Science Of Nano

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  • 1. A Scientific Perspective on the Need for and Future of Nanotechnology Joseph M. Pickel August 20, 2007 American Chemical Society Fall 2007 Meeting OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
  • 2. Presentation Outline •  What is Nanotechnology (Definitions and history) •  Conceptions of Nano (Visions and possibilities) •  Perceptions of Nano (Concerns both genuine and mythological) •  Current Science of Nanotechnology (Realities and what’s out there today)
  • 3. What is Nanoscience? •  A revolution in the way we look at the physical world •  Fills a gap between single atoms/molecules and larger microstructures •  Addresses materials behavior at dimensions of 1-100 nm –  Properties depend on size (quantum mechanics) –  New and unexpected phenomena –  Requires atom-by-atom assembly •  The Challenge: How to use atoms, molecules, and nanoscale materials as building blocks for larger assemblies with new functionalities •  Inherently multidisciplinary: –  Chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, mathematics, computer science….
  • 4. The Scale of Things -- Nanometers and More Things Natural Things Manmade 10-2 m 1 cm 10 mm Head of a pin 21st Century 1,000,000 nanometers = 1-2 mm Challenge Ant 10-3 m 1 millimeter ~5 (mm) mm MicroElectroMechanical Devices Dust mite 10 -100 µm wide 200 µm 0.1 mm 10-4 m 100 µm The Microworld Fly ash Human hair ~ 10-20 µm ~ 10-50 µm wide O 0.01 mm P O O 10-5 m 10 µm O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Red blood cells S S S S S S S S with white cell ~ 2-5 µm 1,000 nanometers = 10-6 m 1 micrometer Red blood cells Pollen grain spectrum (µm) Visible Combine nanoscale 10-7 m 0.1 µm building blocks to 100 nm make functional The Nanoworld devices, e.g., a photosynthetic reaction center with integral 10-8 m 0.01 µm Nanotube electrode Nanotube transistor semiconductor ~10 nm 10 nm storage diameter ATP synthase 10-9 m 1 nanometer (nm) DNA ~2-1/2 nm 10-10 m 0.1 nm Quantum corral of 48 iron atoms on copper Carbon nanotube Atoms of silicon surface ~2 nm diameter diameter spacing ~tenths of nm positioned one at a time with an STM tip Corral diameter 14 nm
  • 5. Nanotechnology is the Science of Interfaces •  Surface effects For 30 nm particle: 5 % of atoms are on surface For 3 nm particle: 50 % of atoms are on surface •  Interfaces of Scientific Disciplines – Materials, biological, physical sciences all contribute!
  • 6. Richard Feynman’s Vision: “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” •  Why can’t we manipulate materials atom by atom? •  Why can’t we control the synthesis of individual molecules? •  Why can’t we write all of human knowledge on the head of a pin? •  Why can’t we build machines to accomplish these things? •  Nobel Laureate, Physics 1965
  • 7. Why now? What has changed? •  New tools for atomic-scale characterization •  New capabilities for single atom/molecule manipulation •  Computational access to large systems of atoms and long time scales •  Convergence of scientific-disciplines at the nanoscale •  The baby now has a name!
  • 8. Pre-existing NANO Conditions “Oh yeah, nanotechnology — we used to call that 'chemistry.‘” - Anonymous quote in Road & Track Magazine Natural Man-Made Nanomaterials Nanomaterials –  Biomaterials with –  Carbon Black (used in nanometer-scale tires since WWII) dimensions have –  Fumes existed on Earth as –  Combustion products long as life has! (C&E •  Diesel Exhaust News) •  Campfires –  DNA (~2-1/2 nm) •  BURNT TOAST!
  • 9. Nanotechnology in the 21st Century •  Dramatic advances at the frontiers of physics, chemistry, materials sciences, and biology •  New products and services for medicine, materials, information technology, energy, environment, biotechnology, and national security •  Broad engagement of the public to address societal implications Nanoscience will change the nature of almost every human-made object in the next century. National Science and Technology Council, 2000
  • 10. Potential Impact of Nanoscience and Technology: Humanity’s top ten problems for next 50 years Energy Water Food Environment Poverty Terrorism & war Disease Education Democracy 2004 6.5 Billion People Population 2050 ~ 10 Billion People
  • 11. The Promise of Nanotechnology   More powerful computers and information storage devices   Fast chemical analyses using minute quantities of materials   New approaches for medical diagnosis, treatment, and drug delivery   New catalysts for cleaner, more efficient chemical and energy industries   100-times stronger than current materials •  New technologies for energy production and conversion (fuel cells, solid-state lighting, photovoltaics) •  Next-generation superconductors for more efficient energy transmission
  • 12. What if we could build an elevator to space... •  Arthur Clarke envisioned this two decades ago in his science fiction book, The Fountains of Paradise •  Carbon nanotubes, new materials discovered in the 1990s, offer the first hope of doing this
  • 13. Economic Impact of Nanotechnology Market Size Predictions (within a decade)* $340B/yr Materials $300B/yr Electronics $180B/yr Pharmaceuticals $100B/yr Chemical manufacture $ 70B/yr Aerospace $ 20B/yr Tools $ 30B/yr Improved healthcare $ 45B/yr Sustainability $1 Trillion per year by 2015 *Estimates by industry groups, source: NSF
  • 14. U.S. Industry is Serious About Nanotechnology General Electric 2003 Annual Report: “To Defeat the Commodity Threat” “Next Generation “Molecular Medicine” “Nanotechnology” Energy” •  Molecular •  Nano for energy •  Fuel Cells diagnostics •  Nano for healthcare •  Hydrogen •  Photovoltaics •  Molecular imaging •  Nano for advanced •  Turbines •  Molecular materials knowledge •  Nano for transportation
  • 15. Government Responses to Nanotechnology Estimated government-sponsored U.S. budget by nanoscience R&D in $ millions/year agency 1997 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 NSF 305 DOD 276 Europe 126 200 270 400 650 900 DOE 211 Japan 120 245 465 650 810 920 NIH 89 USA 116 270 465 604 862 961 NIST 53 Others 70 110 380 520 800 920 NASA 35 Total 432 825 1580 2174 3122 3701 Others 13 FY 05 $982M FY 06 > $1B
  • 16. National Nanotechnology Initiative Sep 1998 The Interagency Working Group on Nanoscience, Engineering, and Technology (IWGNSET) formed by the NSTC. The IWG meets monthly. Participating agencies: NSF, DOE, DOD, NIH, NASA, DOC/NIST and later also CIA, DOJ, DOS, DOT, DOTreas, EPA, NRC, USDA Aug 1999 The IWG releases National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) report after extensive input from the scientific community Aug-Nov 1999 BES reports Complex Systems: Science for the 21st Century http://www.sc.doe.gov/production/bes/complexsystems.htm Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions http://www.sc.doe.gov/production/bes/nanoscale.html Sep-Oct 1999 The six principal agencies brief OMB and a PCAST panel charged to the review the proposed NNI Feb 2000 The NNI is initiated as part of the FY 2001 budget request Fall 2001- Spring 2002 National Academy of Sciences reviews the NNI activities Spring 2003 NNI: From Vision to Commercialization 2004: Ongoing workshops to elucidate nanoscale science and technology opportunities June 2005: NNI Workshop on X-rays and Neutrons: Essential Tools for
  • 17. National Nanotechnology Initiative Focus Areas  Long-term, fundamental nanoscience and engineering research  Centers and networks of excellence   Nanoscale Science Research Centers – the DOE “flagship” NNI activity  Research infrastructure  Grand challenge areas 1.  fficient energy conversion and storage E 2.  anoelectronics, optoelectronics, and magnetics N 3.  ational security N 4.  anostructured materials “by design” – stronger, lighter, tougher, N harder, self-repairing, and safer 5.  hemical/biological/radiological/explosive (CBRE)detection/protection C 6.  anoscale processes for environmental improvement N 7.  conomical and safe transportation E 8.  dvanced healthcare, therapeutics, and diagnostics A 9.  icrocraft space exploration and industrialization M  Ethical, legal, societal implications and workforce education and training
  • 18. Everyone wants in on the party: Research Opportunities NNI currently consists of 25 government agencies and institutes Most universities have “NANO” program Many products containing “NANO” (if in name only) appearing on market Source: C&E News: April 9, 2007
  • 19. Everyone wants in on the party: Commercial Opportunities Common Nanomaterials Antibacterial Silver ions- coatings on materials, silver ions in solution as antibacterial agents Computer chips/ data storage- nanoscale feature allow more capacity Improved Carbon Fiber Composites- silica particles (NANO) are dispersed in CF resins to provide strength Photo credit: Project on emerging nanotechnologies.
  • 20. Everyone wants in on the party: Who invited them?
  • 21. A Challenge for New Technologies: ESH, Ethics, and Social Impact •  Will Nano parallel the path of other new technologies? –  Asbestos?, DDT?, Nuclear technologies? •  “Nanotechnology has a unique opportunity…”: The first platform technology that introduces a culture of social sensitivity and environmental awareness early in the lifecycle of the technology. •  From the UK: Nanotechnology may help the human race to survive the global problems we have created; or it may accelerate our downfall. •  A focus on ethics: prevent fear and controversy? •  Initial toxicology studies: controversial… –  Anecdotal more than controlled scientific studies •  Lots of hype – lots of misinformation –  Grey Goo made famous by Eric Drexler, –  Nanobots by Michael Crichton
  • 22. Grey Goo…. and Nanobots The term was first used by molecular nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler in his book Engines of Creation. In Chapter 4 Engines Of Abundance Drexler explores a scary scenario of exponential growth with molecular assemblers: Drexler describes grey goo in Chapter 11 Engines Of Destruction: "...early assembler-based replicators could beat the most advanced modern organisms. "Plants" with "leaves" no more efficient than today's solar cells could out-compete real plants, crowding the biosphere with an inedible foliage. Tough, omnivorous "bacteria" could out-compete real bacteria: they could spread like blowing pollen, replicate swiftly, and reduce the biosphere to dust in a matter of days. Dangerous replicators could easily be too tough, small, and rapidly spreading to stop - at least if we made no preparation. We have trouble enough controlling viruses and fruit flies." It is thus worth noting that grey goo need not be grey or gooey. They could be like, for all purposes, a plant or bacteria. It is only the result of their ecophagy that would resemble grey goo. "I wish I had never used the term 'grey goo' " Drexler, Nature 10 June 2004
  • 23. Nano Safety Issues are a Major Focus of Researchers and Policy Makers A sampling of the possible pathways a nanomaterial might follow in the environment. Understanding how these pathways work for nanomaterials is key to predicting their environmental impact. Image Credit: Vicki Colvin, Rice University
  • 24. The Nanoethics Group is a non-partisan and independent organization that studies the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology. We also engage the public as well as collaborate with nanotech ventures and research institutes on related issues that will impact the industry. By proactively opening a dialogue about the possible misuses and unintended consequences of nanotechnology, the industry can avoid the mistakes that others Nano-creations: have made repeatedly in business, most recently in the biotech sector - ignoring the issues, reacting too late and losing the critical battle of public opinion. "Is it the next ______________________________________________________ best thing to __ sliced bread...or NEWS! the next asbestos?" Here are links to the most recent news about us: MIT Technology Review - First nano-product safety recall? (Apr. 10, 2006) - Dr. Mark Nanotechnology Perceptions - "Nanoethics and Human Enhancement: A Critical Wiesner, Evaluation of Recent Arguments" (Mar. 27, 2006) professor, Rice Press Release - Nanoethics Lecture at International Physics Symposium (Feb. 6, University's 2006) Center for ComputerWorld - "Group Calls for Closer Look at Nanotech Ethics, Safety Risks" (Jan. 23, 2006) Biological and Press Release - The Nanoethics Advisory Board (Jan. 23, 2006) Environmental Click here - for more news and announcements. Nanotechnology (CBEN) Call For Papers - We're always interested in the latest thinking in nanoethics, if you have a new paper to contribute for one of our many ongoing projects.
  • 25. We are basing our decisions on speculation, not evidence. Proponents are pressing their Topic of a recent DC views with more PR than scientific data. Event: Indeed, we have allowed the whole issue to be “Nanotechnology and politicized Nature: Can we Reduce any Risks & still Reap Michael Creighton… Speaking to National the Rewards” Press Club (on Global Warming debate)
  • 26. Myths to Debunk (Scientifically)! •  Nanomaterials are appearing on the planet for the first time •  Nanomaterials though varied, will all have the same hazards •  Nanotechnology is fully developed and we can contemplate all possible hazards at the present time •  Nanotechnology hazards that are reflected in science fiction and “visionary predictions” are real •  Nanobots (grey goo) will envelop us all following this talk
  • 27. What we’re up against! General Public “Scientifically Aware” New National Poll Finds: More In a survey of 500 Science Americans Know Snow White's Teachers: Dwarfs Than Supreme Court Judges, Homer Simpson Than -  17% knew what a GFI was Homer's Odyssey, and Harry Potter Than Tony Blair -  12% knew the best type of –  ULLES, Va. & UTICA, N.Y.-- D fire extinguisher for a (BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug. 14, 2006- science lab Political Knowledge – Then and Now 1989 2007 Diff -  14% knew the use of Percent who could name… % % MSDSs The current vice president 74 69 -5 -  25% knew chemicals Their state’s governor 74 66 -8 The president of Russia* 47 36 -11 should not be stored alphabetically Sources: Gold Rush Pop Culture Poll from AOL and Mark Burnett - Conducted by Zogby International Pew Charitable Trust Survey The Lab Safety Institute
  • 28. And now for something completely different… Some Science
  • 29. Small is Different •  Quantum mechanics •  Thermal motion Hardness of Silver/Chromium •  Electric charge multilayers 6 •  Behavior dominated by 20 nm alternating Ag/Cr film surface atoms 5 Hardness (GPa) 4 Nanoclusters are surface systems Cr 3 Fraction of surface atoms Cluster size Rule of mixtures value On the Within 1 atom of 2 surface the surface Ag 106 atoms 0.06 0.12 1 105 atoms 0.12 0.23 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 104 atoms 0.25 0.45 Plastic depth (nm) 103 atoms 0.49 0.78 Nanoscale structure controls bulk properties
  • 30. Carbon Nanotube Devices •  Highly-localized fiber optic and electroanalytical probes –  Applications in sensors, microfluidic detection, and cell imaging •  DNA delivery •  Neuron interfacing (sensing and control) •  Field emission and solid-state lighting
  • 31. Nanocluster-strengthened Steels •  Creep rate of nanocluster-strengthened steels is ~6 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional steels •  Nanoclusters remain virtually unchanged during long-term creep tests at 850°C •  Nanoscale structure is key to high temperature performance of conventional steels
  • 32. Structural Ceramic Nanoengineering • Dopant additions can alter the reinforcing grains that toughen silicon nitride ceramics • Using high-resolution electron microscopy and computer simulations, we have learned why these materials are so strong • These findings provide a basis for the atomic-scale design of advanced ceramics
  • 33. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Oak Ridge National Laboratory -  DOE BES User Facility -  $65 M construction, $18 M operating -  7 Scientific Themes Macromolecular Complex Systems, Theory, Functional Nanomaterials, Catalysis, Nanophysics, Imaging, Bio- Nano/Nanofabrication
  • 34. Protecting you, our workers, and the environment – a focus at the CNMS •  ESH controls built into the facility –  Many of the hazards parallel those in other labs •  Lots of hoods, gas cabinets, etc. •  Use of standard personal protection equipment –  HEPA protection on outgoing exhaust… •  In labs where nano particles are being handled •  Possible for all labs in the building •  Special air monitoring for small particles •  ESH standards are being developed –  Multi-agency effort under the National Nanotechnology Initiative •  American National Standards Institutes (ANSI), EPA, etc. –  DOE is a major participant •  CNMS and the other DOE Nanoscience Centers are leading participants. •  Includes National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
  • 35. The future… •  Some of the dreams and nightmares are too far out there. As we know, there are known knowns. There are things we know we know. We also know- There are known unknowns. That is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns, the ones we don't know we don't know. —Feb. 12, 2002, Department of Defense news briefing –  There will be some hazards, scientists learn to work with them! •  If nothing else- NANO will have made a profound effect on renewing interest in science and the contributions to the scientific infrastructure •  Anything can happen… The jury is still out!