Managing research in a commercial setting


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Managing research in a commercial setting

  1. 1. A premier aerospace and defense companyChallenges & Solutions for ResearchOperations at Commercial High Risk FacilitiesDr. Sarah B. HizaDirector of Research OperationsATK Aerospace1 ATK Proprietary
  2. 2. Agenda and Topics A premier aerospace and defense company • Introduction to ATK & Research Operations at ATK • Challenges in Research Operations • High Risk Energetic Materials •process, technical & safety •business • Solutions Discussion • Organizations and Charters • A Cradle-to-Grave, or Lifecycle’s, Approach • Risk Awareness & Management • Operational Disciplines • Leadership Engagement • Examples of Research Operations Successes • Concluding Perspectives2
  3. 3. History & Introduction to ATK A premier aerospace and defense company To be a global, diversified, industrial company that develops and manufacturesATK Vision highly-engineered materials and products that support mission-critical applications for our defense, aerospace, and security and sporting customers.Employees 17,000Locations More than 60 facilities in 22 states, Puerto Rico, and internationally. ATK Financial Information*Our History Financial measures FY11 Sales $4.8 Billion-Launched as an independent company in1990, when Honeywell spun off its defense FY11 Orders $4.8 Billionbusinesses to shareholders FY11 Earnings per Share $9.32 -Former Honeywell businesses had supplied Sales by customer U.S. Army 30%defense products and systems to the U.S. NASA 13%and its allies for 50 years U.S. Air Force 7%-Multiple acquisitions through the mid U.S. Navy 11%2000s Other U.S. Government 7% Commercial/International 32% Sales by contract Prime Contractor 71% Subcontractor 29% *All results based on FY11 3
  4. 4. Introduction: 4 Business Groups A premier aerospace and defense company ATK Aerospace ATK Armament ATK Missile Products ATK Security and Sporting 4
  5. 5. Research Operations at ATK A premier aerospace and defense company The Research Operations directorate resides in the ATK Aerospace businessgroup and is located between 2 Utah locations. However, we are proud to support and serve all business lanes of ATK. Promontory, Utah Magna, Utah • 70 employees • 15 employees • 100 facilities/buildings • 30 facilities/buildings • 50 programs/projects per year • 20 program/projects per year • Storage of up to 1-M lbs of explosives • Storage of up to 300,000 lbs of and propellants explosives and propellants 5
  6. 6. Who We Are: Organizationally Unique A premier aerospace and defense companyResearch Operations provides a lifecycles approach and hands-on execution for-aging and surveillance of fielded assets IR&D,-first time article builds-low rate production Contracted Development &-new designs & assemblies Technology,-testing of materials and small articles-storage, handling & logistics for unknown, new or Contracted Production suspect materials Programs-troubleshooting (e.g. line stoppages, production changes) •Hands-on execution – build, mix, test 2 organizations •Generate & compile data for •New Material & Process analysis that Development •Lifecycle, Documentation, and complement •Formulation DOEs Change Control •Safe & Repeatable Processes one another •Analysis of Material Evaluations & Data •Compliance and Audits with different •Concepts & Proposals • Storage & Logistical Management charters & •Research in Energetic Molecules and Polymers •Facility & Equipment Upkeep & focus Maintenance •Advanced Chemical Analysis 6
  7. 7. Core Capabilities & High Risk Activities 10-grams  100-lbs Grams  500-lbs Scale Propellant & Explosive Synthesis & Nitration Mixing full detonation subscale partial detonation detonation testing Testing & Performance no detonation Evaluation for Aging & Surveillance, Propellants including full Inert and disassembly &Processing, Machining, and Explosives dissection of rocket 7 Testing motors
  8. 8. High Risk Operations: Energetic MaterialsAn energetic material has a high amount of internally stored chemical energy thatcan be released on demand without atmospheric oxygen.Release of energy is on demand via Oxidizer •Rapid decomposition Tetrazene Explosives Propellants •Intra-molecular oxidation reduction Pyrotechnics Nitramines Heat Reductant (fuel) •Inter-molecular oxidation reduction Perchlorate and Aluminum AlEnergy release is accompanied by Light Pressure Stable, low enthalpy molecules (N2, H2O, CO, CO2, etc) Heat 8
  9. 9. Safety Basics with Energetic Materials•Start with very small quantities and have • Constantly and consistently evaluategated scale-ups and requirements sensitivity of the materials (related to activation energy, Ea ) and mitigate via PPE, grounding, and other engineering• Conduct as many operations remotely aspossible controls 1) Thermal• Limit personnel exposure 2) Impact 3) Friction• Design facilities to prevent “domino effects” 4) Electrostatic – Quantity Distance (Q.D.’s) - Why We Have So Many Individual Building Structures• Incorporate engineering interlocks as oftenas reasonably possible9
  10. 10. Processing, Safety, & Technical ChallengesHazard Recognition Consequences of unplanned events with explosives and propellants are unacceptable to our customers and ATKEffective Preparation & Planning “Swiss Cheese Effect” leads to poor quality, safety incidents and poor business performanceUnderstanding and Meeting Compliance and Requirements: DOD 4145.26M, DOTrequirements, EPA Non-compliance and findings can lead to delays in deliverables, delays in contract awards, government fines, and loss of programs10
  11. 11. Business ChallengesAppropriate Program Budget, Schedule and Scope Every customer, internal or external, wants the most technically-advanced article/material/product with the best performance…for pennies We must offer value, not necessarily a cutting-corner’s approachAdequate Discretionary and Indirect Resources Lack of discretionary resources can lead to poorly maintained facilities & equipment, inadequate training, and outdated or ineffective practicesMaintaining an Operational Rhythm Idle employees can lead to low morale, sloppy execution, and costly expenses The Business Challenges can directly affect the Processing, Safety, & Technical Challenges discussed previously.11
  12. 12. Solutions: Organizational Checks & Balances Recognition of Hazards Research & Research Effective Preparation & Planning Development Operations Understanding and Meeting Compliance and Requirements Appropriate Program Budget, Schedule and Making of New Materials with Change Awareness & Evaluation Scope Unknown Sensitivities Adequate Discretionary and Indirect Resources Maintaining an Operational Rhythm Testing, Performance Facility & Equipment & Evaluation Readiness & Checkout Organizational separation provides a Checks & Balance group whose function is for High Risk Operations -to ensure we ask questions and TAKE 2* (provide balance to the excitement and eagerness of an idea) -to be compliant and aware of requirements"Dont be afraid to challenge the pros,even in their own backyard. […] Sometimes (take care of the “stuff” the creative scientists and engineers don’t care about and don’t want to beeven the pros can become complacent.” bothered with) -General Colin Powell *based on DuPont’s TAKE 2…for Safety™ 12
  13. 13. Solutions: Hazard Recognition & Risk Management Recognition of Hazards• Quantification/Ease of Assessment Effective Preparation & Planning• Process to Gaining Approvals & Buy-In Understanding and Meeting Compliance and Requirements Appropriate Program Budget, Schedule and Scope Management Risk Adequate Discretionary and Indirect Resources Maintaining an Operational Rhythm Education, Mentoring & Training xxxxxxxxxx Provides Consistency, Predictability 13 & Standards
  14. 14. Solutions: Hazard Recognition and Response Recognition of Hazards• Education, Mentoring and Training Effective Preparation & Planning – Energetics Education & Training Understanding and Meeting Compliance and Requirements - Tracked and reinforced Appropriate Program Budget, Schedule and – Lessons-learned and cased-studies Scope Adequate Discretionary and Indirect Resources – Automated Training System that elevates Maintaining an Operational Rhythm Risk Management• Help Chain Pulled – Anything New or Unusual – Condition of employment• Help Chain Defined 14
  15. 15. Solutions: A Lifecycles Focus & Operational DisciplineRecognition of Hazards Appropriate Program Budget, Schedule &Effective Preparation & Planning ScopeUnderstanding and Meeting Compliance and Adequate Discretionary & IndirectRequirements Resources Maintaining an Operational Rhythm Receipt, Stor age & Energetics Inert and Motor Management Energetic Materials Testing Waste Materials and Support of Materials Materials and Testing Product Disposal and Processes Aging & and Related Processes Validation of Testing, Perfor Handling of Development Surveillance Assets Development Mechanical mance Customer & Processing Programs and & Processing Properties & Evaluation & Property & Planning & of Inert Motor Demil of Energetics Performance Data Capture Tooling Project Components Support Management Research Operations Foundation: Operational Disciplines “The assurance that the specific activities necessary for the successful daily operation of a companys operations are running as they should be. This can include specific goals, missions, and guidelines.” – You know (and appreciate) operational discipline when you see it! Cleanliness & Order, Focus on Execution, Predictability, Rhythm 15
  16. 16. Solutions: Operational Disciplines Recognition of Hazards Appropriate Program Budget, Schedule & Effective Preparation & Planning Scope Understanding and Meeting Compliance and Adequate Discretionary & Indirect Requirements Resources Maintaining an Operational Rhythm Matrix Timelines, Process Hazards, Roles & Responsibilities (other examples: compliance matrix, open items, etc)“Nothing can be more hurtful to the service, than the neglect of discipline; for that discipline, more thannumbers, gives one army the superiority over another.” -GEORGE WASHINGTON, general orders, Jul. 6, 1777 16
  17. 17. Solutions: Know the “Is” Condition with Tracking Tools• Identification of key metrics and track Recognition of Hazardsthem Effective Preparation & Planning •Review them weekly, focus on the Understanding and Meeting Compliance “red” areas, and make it visible for all and Requirements to see Appropriate Program Budget, Schedule and Scope •Mishaps Adequate Discretionary and Indirect •Close-calls Resources •High Value Hazard Abatements Maintaining an Operational Rhythm •Corrective Action Effectiveness •On-Time Schedule Performance • Learn from other’s • Equipment Uptime “Is” condition; •…and many others! sincerely review lessons-learned and related mishaps •Part of our daily start-up meeting 17
  18. 18. Solutions: Leadership Engagement & Commitment Recognition of Hazards• Floor Time Effective Preparation & Planning Ask Questions Understanding and Meeting Compliance “Thats what happens Observe when you sit behind a and Requirements Take Notes desk. You forget Appropriate Program Budget, Schedule and Correct things.” Scope Improve -Taken (movie, 2008) Adequate Discretionary and Indirect Reward Resources See the Needs Maintaining an Operational Rhythm• Be proactive and anticipate what could go wrong Look for ways to get out of the “reactive” mode, and have a proactive approach – by tracking tools, checklists with questions, and asking questions• Having the right leaders“They first got the right people on the bus (and wrong people off the bus) and thenfigured out where to drive it.” –Jim Collins, Good to Great, Chapter 3 “FirstWho…Then What” Of every Solution and Example presented, Leadership is most important. Leadership sets the expectations and focus. Without the right leadership, the 18 aforementioned items will die on the vine.
  19. 19. Highlighted Research Operations’ Recent Successes • Brought on new IR&D raw material pilot plant ahead-of-schedule and below budget – Adequately resourced, a lot of preparation and plan-ahead, an excellent team • Established process, equipment, and mitigations for disassembly – including igniter and nozzle removal – and dissections of multiple fielded rocket motors  new contracts, customers, and a growing business – A lot of preparation, evaluations, interlocks, and inert checkouts 19
  20. 20. Concluding Perspectives• My career started as an R&D Scientist – I wanted mixes, data and results – I wanted some 1st time hands-on and observations but was not interested in completing the 25 DOE mix/formulation series• Phrases that can never apply in a high risk commercial environment – “good enough”, “I’d rather be lucky than good”, “let’s get by with this”, “bend the rules just this once”• Standards, Convenient Checklists, Expectations, Predictable Processes and MatureSystems are critical to any of our successes• Commitment to a Research Operations charter (regardless of organizational titles andstructure) takes time, effort, persistence, investment, and passion• Much of the tools, examples, and messages can be traced back to the core principlesof Toyota’s Lean Production Systems (PES). We are not perfect at everything that I’ve presented today; every year we get better. I am committed to continuously improving and staying vigilant. 20
  21. 21. Thank you! Questions? Shappell & Wiegmann, 200321