Integrating a Variety ofLearning Methods into Safety Training Ralph Stuart, CIH Aaron Batchelder Dept. of Environmental Health and Safety email@example.com March, 2012
What is Environmental Health and Safety? Safety Compliance Environmental Health and Safety Education Lab Productivity
Adult Learning PrinciplesAdults prefer learning situations which:1. Are practical and problem-centered2. Promote their positive self esteem3. Integrate new ideas with existing knowledge4. Show respect for the individual learner5. Capitalize on their experience6. Allow choice and self-direction The question is How do we organize safety training around these ideaswhen the regulations aren’t?
Taking a Systems View• This approach is inspired by my experiences with the XL Project for hazardous waste and campus sustainability work.• Systems are collections of co-dependent data streams that reflect competing goals.• Systems are unpredictable, but past observations can build a paradigm that increases the probability of a desired outcome (a “correct” decision”).• This perspective is useful because safety “Gaia is not a good information is one of many “data streams” basis for decision- in the information system lab workers are managing. making”
Key Characteristics of Systems Ten Criteria for Wicked Problems Rittel and Webber characterize wicked problems by the• Working within systems following 10 criteria. presents “wicked” 1. There is no definite formulation of a wicked problem. problems. 2. Wicked problems have no stopping rules. 3. Solutions to wicked problems are not true or false, but• These characteristics better or worse. connect to the continuous 4. There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a improvement approach of solution to a wicked problem. PDCA based management 5. Every solution to a wicked problem is a "one shot systems operation"; because there is no opportunity to learn by trial and error, every attempt counts significantly. • Enlightenment is an 6. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an accident. Practice makes exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor us accident prone. - Zen is there a well described set of permissible operations proverb that may be incorporated into the plan. 7. Every wicked problem is essentially unique. 8. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another [wicked] problem. 9. The causes of a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problems resolution. 10. [With wicked problems,] the planner has no right to be wrong.
Working within SystemsLeverage Points: system connections where approptiateinterventions can be effective Simplified from Donella Meadows “Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in a System”
Building a System Model Donellas SystemPerspective The Management Perspective: making decisions about where toParadigms spend time and money Programs ProjectsInformation Cyclic activities Flows that are open to One-time activities with defined deadlines, a variety of stakeholders and customers and deliverables the goals change over Data time
System Map of Lab Safety Information Sources 1. Prudent Practices 2. SACL, volume 1 3. SACL, volume 2 4. Lab specific procedures 5. Lab safety training (primarily ppt) 6. Lab inspections and audits
Stakeholders in the System• Another important characteristic of a system is that it appears to act differently depending on your position in the system.• There are many different stakeholders in the lab safety system with various levels of investment and knowledge.
How can we use this approach to improve training?1. Brainstorming new ideas and messages2. Setting priorities for training program activities3. Organizing web sites for various audiences4. Explaining the distribution of responsibilities for safety training5. Developing effective social media messages
A Practical ApplicationTo fill the gap in the current safety information system atCornell, we’re developing a hands on training using theRAMP paradigm (after Hill and Finster): •Recognize chemical hazards •Assess the risks •Manage the hazards •Prepare for emergencies and Protect the environmentFormat – Four groups of 2 or 3 people with 2 trainers – 4 stations following the RAMP structureThe overall goal is to generate awareness within the labcommunity of the importance of risk assessment.
21st Century Media: iEHS: Videos via QR code Habit 1: Habit 2: Hoods and sash Understand your PPE height
The Recognize Module• Activities • GHS classes: Starting with MSDS’s, LCSS’s and chemical dictionaries, describe the hazards associated with 5 chemicals in GHS terms • Labeling: identify GHS pictograms for the 5 chemicals • Explain GHS hazards and precautions of the group in your own words to a hypothetical new lab member• Scoring: 5 points based on correct answers and good questions from the student after the explanation
The Assess Module• Activities • Spill response (acetic acid in a water bath); can you safely remove a coin from the bottom of the bath? – Scoring: 3 points for successful clean up process • Getting help as you work: explanation of iEHS lab labels and AskEHS – Scoring: 2 points for suggestions of laboratory items should be tagged with QR codes links for more information
The Manage Module• Activities • Housekeeping: identify 5 ugly and 5 good conditions in the lab and connect these to standard inspection form • Chemical Compatibility storage exercise – Sort 10 chemical bottles into proper locations• Scoring: 10 points for proper answers
The Prepare and Protect Module• Activities • Shower and eyewash flushing • HASP signage • PPE: Shaving cream exercise to assess contamination concerns • Waste labeling• Scoring: 10 points for participation
References: Systems analysis• Donella Meadows, Places to Intervene in a System http://www.sustainer.org/pubs/Leverage_Points.pdf• Wikipedia on Wicked Problems: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wicked_problem• The Ecosystem Approach: Complexity, Uncertainty, and Managing for Sustainability; David Waltner- Toews • Posner and Stuart article in press
References: Training resources• Hill and Finster, 2010: Laboratory Safety for Chemistry Students• QR Codes article in wikipedia• GHS info from Sigma Aldrich: google “ghs sigma aldrich”• Tom Ouimet Vimeo account • http://vimeo.com/ouimet• Search specific lab safety on YouTube, e.g. "exploding chemical glove"