small- andmid-sized enterprises (SMEs) who have historically been left on the sidelinesdue to the prohibitive cost of such technologies as EDI.In March 2001, the US Census Bureau said manufacturing was the leadingindustry sector for e-commerce in 1999, accounting for 12 percent ($485 bil-lion out of over $4.0 trillion in total shipments. Unfortunately, the bureau 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à did not distinguish between domestic and international shipments. But it is very clear that in order for B2B e-commerce to reach the forecast of trillions of dollars by 2005, a majority of the transactions will have to be international. ([SRUW ,PSRUW &RXQWU 5DQNLQJ 6KDUH 5DQNLQJ 6KDUH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV     *HUPDQ     -DSDQ     )UDQFH     8QLWHG .LQJGRP     &DQDGD     ,WDO   1HWKHUODQGV     &KLQD     %HOJLXP     /HDGLQJ ([SRUWHUV DQG ,PSRUWHUV  :72
  • Success on a global scale requires strong collaboration between business partners, real-time visibility of information, tightly integrated business appli- cations, and import/export tools and expertise. Moreover, companies now buy and sell products worldwide via marketplaces, exchanges, portals, and other channels that didn’t exist a few years ago. These new channels, along with the need to collaborate with more partners, makes it harder to deliver the right product, on time, in the right quantities, and billed correctly. *OREDO *RRGV RFXPHQWV ,QIR 0RQH Global Logistics is the transfer of information, documents, goods, and money between various parties (such as suppliers, customers, freight forwarders, carriers, and customs) to fulfill an order from one country to another. *RRGV While fulfilling domestic orders can be challenging, as evidenced by the poor performance of e-commerce providers during the holiday season, it is ele- mentary compared to the challenges associated with global fulfillment.ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! ÃFirst, Global fulfillment involves multiple modes of transportation, each withunique contracting process, rating systems, schedules, semantics, packingrequirements, and documents. It’s difficult to manage these contracts, de-termine the appropriate carrier for each segment, coordinate the transfer ofgoods between carriers and modes, generate the necessary paperwork foreach carrier/mode, and manage the financial settlement process.  3XUFKDVH &RQWUDFW  )LQDQFLQJ  7HQGHU %RRN  3UHSDUH 7UDGH 6KLSSLQJ RFXPHQWV  &XVWRPV  ,QW·O 7UDQV  &XVWRPV  ,QODQG 7UDQV  ,QODQG 7UDQV  &XVWRPHU 5HFHLSW  6HWWOHPHQW 6LPSOLILHG *OREDO /RJLVWLFV :RUNIORZSecondly, moving goods between countries involves many more parties thanshipping goods between states. Shippers must work with more carriers, col-laborate with freight forwarders, export and import customs agents,inspectors, insurance agencies, and banks. All these parties increase theprobability for delays, damaged shipments, and missed customer commit-ments. No wonder many companies hold excess inventory (i.e. safety stock)to account for the uncertainties associated with global shipments.Third, shippers must follow government regulations, not only for their homecountry, but also for every country they trade with. These regulationschange frequently, are difficult to interpret, and in some cases are poorlydocumented. Taxes, duties, quotas, and restrictions all depend on the prod-uct’s value, country of origin (for the finished product and all components),and Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) code. 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à It is against US trade laws to ship certain goods, such as chemicals and high- tech electronics, to specific countries or entities, such as known terrorist or- ganizations. Other countries have their own set of restrictions. For example, some Middle East countries do not allow any products to be imported that contain components manufactured or assembled in Israel. In July 2000, the exporter and importer of record rules were issued. They dictate that the exporter of record !È Xh‡r… is responsible for ensuring that all outbound ship- P‡ur… ments comply with US export regulations. In other # È U…ˆpx words, even though the shipment may be managed Qvƒryvr Shvy by a freight forwarder, it is the exporter that is ulti- $È 6v… mately liable. Similarly, the importer of record is È ultimately responsible for complying with import ! È #È laws. Tuh…rÂsÃD ‡ yÃU…hqrÃi’ÃH ‚qrÃi’ÃWhyˆ rà VTÃ9PUà ((& Since non-compliance can mean loss of export li- censes, stiff penalties (up to 50 percent of invoice value), or jail, many com- panies are looking to bring GLS capability in-house, particularly the ability to perform restricted party screenings and the ability to generate/file all appro- priate trade documents. According to the US Department of Transportation, ocean shipments ac- counted for 41 percent of international shipments in 1997 based on value (almost 63 percent based on tonnage), the largest share among all modes. Over the past 15 years, ocean trade has almost doubled to 1.13 billion metric tons, and it is expected to double again over the next twenty years. While air cargo accounts for less than 1 percent of international tonnage, it is 28 percent of these shipments’ value, due to the fact that nearly 20 percent of air shipments are electronics and computers. In addition, international ton- miles have increased fivefold over the past twenty years. Air transportation will undoubtedly play a more important role in the near future as companies adopt make-to-order models and inventory reduction policies. RFXPHQWV Global Logistics also involves the transfer of documents between different parties. The amount of paperwork required to ship goods across borders is simply astounding (see table below). Many of these documents are produced in multiple copies, and if there are changes to the original itinerary or details, they have to be regenerated. Considering that freight forwarders can chargeÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! Ãas much as $75 per trade document, many companies are looking to bring thedocument-creation process in-house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·V ([SRUW $ IRUP FRPSOHWHG E D VKLSSHU WKDW VKRZV WKH YDOXH ZHLJKW DQG GHVWLQDWLRQ RI H[SRUW VKLSPHQWVHFODUDWLRQ DV ZHOO DV 6FKHGXOH % FRPPRGLW FRGH&HUWLILFDWH RI 2ULJLQ $ GRFXPHQW FRQWDLQLQJ DQ DIILGDYLW WR SURYH WKH RULJLQ RI LPSRUWHG JRRGV([SRUW /LFHQVH $ GRFXPHQW VHFXUHG IURP D JRYHUQPHQW DXWKRUL]LQJ D VKLSSHU WR H[SRUW D VSHFLILF TXDQWLW RI D SDUWLFXODU FRPPRGLW WR D FHUWDLQ FRXQWU,QVSHFWLRQ &HUWLILFDWH $ FHUWLILFDWH LVVXHG E DQ LQGHSHQGHQW DJHQW DWWHVWLQJ WR WKH TXDOLW DQGRU TXDQWLW RI WKH PHU FKDQGLVH EHLQJ VKLSSHGHVWLQDWLRQ &RQWURO 6WDWHPHQWV 86 JRYHUQPHQW UHTXLUHV WR EH GLVSODHG RQ H[SRUW VKLSPHQWV WKDW VSHFLI WKH DXWKRU6WDWHPHQWV L]HG GHVWLQDWLRQV /HDGLQJ ([SRUWHUV DQG ,PSRUWHUV  :72
  • Fortunately, there is a move towards electronic filing of these documents.For example, as of November 1, 2000, the US Census Bureau and US Cus-toms stopped accepting Shipper’s Export Declarations (SEDs) via fax. Thepreferred method is via an Internet system called AES Direct (AutomatedExport System). A similar system exists for importers called ABI (AutomatedBroker Interface). The benefits of automating document creation are primar-ily threefold: cheaper, faster, and fewer errors. The latter has ancillarybenefits, including fewer delays at customs and faster payment cycles.In summary, many documents are required to import or export a singleshipment. These documents flow between the shipper, its carriers, freightforwarders, government agencies, banks, and other parties. A single clericalerror can result in delays, fines, or withheld payments. Therefore, automa-tion of this laborious process is a necessity. 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à ,QIRUPDWLRQ It has been said that information is the most valuable thing to possess. The more accurate and current the information, the greater its value. This dictum certainly holds true in global logistics. Traditionally, once an international shipment left the dock, it entered a black hole where information about its status was virtually impossible to obtain. Today, thanks to the Internet, satellite technology, messaging tools, bar- coding, and improved software, the black hole is quickly disappearing. Shippers and other parties can now access real-time or 6LQFH JOREDO ORJLVWLFV LV D FROODERUDWLYH near real-time information about shipments. Depending SURFHVV LQWHJUDWLRQ RI GLVSDUDWH EXVLQHVV on the sophistication of the systems involved, they can VVWHPV LV D ELJ FKDOOHQJH DORQJ ZLWK identify the exact location of a vessel, along with very spe- UDWLRQDOL]LQJ GLIIHUHQW VWDQGDUGV DQG QRPHQFODWXUH cific details about its cargo, down to the stock-keeping- unit (SKU) level. Having this information reduces the uncertainty of global shipments, thereby eliminating the need for high-levels of safety stock. It also enables inventory to be dynamically routed to areas of high demand, thereby maximizing sales, minimizing inventory carrying costs, and avoiding unnecessary manufactur- ing costs. Third, information enables faster response to problems via event management tools that proactively alert authorized parties to exceptions. Fourth, information translates into higher customer satisfaction by having the answer to their most common questions, namely: "Where is my ship- ment?" and "Do you have the product available?" There is another dictum, however, that has been used to describe informa- tion: garbage in equals garbage out. Gathering information is definitely not a trivial task. Since global logistics is a collaborative process, involving many different parties, integration of disparate business systems is a big challenge, along with rationalizing different "standards" and nomenclature. Therefore, monitoring the quality of incoming and outgoing messages is critical. Oth- erwise, there will be constant false alarms due to missing data, lost messages, poor message mappings, or other correctable factors. 0RQH While information may indeed be valuable, money still makes "the world go round." The complexity of the financial settlement process depends on the trust level between the buyer and seller. If the two parties have a long his- tory of working together without any issues, the process is relatively simple.ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! ÃHowever, if there is no prior relationship (as is common in public on-linemarketplaces), the transaction size is relatively large, and there is a desire forhigher levels of payment guarantee, then the process becomes complicated.There are numerous payment terms used for transactions, but the mostcommon method of settling large international trade transactions is by ob-taining a Letter of Credit (L/C).Simply stated, the process of issuing a Letter of Credit and finalizing pay-ment generally takes a long time (sometimes months), requires manydocuments, is easily delayed by any clerical errors, is relatively expensive,and involves many parties. Banks play the role of neutral third-party in thetransaction. Due to the labor-intensive nature of the process, they chargeboth the buyer and the seller between 0.5% and 3.0% of the payment amount,plus as much as $100 each time the L/C is amended. For a $5 million dollartransaction, an L/C can cost over $150,000.To summarize, global logistics involves more than just the physical move-ment of goods across borders, which in itself is a complicated process. It alsoinvolves the movement of documents, information, and (of course) moneybetween the numerous parties in the logistics ecosystem. All four compo-nents are interrelated and critical for success.&UHDWLQJ 9DOXH $FURVV (QWHUSULVHGlobal Logistics information, particularly trade content, obviously impactsfulfillment. Its value, however, extends to other business processes, such asproduct development, network design, vendor selection, and customer rela-tionship management.3URGXFW HYHORSPHQWAs highlighted earlier, many trade regulations are based on the characteris-tics of the product, which form the basis of its HTS code. The codedetermines the duty rate applied, the trade documents required, and the ap-propriate government agency to oversee the import. Since a product’s HTSclassification is essentially defined during its development, it is critical fordevelopers to understand the impact of their design choices as they relate totrade regulations in each target market. 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à For example, an adhesive is comprised of several chemical components. The choice of components and their overall amount plays a role in how the fin- ished product is classified. Too much of Component A and the adhesive becomes flammable or unstable, thereby resulting in a more regulated classification and perhaps illegal to im- port into certain countries. If Component Z is chosen Ir‡‚…xÃ9r†vt instead, the adhesive becomes biodegradable, thereby resulting in a more favorable classification in terms of By‚ihy U…hqr minimizing or eliminating duties and less paperwork.Q…‚qˆp‡Ã9r‰ry‚ƒ€r‡ Wrq‚…ÃTryrp‡v‚ 8‚‡r‡ The bottom line: the decisions product developers make when designing a product impacts the cost and viability of importing/exporting. 8SH Aˆysvyy€r‡ 1HWZRUN HVLJQ As with product development, the decisions made during network design have a large and somewhat lasting impact on global fulfillment. Companies evaluate their network design every one to two years, or more frequently if they acquire another entity or significant changes occur within their supply chains. The process entails determining the location, size, and number of plants, distribution centers, suppliers, and third-party partners. Obviously, local tax rates, labor costs, and currency valuations play an im- portant role in the decision-making process. But as indicated earlier, country of origin is also factor, along with preferential trade agreements such as NAFTA and MERCOSUR (a trade alliance between Argentina, Brazil, Para- guay and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia as associate members). Free Trade Zones (FTZ) are also important. These are ports designated by a government for duty-free entry of non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored and used for manufacturing within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed only when the original goods or items manufactured from those goods pass from the FTZ into an area of the country subject to customs authority. Therefore, companies should take into account global trade information when evaluating their network design. In particular, they should consider the following questions: • Which is the better option: exporting merchandise directly to its des- tination or exporting it to a nearby country that has more favorableÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à import regulations (perhaps due to a trade alliance) and then re- exporting the merchandise to its final destination? • Can I establish/utilize FTZs to eliminate duties? ,I , HVWDEOLVK D PDQXIDFWXULQJ VLWH LQ FRXQWU $ DUH WKHUH LPSRUW UHVWULFWLRQV • If I establish a manufacturing site in country A, are WKDW ZLOO LPSDFW P PDQXIDFWXULQJ FRVWV there import restrictions into the country that will RU OLPLW P DELOLW WR XVH FHUWDLQ UDZ impact my manufacturing costs or limit my ability PDWHULDOV" to use certain raw materials? • Which countries do I plan to serve from a new manufacturing plant or distribution center? How does my choice of locating the plant or DC in country A affect my ability to export to these other countries, in terms of costs, quotas, and other trade restrictions?9HQGRU 6HOHFWLRQMany factors are involved in selecting a vendor, including ability to producethe desired product, quality metrics and certifications (such as ISO 9000),credit rating, capacity constraints, and geographic location. The latter obvi-ously presents global logistics considerations, especially with regards todetermining the total landed cost (TLC) of the goods.TLC is the true cost of procuring an item. It entails not only the cost of theitem, but also freight charges, duties, taxes, insurance, inspection fees, brokerfees, banking charges, and many other cost components. Some GLS softwarevendors claim that their applications can consider over 100 components todetermine a landed cost.Therefore, basing a procurement decision simply on unit price is a highly-flawed policy. For example, a supplier in China may quote a lower per unitprice than a supplier in Mexico. However, when all other factors are consid-ered (such as duty rates, freight charges, and NAFTA privileges), the finalcost of procuring the goods from China may be significantly higher than ob-taining them from Mexico (assuming labor charges and other factors beingequal).Procurement managers can also benefit by understanding Incoterms, whichare standard sales terms developed by the International Chamber of Com-merce. The Incoterm specifies where along the supply chain the title for thegoods is exchanged between the buyer and seller. Unfortunately, due to thecomplexity of global logistics, many procurement managers ask vendors to 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à quote “landed cost” prices, thereby forfeiting control of many cost compo- nents such as freight charges and insurance. In short, better collaboration between logistics and procurement with an enterprise can result in cost avoidance. ,QFRWHUP HWDLOV ([ :RUNV (;:
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  • 6HOOHU UHVSRQVLEOH IRU HQGWR HQG SURFHVV ,QFRWHUPV DQG HVFULSWLRQV &XVWRPHU 5HODWLRQVKLS 0DQDJHPHQW As highlighted earlier, global logistics solutions enhance customer satisfac- tion by providing visibility to shipments and inventory, enabling more accurate quotes by determining total landed costs, and minimizing delays by expediting the document creation process and eliminating clerical errors that typically result in shipments being detained at customs. 5HFHQW $5& 5HVHDUFK )LQGLQJV :HE 6XUYH In early March 2001, ARC conducted a GLS survey via its Website. Close to 50 people responded to the survey, about half from the manufacturing sectorÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! Ãand the rest from 3PL, distribution, retailing, and other. 9‚Ã’‚ˆÃpˆ……r‡y’ȆrÃBGTƂs‡h…rǂÃhˆ‡‚€ ‡r hThe main insights gathered from the survey are: ’‚ˆ…Ãv€ ‚…‡vt Ãr‘ƒ‚…‡vtłpr††r†4 ƒ ÃÉ1. Most users have not automated their import- I‚‡Ã†ˆ…r !$ÃÈ ing/exporting processes. I Ãiˆ‡ÃDÃyhÃ‡‚ ‚ ȅpuh†rà !ÃÈ2. A majority of users will increase international trade †‚s‡h…rÇuv†Ã’rh… this year. I Çurł ‚ pr††Ãv†Ã€‚†‡y’ $ÃÈ € ˆh h y3. The primary driving factors behind implementing `r†ȆrÃBGTƂs‡h…r &$ÃÈ GLS are to facilitate document creation, reduce in- ventory, and have the ability to fulfill international orders from their e-commerce site. Ds҂ˆÃuh‰rÃv€ƒyr€r‡rqÃhÃBGTÃhƒƒyvph‡v‚4. Inventory and shipment visibility was considered uh‡ h†Ã‡urÅv€h…’Ãq…v‰vtÃshp‡‚…4 highly valuable by a majority of the respondents, P‡ur… $ÃÈ along with the ability to automatically create and Ahpvyv‡h‡r qˆ‡’Ãq…hihpxłpr†† $ÃÈ electronically file trade documents, and the ability to Aˆysvyy v‡·y ‚…qr…†Ãs…‚€Ãrp‚€€r…prÆv‡r $ÃÈ 7…vt v€ƒ‚…‡vtr‘ƒ‚…‡vtÃihpx vu‚ˆ†r $ÃÈ receive alerts when exceptions occur. SrqˆprÃv‰r‡‚…’ !$ÃÈ $ÃÈ Ahpvyv‡h‡rłqˆp‡Ãpyh††vsvph‡v‚Ãƒ…‚pr††*OREDO /RJLVWLFV 6ROXWLRQV */6
  • :RUOGZLGH Ahpvyv‡h‡rÃq‚pˆ€r‡Ãtrr…h‡v‚ "ÃÈ SrqˆprÃpˆ†‡‚€†Ãqryh’† ÃÈ2XWORRNIn January 2001, ARC published the GLS WorldwideOutlook Study, whose results were derived from exten- Sh‡rÇurÉhyˆrÂsÃuh‰vtÃir‡‡r…Év†vivyv‡’sive interviews with GLS vendors and users. The Global ‚sÃv‡r…h‡v‚hyÆuvƒ€r‡†Logistics Systems market, which had total software and $ $$"ÃÈservice revenues of $165 million in 2000, will explode tomore than six times that size or $1 billion by the end of r ˆ # !  ÃÈ y h2005, representing a Compound Annual Growth Rate W à $ÃÈ t " (CAGR) of over 43 percent. v † h r $"ÃÈ … ! p  DThere is no single supplier that offers a complete GLS !%ÃÈsuite. Some specialize in optimization, while others fo-cus on providing the infrastructure necessary forcollaboration. In some cases, suppliers view themselves as complimentary toeach other and establish partnerships. For example, Global Logistics Tech-nologies (G-Log), which specializes in multi-mode, multi-leg optimization,has partnered with Nextlinx, which provides landed cost and regulatorycompliance capabilities. 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à Two significant trends were highlighted in the report.  First, the relatively strong acceptance of the ASP model and recurring pricing schemes among customers. Re-   curring revenue streams, which include transaction,   subscription, and hosting fees, accounted for over 28 percent of GLS total revenues in 2000.     In particular, the hosted model appeals to customers  such as 3PLs and marketplaces that want to incorporate        GLS functionality into their offerings, but do not want to incur large upfront costs (i.e. they prefer to pay on a 7RWDO 6KLSPHQWV RI */6 6RIWZDUH 6HUYLFHV 0LOOLRQV RI ROODUV
  • transaction basis or over a long period of time). Hosting also makes sense from a collaboration standpoint. The traditional approach is to establish a direct link with each trading partner, but there are several disadvantages to this strategy. First, it forces companies to open up their firewalls to numerous outside parties. Network security is a major concern for companies, and minimizing the number of outside connec- tions reduces the risk of illegal activity. Second, large channel masters have hundreds or even thousands of business partners. Direct links with each would be a logistics nightmare, not to mention the cost associated with add- ing and removing partners. The alternate approach is to have the software supplier (an an ASP) become the information hub where everyone connects. Each trading partner is essen- tially a spoke that sends and receives information from the hosted service provider. In this approach, the channel master provides firewall access to only one party, the service provider. Also, the user doesn’t have to worry about establishing and managing the different links. The service provider assumes those responsibilities, along with maintaining a secure environment. In addition to the security and logistical benefits, collaborating via a hosted service centralizes information from various sources, thereby providing users with a complete history of any order. It also makes data mining and report- ing much easier. For example, users can analyze the on-time delivery performance of suppliers or transportation carriers over time to drive deci- sions. Descartes Systems Group has been particularly successful in providing a hosted collaborative logistics solution via its Global Logistics Network. The second trend revealed was the merging of GLS software technology with Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). In an effort to maximize their valueÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! Ãproposition and differentiate themselves from the competition, several GLSvendors have begun to offer basic consulting and support services, such asproduct classification, workflow design, and international trade education.For more complex consulting projects, such as designing a global supplychain network, GLS suppliers have established partnerships with Big Fiveconsulting firms such as KPMG that specialize in this type of work.Other value-added services may include helping clients select an appropriatefulfillment partner (e.g. 3PL, freight forwarder, carrier), facilitating the finan-cial settlement process, or actually managing the customer’s GLS operations.An example of the latter is Vastera’s contract with Ford Motor Company.Briefly stated, Vastera will manage Ford’s import and export trade processes,first in the US and eventually around the world, in additional to provide thesoftware to power the operation. The 10-year agreement also includes thetransfer of intellectual property and human capital from Ford to Vastera.(QG 8VHU ,QWHUYLHZVARC interviewed two Vastera customers and one ClearCross customer tounderstand their experience with the software applications and hear theirthoughts on global logistics. The common trait between all three customerswas that none of them had an integrated importing/exporting system.One Vastera customer does very little importing, therefore, she did not seethe need to purchase an import solution. The other customer, however,could not find an integrated import/export solution seven years ago whenshe implemented Vastera. The ClearCross customer, which does very littleexporting, only implemented the import solution (originally from Questawhich was later acquired by ClearCross).Vastera’s Customer X has several groups in the US, two locations in Canada,and one each in Denmark and the UK. Exports, which currently account for25 percent of revenues, are expected to grow significantly over the next fewyears. As the company has grown, it became almost impossible to manuallymanage the export compliance process, thereby driving the decision to investin software. Customer X evaluated several vendors, but chose Vastera be-cause it felt they had the best compliance content and people.The compliance manager at Customer X could not remember how long theinitial implementation lasted, but an upgrade (along with other Y2K projects)took three 3 months, although further tweaking was required. Regarding 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à ROI, the company estimated at the time of the initial purchase that it would take 1.5 years, but nobody has verified the actual results. Regarding complaints, Customer X recently implemented the regulatory modules for Britain and Canada, but had difficulty getting them updated. It was also difficult to schedule Vastera’s implementation specialists. The company implemented the product itself, but it recommends that customers involve Vastera’s technical resources due to the challenges it faced. Novell was the second Vastera customer. Most of its software exports origi- nate from two locations, the US and Ireland. Unlike Customer X, Novell was already using an automated compliance system, but it was proprietary and had to be replaced when the company decided to change its database system. Novell did a thorough evaluation, including calling existing customers, be- fore making its decision. Most contacted providers were able to meet its needs. It picked Vastera was partly based on knowing people within the company. The implementation process was very difficult and long (it took 9 months), primarily because the company was undergoing an Oracle installa- tion at the same time. Vastera’s implementation team compounded the situation by lacking a sense of urgency. While Oracle’s consultants would work virtually around the clock, Vastera’s people would refuse to work long hours and on weekends. Novell advises that educate your entire workforce about trade compliance, especially if you’re in a regulated industry. The compliance manager’s big- gest challenge is making sure that employees don’t inadvertently violate trade regulation due to ignorance. Therefore, besides education, you must put controls in place. Regarding implementation, Novell says don’t assume the software supplier understands how to integrate with your legacy sys- tems. Therefore, spend the time to really know your existing applications. ClearCross’ customer is the musical products division of Yamaha, which im- ports finished goods from China, Indonesia, and Japan. Yamaha implemented the client/server Questa system to ensure regulatory compli- ance and better enable activity-based costing (in order to charge back costs to sister divisions). It hopes to use the system to commit orders to inventory in transit, as well as provide inland carriers forward visibility to capacity needs. Yamaha evaluated three suppliers, but chose Questa because it specialized in imports, it came as a stand-alone module, and the supplier had favorableÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! Ãcustomer references. Today, five power users work with the application,along with about sixty people that simply have viewing privileges.Implementation took about eight months, including integration with an Ora-cle ERP system. It was delayed by Questa changing the product’sarchitecture. Although ROI wasn’t specifically measured, but the depart-ment was able to cut its staff from 6 six people to about 3.5 (i.e. an almost 50percent reduction).*OREDO /RJLVWLFV 6ROXWLRQVGlobal Logistics Solutions (GLS) are software applications that manage thetransfer of goods and information from one country to another. These appli-cations generally provide one or more of the following capabilities:• Global visibility of inventory (moving and stationary), in real-time or near real-time, along with exception management capabilities• Optimize the movement of goods across multiple transportation modes (including air and ocean)• Facilitate the routing, tendering, and booking of cross-border shipments (including air and ocean), as well as invoicing, auditing, and payment• Provide an integration/workflow infrastructure facilitating collaboration between all parties in the international trade ecosystem• Import/export functions, including landed cost calculators, restricted party and embargo screenings, and product classification tools• Manage the creation and flow of international shipping documents, in- cluding customs documents and letters of creditProduct offerings vary by supplier. At the low end of the spectrum, there aresuppliers that simply focus on automating the document generation/filingprocess for either the importing or exporting of goods. High-end suppliersprovide integrated import and export solutions, manage databases of globaltrade information, and offer management consulting services. 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à The Achilles Heel of virtually all GLS software vendors is their ability to manage reverse logistics. It is a complex problem that involves tight integra- tion between exporting and importing systems, as well as sophisticated logic to determine the best course of action (i.e. ship the product back to the ex- porting country, liquidate the product, destroy the product, or re-export to a different country). Of course, you also have to create and file trade docu- ments, perform a cost/benefit analysis that takes into consideration freight charges, insurance, handling fees and other charges, and you have to adjust accounting records. )XQFWLRQ HVFULSWLRQ %DVLV IRU 52, 9ˆ‡’Ã9…hihpx à Pi‡hvvtÃhÅrsˆ qÃs‚…Ãqˆ‡vr†ÃƒhvqÃv €ƒ‚…‡rqÃv‡r€†Ã 8yhv€vtÀ‚r’Ãpˆ……r‡y’Ãyrs‡Ã ‡uh‡Ãr…rÃyh‡r…Ãr‘ƒ‚…‡rq à ‚Ã‡hiyr à 6ˆ‡‚€h‡rqÃA…rvtu‡Ã Urqr…vtÃhqÃi‚‚xvtÆuvƒ€r‡†Ãv‡uÃph……vr…† à Gr††Ã‚‰r…urhqÃsh†‡r…Ãp’pyrà Urqr…vtÃÉÃ7‚‚ xvt à ‡v€rÃir‡‡r…Ãp‚€ƒyvhpr à By‚ihyÃWv†vivyv‡’ Ãà Q…‚‰vqrÉv†vivyv‡’ÂsÃv‰r‡‚…’ÃvÃ‡…h†v‡0ÆrqÃhyr…‡†Ã Gr††Ãv‰r‡‚…’Ãvp…rh†rÆhyr†à @‘prƒ‡v‚ÃHhht r€r‡ à urÃ€vy r†‡‚r†Ãh…rÀv††rq à ir‡‡r…Ãpˆ†‡‚€r…Ɖp à D€ƒ‚…‡@‘ƒ‚…‡Ã 6ˆ‡‚€h‡vphyy’Ãtrr…h‡rÃhqÃsvyrDžhqrÃq‚p ˆ€r‡†Ã à Gr††Ã‚‰r…urhqÃyr†† Ãpyr…vphyà 9‚pˆ€r ‡h‡v‚ à r……‚…†Ã…r†ˆy‡vtÃvÃqryh’† à GhqrqÃ8‚†‡ à 8hypˆyh‡vtÇurǂ‡hyÃp‚†‡Ãvpˆ……rqÃi’ÃhÃiˆ’r…Ç‚Ãv €ƒ‚…‡Ã 7r‡‡r…Æ‚ˆ…pvtÃqrpv†v‚†à hÃv‡r€ÃvpyˆqvtÃs…rvtu‡Ãpuh…tr†Ãv†ˆ …hprÇh‘r†à v€ƒ…‚‰rqÃpˆ†‡‚€r…Ær …‰vprà qˆ‡vr†Ãhq‡ur…Ãh ppr††‚…vhyÃpuh…tr† à y‚ r…Ã…h‡rÂsłqˆp‡Ã…r‡ˆ…† à Hˆy‡v€‚qr à 9r‡r…€vvtÃir†‡Ã…‚ˆ‡rÃhqÃph…… vr…†Ã‡‚Ãqryv‰r…Ãt‚‚q† à G‚r…Ç…h†ƒ‚…‡h‡v‚Ãp‚†‡†à ‚ƒ‡v€v“ h‡v‚ à ir‡‡r…Ãpˆ†‡‚€r…Ɖp à Q…‚qˆp‡Ã8yh††vsvp h‡v‚ à 8yh††vs’Ã…‚qˆp‡†Ãƒr…ÃCTUÃp‚qr† à 7r‡‡r…Ãrssvpvrp’À‚…rà hpp ˆ…h‡rÃqˆ‡’Ã…h‡r† à Sr†‡…vp‡rqÃQh…‡’Ãà Tp…rr†Ãiˆ’r…††ryyr…†Ãhthv†‡ÃhÃt‚‰r…€r‡Ã 6‰‚vqÃsvr†Ãyvpr†rà @€ih…t‚ÃTp…rr  vtà €hv ‡hvrqÃyv†‡Ã‚sÅr†‡…vp‡rqÃh…‡vr†Ã à …r‰‚p h‡v‚Åv†‚à à AvhpvhyÃTr‡‡yr€r‡ à HhhtvtÇurÃyr‡‡r…ÂsÃp…rqv‡Ãƒ…‚pr††Ãv‡uÃihx† à Gr††Ã‚‰r…urhqÃsh†‡r…à ƒh ’€r‡Ãp’pyr† à à BGTÃAˆp‡v‚hyv‡’Ã9r†p…vƒ‡v‚ÃhqÃSPDÃ7h†v† Considering all of this effort, it is not surprising that most B2C retailers de- cide to destroy the product instead of having it shipped back to them. The cost of returning a music CD or book is considerably greater than its retail value. Duty Drawback is another weak area for GLS vendors, as it requires tight integration with many other business systems. Briefly stated, duty drawback allows an importer to reclaim duties paid if the imported material is later ex- ported in a finished product. For example, a plastics manufacturer thatÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! Ãimports resins to produce bottles can reclaim the duties paid on the resins ifhe exports the bottles overseas. The challenge, however, is maintaining anaudit trail from the time the resins are first ordered, through importation,manufacturing, warehousing, and finally exportation. In addition, the neces-sary information is dispersed across different business systems, such as ordermanagement systems (OMS) and enterprise production management (EPM)applications, as well as across different trading partners, such as freight for-warders, customs brokers, and contract manufacturers. Wrq‚…à T‡…rt‡u†Ã Xrhxr††r†Ã Wh†‡r…hà Q…‚‰vqr†Ãp‚†ˆy‡vtÆr…‰vpr†ÃhqÃ7QP0à T‡vyyÀvt…h‡vtǂh…q†ÃXriih†rqƂyˆ‡v‚†Ã iyˆrpuvƒÃpyvr‡†Ã 9r†ph…‡r†Ã Gh…trÃpyvr‡Ãih†r0Ãh€‚tÃsv…†‡Ã‡‚Âssr…à V†r…Ãv‡r…shpr†Ãh…rˆ‡qh‡rqà ‰v†vivyv‡’Ç‚‚y0ÃBy‚ihyÃG‚tv†‡vp†ÃIr‡‚…xÃà 8yrh…8…‚††Ã Hh‡r…vhy†Ãp‚€ƒyvhpr0Ér…‡vphyÃvqˆ†‡…’à Q‚‚…y’Ãv‡rt…h‡rqƂyˆ‡v‚†ÃqˆrǂÀr…tr…†Ãhqà s‚pˆ†Ã hp„ˆv†v‡v‚†0Ãyhpx†Ã‰v†vivyv‡’Ç‚‚yà RSTà C‚†‡rqÀ‚qry0År‡hvyÃr‘ƒr…‡v†r0ÃiyˆrpuvƒÃ @‘ƒ‚…‡Ãsˆp‡v‚hyv‡’Á‚‡Ãh†Ã…‚iˆ†‡Ãh†Ã‚‡ur…†Ã pyvr‡†Ã Q…rpv†v‚ÃT‚s‡h…rà T‡…‚tÅr†rprÃvÃ@ˆ…‚ƒrÃhqÃ6†vh0à I‚‡ÃXriih†rq0Åv€h…’Ã…‚qˆp‡Ãv†Ã‚y’Ã6T#0ƒrÃ q‚€r†‡vpÃUHTÃphƒhivyv‡vr†Ã ƒ…‚qˆp‡Ã‚‡Ãh†Ã…‚iˆ†‡Ã Ir‘‡yv‘à Urpu‚y‚t’Ãqr‰ry‚ƒrqÃvu‚ˆ†r0Ãiyˆrà Srhp‡v‚h…’Ér…†ˆ†Ãƒ…‚hp‡v‰r0Ãsvhpvhyy’Ãyv€v‡rqȁ‡vyà puvƒÃpyvr‡†0Ãqrƒy‚’€r‡Ã‚ƒ‡v‚†Ã …rpr‡y’à BG‚tà A‚pˆ†rqÂƒ‡v€v“h‡v‚0ÃXriih†rqà Ahpr†Ãƒ‚‡r‡vhyÃp‚€ƒr‡v‡v‚Ãs…‚€Ãv!ÃhqÃHhˆtv†‡vp†Ã ‡rpu‚y‚t’à 8ryh…v‘à Di‚ˆqÃr‘ƒr…‡v†r0ÃXriih†rqÃu‚†‡rqà Gv€v‡rqƒ‡v€v“h‡v‚Ãphƒhivyv‡vr†Ã †‚yˆ‡v‚0Ár‡‚…xÃthvvtDžhp‡v‚Ã U…hqrƒh„à AvhpvhyÆr‡‡yr€r‡0Ãv‡r…h‡v‚hyà GhpxÃr‰r‡Ã€hhtr€r‡‰v†vivyv‡’Ç‚‚y†Ã ƒ…r†rprà 8hƒ†‡hÃ D€ƒyr€r‡h‡v‚Ã‡‚‚y†ÃhqЂ…xsy‚0à Tu‚…‡Ã‚ƒr…h‡vtÃuv†‡‚…’0Ãshpr†Ã†‡…‚tÃp‚€ƒr‡v‡v‚Ãs…‚€Ã Xriih†rqÃu‚†‡rqƂyˆ‡v‚Ã r†‡hiyv†urqÉrq‚…†Ã T‡…rt‡u†ÃÉÃXrhxr††r†Ã‚sÃGrhqvtÃBGTÃT‚s‡h…rÃWrq‚…†Ã6WUDWHJLHV IRU 6XFFHVV9LHZ *OREDO /RJLVWLFV 2SWLPL]DWLRQ DV D 6WUDWHJLF :HDSRQLogistics has historically been viewed as a cost center. However, whileminimizing costs remains important, the emphasis today should be onmaximizing customer satisfaction. In today’s competitive environment,where many products are becoming commodities, companies can no longercompete solely on price or features. The key to survival is customer reten-tion, which is based primarily on quality of service. 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à How is this accomplished? By delivering the right product, at 7KH WLPH KDV FRPH IRU HYHU FRPSDQ the right time, in the right quantities, and billing them cor- WR KDYH D &KLHI /RJLVWLFV 2IILFHU &/2
  • rectly. By being able to provide them with immediate WKDW LV LQYROYHG LQ WKH GHFLVLRQPDNLQJ SURFHVV DQG FDQ SURYLGH SHUVSHFWLYH answers to “Where is my order?” and “Do you have the RQ EXVLQHVV LVVXHV product in stock?” And by keeping their production lines running, reducing stock outs at their retail locations, and ef- fectively meeting their demand spikes. In short, by doing all of the things enabled by global logistics solutions. When it comes to funding projects, companies tend to place strategic initia- tives at the top of the list. Unfortunately, logistics rarely ranks high enough to garner much attention. The time has come to make it a priority and make the necessary investments. Also, while the importance of the Internet and information technology has elevated the role of the CIO within the enter- prise, the same has not occurred with logistics professionals. The time has come for every company to have a Chief Logistics Officer (CLO) that is in- volved in the decision-making process and can provide his/her perspective on business issues. ,QWHJUDWH ,PSRUW([SRUW 2SHUDWLRQV ZLWK 2WKHU %L] $SSOLFDWLRQV Companies have historically treated inbound and outbound logistics sepa- rately. While each operation certainly presents unique challenges and requirements, keeping them separate eliminates collaborative opportunities. For example, a truck delivering an in-bound shipment can be used to deliver an outbound order, thereby creating a continuous move opportunity for the carrier that translates into lower transportation rates. Today, most of those inbound trucks leave empty. Also, as highlighted in the report, tight integration is required to effectively manage reverse logistics operations and facilitate the duty-drawback process. Depending on the nature of the company, the cost of integration may pale in comparison to the money reclaimed from customs if duty drawback was im- plemented. ([WHQG 9DOXH RI */6 %HRQG )XOILOOPHQW Most of the focus around global logistics has been around fulfillment. How- ever, global logistics favorably impacts many other parts of the enterprise. For example, product development teams must understand how design deci- sions affect product classifications (i.e. HTS codes) that ultimately dictate duty rates, document requirements, and trade restrictions. Similarly, net-ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  • à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! Ãwork designers must take into account global logistics in- +RVWHG VROXWLRQV PDNH VHQVH LQ KLJKOformation when determining where to open a new FROODERUDWLYH EXVLQHVV HQYLURQPHQWV GXHmanufacturing plant or DC. Poor decisions during prod- WR WKH FKDOOHQJHV DVVRFLDWHG ZLWKuct development or network design have long-lasting SHUIRUPLQJ DQG PDLQWDLQLQJ
  • WKRXVDQGVeffects. RI RQHWRRQH LQWHJUDWLRQVThe bottom line: educate all employees about global traderegulations as it relates to their role in the organization. Also, implementcontrols to ensure 100 percent compliance. This point is especially importantin regulated industries such as high tech, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.HSOR */6 DV D +RVWHG 6ROXWLRQHosted solutions make sense in highly collaborative business environmentsdue to the challenges associated with performing and maintaining thousandsof one-to-one integrations. Therefore, considering the number of differentparties involved in fulfilling an international order, GLS applications are ide-ally suited for the hosted model.Also, trade regulations are dynamic in nature. Depending on the number ofcountries you trade with, changes can occur almost daily. Therefore, havingaccess to the most up-to-date information is critical. The hosted model en-ables the service provider (i.e. software vendor) to update all customerssimultaneously by updating a single instance of the trade compliance data-base. In most cases, the upgrade requires little or no effort by the customer.However, if a customer is not hosted, the vendor has to send the customer aCD with the changes or instruct the customer how to download the modifica-tions from an online site. In other words, the update is neither automatic nortransparent. Since the task is likely one of hundreds on the IT department’slist, there is a good chance the update will be delayed, thereby potentiallyresulting in non-compliance issues.In summary, deploying GLS as a hosted solution enables more efficient col-laboration between business partners and enables automatic and near-transparent updates of trade compliance information.&KRRVH 9HQGRUV :LWK ([SHUWLVH LQ <RXU 9HUWLFDO ,QGXVWUDespite their claims, it is nearly impossible for software vendors to offer“everything to everyone.” This is especially true for vendors that providesolutions such as GLS that help manage supply chains. Why? Not all supply 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã 
  • 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh…puÃ! à chains are created equal. For example, some industries are heavily regulated and face a lot of trade restrictions, while others are less restrictive. Some conduct a majority of their international shipments via containerized ocean vessels, while others may use bulk /RRN IRU VRIWZDUH YHQGRUV WKDW XQGHUVWDQG ocean carriers or airfreight carriers. RXU VXSSO FKDLQ 7KH WSLFDOO LQFRUSRUDWH LQGXVWUVSHFLILF EHVW SUDFWLFHV In short, look for software vendors that understand LQWR WKHLU VROXWLRQV DV ZHOO DV KLUH LQGXVWU H[SHUWV WR PDQDJH FOLHQW UHODWLRQVKLSV your supply chain. They typically incorporate industry- specific best practices into their solutions, as well as hire industry experts to manage client relationships. For example, Vastera is particularly strong in Automotive, while ClearCross is strong in Chemicals/ Pharmaceutical, Descartes in 3PL, G-Log in Chemi- cals, and Celarix in Retail. Although these vendors have clients in many different industries, these verticals represent their strengths.ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
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