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  • 1. Lab-HIRA: Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis for the Chemical Research Laboratory Dr. David Leggett Leggett Technical Consulting Los Angeles, CA 243rd ACS National Meeting San Diego CA, March 2012
  • 2. Lab-HIRA: Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment A straightforward technique designed to identify and assess the hazards of conducting a chemical synthesis in the research environment. Once hazards have been recognized appropriate risk minimization or mitigation measures can be implemented by the researcher. An additional formal hazard analysis for the synthesis reaction may be recommended. LEGGETT Slide A:2 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 3. Lab-HIRA: Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment • An explosion at Sussex University (UK, 1988) seriously injured a student. o UK H&SE prosecuted SU for negligence. o Today, British researchers are required to write down risk assessments before every experiment. • Univ. of California (Los Angeles), Texas Tech Univ. & Univ. of Florida have had well-publicized serious accidents in their chemistry labs LEGGETT Slide A:3 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 4. Lab-HIRA: Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment• Accident rate is 10 to 50 times higher than that in industrial laboratories o In industry scientists are required to do a careful hazard analysis and follow strict safety precautions o Very few [academic] scientists have taken formal courses in safety, health, and toxicology o Most relevant safety articles are published in journals devoted outside of an academics major field of interestA.K. Furr, Handbook of Laboratory Safety (2000)US Chemical Safety Board, Texas Tech University LaboratoryExplosion Case Study (2010) LEGGETT Slide A:4 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 5. Lab-HIRA: Hazard Identification and Risk AssessmentChemical Industry Typically Requires Hazards Testing forNew Chemistry Destined for Full Scale Manufacture Type of HazardScale of Reaction Typical Approaches AssessmentResearch & Desktop Study Calculations, Literature,Development Small Scale Testing DSC, Mixing Cal, RSST Qualitative and Semi- Reaction Calorimetry,Pilot or Kilo Lab Quantitative Testing Adiabatic Calorimetry Custom testing for DIERS, Dust, ReactionManufacturing Engineering Design Calorimetry, Flammability LEGGETT Slide A:5 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 6. Lab-HIRA: Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Lab-HIRA: Hazards Identification and Risk Analysis for New Chemistry at Research Scale Desktop Study Calculations, Literature Small Scale Testing DSC, Mixing Calorimetry, RSST SWIF or Simple HAZOP, if needed LEGGETT Slide A:6 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 7. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationLab-HIRA uses the physical, chemical, andhealth data for reactants and reactions:• Flammability – vapors, liquids, solids• Specific Chemical Hazards• Health Data – toxicity, exposure, carcinogenicity• Reaction Conditions• Equipment such as radiation sources LEGGETT Slide A:7 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 8. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationFour Classes of Data Support Lab-HIRA Class 1: Property Expressed as Specific Value Class 2: Hazardous Characteristic of Molecule Class 3: Reaction Hazards, by Type or Named Rxn Class 4: Conditions of Synthesis LEGGETT Slide A:8 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 9. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationProperties Expressed as Discrete Values Chemical / Energy Property Value Source IDLH Hydrazine 50 ppm LD50 (rats) 1,4-Dioxane 5,200 mg kg-1 TWA (OSHA) SO2 5 ppm Flash Point THF -14 °C Laser Source High intensity laser Class 4 Flammability Hexane Class IA LEGGETT Slide A:9 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 10. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationFor discrete values, such as LD50, map values to anindex scale 0 thru’ 4 Hazard Hazard Min Max Index Value 0 No Hazard > 5,000 1 Minimal > 500 5,000 2 Minor > 50 500 3 Moderate 5 50 4 Major <5United Nations, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling ofChemicals (2005) LEGGETT Slide A:10 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 11. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard Identification Properties are expressed in various units: Hazard Index Value Property 0 1 2 3 4Flammability NF / NC IIIB II or IIIA IB or IC IALaser Source None Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4UV Source, nm None 400-320 320-280 280-100 <100MIE, mJ >5 2-5 0.5 - 2 0.05 - 0.5 < 0.05Auto-Ign, C > 500 350 - 500 250 - 350 150 - 250 < 150Hazard No Haz Minimal Minor Moderate Major LEGGETT Slide A:11 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 12. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationFour Classes of Data Class 1: Property Expressed as Specific Value Class 2: Hazardous Characteristic of Molecule Class 3: Reaction Hazards, by Type or Named Reaction Class 4: Conditions of Synthesis LEGGETT Slide A:12 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 13. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationHazardous Characteristics of Molecules Index IndexSpecific Hazard Code ValuePyrophoric: spontaneously flammable or AIR 3reactive with air < 130 FForms gaseous products during reaction – GAS 2CO2, CO, H2, N2, C4H10Suspected carcinogen, teratogen, mutagen or HLTH 4reproductive hazardImpact or friction sensitive IMPT 3Molecule requires temperature controlled TCN 2storage or handling LEGGETT Slide A:13 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 14. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationFour Classes of Data Class 1: Property Expressed as Specific Value Class 2: Hazardous Characteristic of Molecule Class 3: Reaction Hazards, by Type or Named Rxn Class 4: Conditions of Synthesis LEGGETT Slide A:14 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 15. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationHazardous Characteristics of Molecules Index Reaction Type Reaction Type ValueDecarboxylation Removal of –COOH with CO2 evolved 2 Nitration Red fuming or white HNO3, N2O4 3 LiAlH4, N2H4 in KOH, NaBH4 in CH3OH 3 Reductions BF3 / NaBH4, H2 + catalyst 2 Oxalyl chloride – high health hazard 3Esterifications RCOOH + SOCl2 followed by R’OH 2 LEGGETT Slide A:15 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 16. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard Identification Hazard Levels of Named Reactions Index Reaction Type Reaction Type ValueWolff-Kishner Reduction of RCHO or R2CO to RH with 3Reduction H2NNH2 Reaction of R’MgCl to RCHO or RR”CO toGrignard Reaction 3 form RR’CHOH or RR’R”COH One-carbon oxidative degradation ofKochi Reaction 1 R-COOH using a Pb(IV) reagentMeerwein- The aluminum-catalyzed hydride shift from thePonndorf-Verley α-carbon of an alcohol reagent to RR’CO 2Reduction forming RR’CHOH LEGGETT Slide A:16 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 17. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationFour Classes of Data Class 1: Property Expressed as Specific Value Class 2: Hazardous Characteristic of Molecule Class 3: Reaction Hazards, by Type or Named Reaction Class 4: Conditions of Synthesis LEGGETT Slide A:17 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 18. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard Identification Properties are expressed in various units: Synthesis Hazard Index Value Conditions 0 1 2 3 4 150 -TPROCESS, MAX ( C) < 75 75 - 150 250 - 400 > 400 250PPROCESS (psig) < 10 10 - 25 25 - 75 75 - 150 > 150TFEED ( C) < 35 35 - 60 60 - 80 80 - 100 > 100Scale-up Ratio 1 1-5 5 - 50 50 - 500 > 500Reaction Mass (kg) < 0.005 0.005 – 0.1 0.1 - 1 1-5 >5 LEGGETT Slide A:18 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 19. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationLab-HIRA compared to OSHA Lab Standard (29 CFR1910.1450) Health Properties: Lab-HIRA and 1910.1450 Physical and Chemical Properties: Lab-HIRA only Reaction Conditions: Lab-HIRA only LEGGETT Slide A:19 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 20. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard Identification Overall Hazard Index, OHI given by:OHI IVD IS_PR IVD IS_C N D IV C H M _H Z IV N AM E IV T YPE DIS_PR = Discrete property (LD50, Flash Pt.) mapped to range DIS_CND = Discrete reaction condition (TRXN) mapped to range CHM_HZ = Index value for specific chemical hazard (AIR, WAT) NAME = Specific named reaction (Wolff-Kirshner) TYPE = Type of reaction (Decarboxylation) LEGGETT Slide A:20 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 21. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationCase Study 1:Diphenylmethane from Benzophenone, using Wolff-Kishner reaction: KOH, HOCH2CH2OH H2NNH2 200 °C, RefluxPopulate Lab-HIRA Chemical Hazard Review form for:• Benzophenone• Potassium hydroxide pellets• Hydrazine hydrate• Ethylene glycol LEGGETT Slide A:21 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 22. LEGGETT Slide A:22Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 23. Toxicity LD50 oral (rat) 129 mg/kg ACGIH TLVs TWA (ACGIH) 40 ppm Exposure Limits OSHA PEL & NIOSH IDLH TWA (OSHA) n/a ppm Melting & Boiling Pt; AutoIgnition B Pt 113 °C Lower Flam Flammability (Liquid) LEL / UEL ; Fl Pt 5 v/v% Limit Radiation Sources, Nuclear, Laser, UV Nuclear n/a Radiation TypeLEGGETT Dust Expl Severity: ST / Pmax / MIE ST Dust Class n/a Slide A:23Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 24. LD50 skin LC50 inhal 600 mg/kg 570 ppm(rabbit) Gas (rat)STEL (ACGIH) 1 ppm C (ACGIH) n/a ppmPEL (OSHA) 1 ppm IDLH (NIOSH) 50 ppm M Pt -52 °C AutoIgn Temp 270 °CUpper Flam 98 v/v% Flash Point 72 °CLimit Laser Type n/a Laser Class UV Wavelength n/a nm Pmax LEGGETT n/a psi Vapor MIE n/a mJ Slide A:24 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 25. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationSpecific Index Index Code Data for Hydrazine ValueHazardFlash Point FlPt 72 °C 2Flam. Liquid FLAM Class IIIA 2Explosion EXPL LFL = 5; UFL = 98 v/v% 4 LD50 oral = 129mg kg-1; LC50 Inh =Toxic Hazard TOXIC 2 570ppm; LC50 skin = 600mg kg-1 IDLH = 50 ppm;Exposure EXPOS 4 PEL = 1ppm; TLV = 40ppmAI Temperature AIT 270 °C 2 FlPt = 72 °C; BPt = 113 °C;Fl. Pt vs BPt FPBP 2 Rxn T = 200 °C LEGGETT Slide A:25 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 26. FlPt 2 FLAM 2 EXPL 4 TOXIC 2 EXPOS 4AIT 2 FPBP 2 Susp. birth defects, cancer,GAS Gas formed during reaction HLTH HIRR High reaction rate mutagenic, teratogenicPOLY Easily polymerizes RDOX Strong oxidizer or reducer RUN Secondary runaway reaction Temperature control neededTCN WAT Water reactive for storage LEGGETT Slide A:26 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 27. Severe A formal Risk Analysis MUST be performed for this chemicalLEGGETT Slide A:27Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 28. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationRepeat data entry for other reactantsReview results of Hazard Identification and RiskAnalysis on Reaction Summary:• Potentially Hazardous Reaction Conditions• Summary of Hazard Properties of all Reagents• Potentially Hazardous Reaction Chemistry• Additional Concerns• Recommendations for Additional Hazard Review LEGGETT Slide A:28 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 29. LEGGETT Slide A:29Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 30. Hazards of Reaction Conditions (Check all that apply) Hazardous Functional Group Added to Molecule (y/n) n Conversion of Existing Hazardous Functional Group (y/n) n Reaction performed less than 3 times (y/n) y Reaction to be run unattended (y/n) y Scale-up reaction? Enter scale-up factor (Default = 1) 1 Maximum reaction temperature 200 °C Minimum reaction temperature 25 °C Maximum temperature of feed 25 °C Maximum pressure of reaction 0 psig Maximum pressure of feed 0 psigLEGGETT Slide A:30 Hazard Rating for Reaction HazardTechnical Consulting Minor ACS March 2012
  • 31. LEGGETTTechnical Consulting . 6 5 4 3 2 1 Check Safeguards Benzophenone Compliance Diethylene glycol Hydrazine hydrate Potassium Hydroxide Toxic based on LC(D)50 values for y y y y Oral, Skin or Inhalation Exposure based on TLV, y y n n PEL, or IDLH Classification of Flammable or y y n n TOXIC EXPOS FLAM Combustible Liquid Minimum Ignition Energy n n n n Slide A:31 MIE-V (Vapor or Gas) ACS March 2012 y y n n Autoignition Hazard AIT
  • 32. Named Reaction Hazard Rating Wolff-Kishner ReductionWolff-Kishner Reduction The reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alkanes. Condensation of the carbonyl compound with hydrazine forms the hydrazone, and treatment with base induces the reduction of the carbon coupled with oxidation of the hydrazine to gaseous nitrogen, to yield the corresponding alkane. The Huang-Minlon modification removes water and excess hydrazine by distillation, using a Dean Stark distillation trap, so that he reaction temperature can rise to 200 C. This allows the use of the cheaper hydrazine hydrate in place of anhydrous hydrazine. The Clemmensen Reduction can effect a similar conversion under strongly acidic conditions, and is useful if the starting material is base-labile. LEGGETT Slide A:32 Hazard Rating for Named Reactions Technical Consulting Major ACS March 2012
  • 33. Lab-HIRA Hazard Assessments for Synthesis Step Section 1: Named Reaction or Reaction Class and Reaction Conditions for Step 1 of the Diphenylmethane synthesis Overall Hazard Ratings and Recommendations Hazards of Reaction Conditions (Check all that apply) Reaction Class Hazard Rating Named Reaction Hazard Rating Hazardous Functional Group Added to Molecule (y/n) n Use Named Reactions Hazards Wolff-Kishner Reduction Conversion of Existing Hazardous Functional Group (y/n) n Use Named Reactions Hazards Wolff-Kishner Reduction Reaction performed less than 3 times (y/n) y Use the named reactions hazards to evaluate the potential hazards The reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alkanes. Condensation of the Reaction to be run unattended (y/n) Scale-up reaction? Enter scale-up factor (Default = 1) y 1 SEVERE HAZARD: Consider substituting one or more carbonyl compound with hydrazine forms the hydrazone, and treatment with base induces the reduction of the carbon coupled with oxidation of the hydrazine to gaseous nitrogen, to yield the corresponding alkane. TheUse of Hazardous Chemicals Maximum reaction temperature Minimum reaction temperature 138 25 °C °C reagents for less hazardous compounds. Perform a Risk Huang-Minlon modification removes water and excess hydrazine by distillation, using a Dean Stark distillation trap, so that he reaction temperature can rise to 200 C. This allows the use of the cheaper hydrazine Maximum temperature of feed Maximum pressure of reaction 25 0 °C psig Analysis focusing on reagent handling and use. hydrate in place of anhydrous hydrazine. The Clemmensen Reduction can effect a similar conversion under strongly acidic conditions, and is useful if the starting material is base-labile. Maximum pressure of feed 0 psig Hazard Rating for Reaction Hazard Minimal Hazard Rating for Reaction Classes No Hazard Hazard Rating for Named Reactions MajorHazard Potential of Reaction MAJOR HAZARD: Perform a Risk Analysis focusing on the Section 2: Summary Table of Reagents Used During Step 1 of the Diphenylmethane synthesisChemistry reactive chemistry and synthetic methods for this step Temp control needed for storage . Toxic based on LC(D)50 values for Secondary Runaway Reaction(s) Birth Defects, Teratogenic Risk Classification of Flammable or Suspected Cancer, Mutagenic, (alpha, beta, gamma, X-Ray) Gas formed during reaction Impact / Friction Sensitive Strong Oxidizer / Reducer Minimum Ignition Energy Exposure based on TLV, Oral, Skin or Inhalation Reaction Temperature Check UV Radiation Source Autoignition Hazard Combustible Liquid High Reaction Rate Flash Point Hazard Easily Polymerizes (Class 1, 2, 3, or 4) Ionizing Radiation Safeguards Peroxide Former High Corrosivity Explosive VaporHazard Potential of Reaction (100 to 400 nm) Static Sensitive Water reactive (Vapor or Gas) > Flash Point Laser Source Air Sensitive PEL, or IDLH Compliance Sensitizer MINOR HAZARD: No Additional Risk Analysis neededConditions Chemical Hazards Score At least one reactant, or solvent, has a flash point 25 C, or and RatingAdditional Concerns 1 Hydrazine hydrate TOXIC EXPOS FLAM y y y MIE-V n AIT y EXPL y FlPt y lower, than the y n n max n n n n n n n y (200 nC) 28 y n n n planned y reaction temperature n FPBP NUCL LASER UV RDOX STAT POLY HLTH WAT AIR COR PERX HIRR IMPT TCN SENS RUN GAS Severe 2 Benzophenone y y n n n y n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n y n n 8 Minor 3 Potassium Hydroxide y n n n n n n n n n n n n n n y n y n y n n n n n 9 Minor 4 Diethylene glycol y n y n y y y y n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n 7 Minor 5 No Hazard 6 No Hazard 7 No Hazard 8 No Hazard 9 No Hazard 10 No Hazard Section 3: Hazard Ratings, Recommendations and Documentation for Lab-HIRA Review Documentation for Hazard Review Overall Hazard Ratings and Recommendations Name of Chemist Ludwig Kirshner Date Form Reviewed 3/1/1912 SEVERE HAZARD: Consider substituting one or more Name of Reviewer Rudolp Fittig Date Form Completed 3/2/1912 Use of Hazardous Chemicals reagents for less hazardous compounds. Perform a Risk Analysis focusing on reagent handling and use. Standad Synthesis Protocols Followed? (Provide reference) Hazard Potential of Reaction MAJOR HAZARD: Perform a Risk Analysis focusing on the Chemistry reactive chemistry and synthetic methods for this step Location of notes and other related documention for this hazard review Hazard Potential of Reaction NO HAZARD Conditions LEGGETT Additional Concerns At least one reactant, or solvent, has a flash point 25 C, or Slide A:33 lower, than the planned max reaction temperature (138 C) Technical Consulting ACS March 2012 Lab-HIRA © Copyright Leggett Technical Consulting 2008 - 2011. Version 4.5; Date November, 2011
  • 34. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard IdentificationCase Study 2:• Synthesis of a vinyldecane derivative using t-BuLi.• Researcher was exposed to t-BuLi during a transfer.• The nitrile gloves and synthetic sweater, worn by the researcher at the time of the accident, caught fire; the chemist was not wearing a lab coat at the time.• She received burns over 40% of her body and died a few weeks later.How would Lab-HIRA have helped in this situation? LEGGETT Slide A:34 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 35. Lab-HIRA Step 1: Hazard Identification Use Describe Safe- other risk Safeguards Required to Work With This Material guard? reductionLab-HIRA produces (Y/N) measures Confirm that only Class I Division 2 rated electricala Safeguards Com- 1 equipment will be used during this synthesispliance Checklist Hazard Codes: WAT, AIR, EXPL, FLAM Consider using a glove box or bag to handle t-Bu Lithiumfor each reagent, 2 Hazard Codes: WAT, AIRincluding PPE Material transfers will be done in the hood, glove box or 3 bag. Open-bench work prohibited for this chemicalrecommendations Hazard Codes: WAT, AIR, TCN Handling techniques for these chemicals have been 13 reviewed and approved by Chemical Safety Committee Hazard Codes: AIR Written contingency plans are available covering worst 14 case accident scenarios Hazard Codes: WAT, AIR Signed: ____________________________________ Date: Print Name: ________________________________ _________ Grad Student  Post Doc  Supervisor  LEGGETT Slide A:35 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 36. Lab-HIRA Step 2: Risk AssessmentLab-HIRA may recommend a formal risk analysissuch as a What-If or procedural HAZOP• Chose the hazard analysis technique• Assemble necessary documentation• Conduct risk analysis• Evaluate recommendations for risk reduction• Close out recommendations o Items to be completed before beginning work o Schedule other items for timely completion• Document Lab-HIRA findings LEGGETT Slide A:36 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 37. Lab-HIRA Step 2: Risk AssessmentA typical synthesis procedure for Case Study 1:In a suitable fume hood set up a nitrogen-purged multi-neck flaskequipped with an agitator, reflux condenser, Dean-Stark trap, andtemperature controller.Suspend the ketone (85 g) in an alkylene glycol (~2 L).Place the flask in a room temperature oil bath then add KOH (70 g).Gradually add 80% solution of hydrazine hydrate (65 mL).Heat the reaction mixture slowly heated to 200oC ……… LEGGETT Slide A:37 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 38. Lab-HIRA Step 2: Risk AssessmentAction: Install and set a temperature controller for reactorWhat-If Scenario 1: Temperature controller incorrectly set upor failsConsequence: Failure to control reaction temperature;possible runaway reaction; possible loss of containmentRisk Assessment: Major, if consequence plays outCurrent Safeguards: Chemist monitors reaction regularlyRecommendation: Determine if runaway is possible;consider using redundant T controller if true LEGGETT Slide A:38 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 39. Lab-HIRA Step 2: Risk AssessmentAction: Install and set a temperature controller for reactorWhat-If Scenario 2: Runaway reaction occurs before evasiveaction can be taken?Consequence: Probable loss of containment; possible fire/explosionRisk Assessment: Severe, if consequence plays outCurrent Safeguards: None at present – no GS willing tocamp out beside fume hoodRecommendation: Determine if runaway is possible;consider using redundant T controller if true; do not performovernight runs for this reaction LEGGETT Slide A:39 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 40. Lab-HIRA: Summary and Conclusions• Lab-HIRA identifies and assesses reaction hazards and gives guidance about formal hazard review.• Designed for use by chemists who have sufficient knowledge to safely handle the chemicals and the equipment planned for the synthesis.• The hazard potential may be estimated from readily available physical, chemical, and health data.• Thirty three parameters, indicative of one or more hazardous properties of molecules or synthesis conditions, are used to assess the reaction hazards. LEGGETT Slide A:40 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 41. Lab-HIRA: Summary and Conclusions• The risk-based assessments tend to be conservative.• Once hazards have been recognized appropriate risk reduction measures can be implemented.• If a formal hazard analysis for the synthesis reactions is indicated then techniques, such as Check-List, What-If, SWIF or HAZOP are available.• Thermal hazards testing may be required to quantify the consequences of equipment upsets or procedural short-comings. LEGGETT Slide A:41 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 42. Lab-HIRA: Summary and Conclusions Only open literature data are used. Some hazards associated with the synthesis reaction may be missed. It is the responsibility of the user to determine the adequacy of the hazard identification and risk analysis of their synthesis.LEGGETT Slide A:42Technical Consulting ACS March 2012
  • 43. Lab-HIRA: PublicationsD. Leggett, Lab-HIRA: Hazard Identification and Risk Analysisfor the Chemical Research Laboratory: Part 1. PreliminaryHazard Evaluation, J. Chem. Health & Safety, In pressDOI 10.1016/j.jchas. 2012.01.012D. Leggett, Lab-HIRA: Hazard Identification and Risk Analysisfor the Chemical Research Laboratory: Part 2. Risk Analysis ofLaboratory Operations, J. Chem. Health & Safety, In pressDOI 10.1016/j.jchas.2012.01.013 LEGGETT Slide A:43 Technical Consulting ACS March 2012