Global Harmonization And Labs

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Global Harmonization And Labs

  1. 1. Challenges and Opportunities for Laboratory Safety in Implementing the Global Harmonized System Robert H. Hill, Jr. Atlanta Analytical Services Battelle Memorial Institute, Atlanta, GA 1
  2. 2. My Perspective and Focus •  No expert in GHS •  Not Involved in GHS Development •  Learned about GHS by reading •  Worked in Research Laboratories •  Experience in Laboratory Safety •  Potential impact of GHS in improving lab safety for laboratory workers 2
  3. 3. Ruptured! •  Laboratory worker – Industrial Research •  Needed arsine (AsH3)– Extremely Toxic •  Decided – 100% AsH3 at 200 psig; SCBA •  Conducted in gas cabinet w/: –  Pneumatic shutoff valve (normal closed) –  Continuous monitor AHIA Laboratory Safety •  Turned cylinder on – gauge ruptured Committee: Arsine Gas Release accessed at http://www2.umdnj.edu/eohssweb/ •  Pneumatic valve closed; no exposure aiha/accidents/gas.htm#Arsine. •  Label revealed 10% AsH3/H2 at 2,000 psig! 3
  4. 4. The Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) •  Protects human health and environment by: –  Establishing a global system for classifying hazards –  Providing standard labeling for hazards –  Providing uniform safety data sheets •  Promotes global business/commerce for import- export of chemicals with a uniform system for recognizing, labeling of hazards •  In 2009, 65 countries taking steps to adopt GHS, including U. S. 4
  5. 5. GHS and Its Implementation •  In 2007, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) published – 2nd Revision, Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) – Found at: http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ ghs_rev02/02files_e.html. •  Recommendation – voluntary; no legal requirement •  Use as building blocks for regulatory system – Countries select blocks – depends upon fit 5
  6. 6. GHS Implementation in U. S. •  Four Federal Agencies w/ responsibilities: – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) – U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CSPC) •  Principal impact on laboratories – lab workers – OSHA (lab safety) – EPA (hazardous waste) – DOT (shipping) 6
  7. 7. Hazard Recognition/Communication in U.S. Laboratories •  OSHA oversight of laboratories principally through: – Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) -  Chemical Hygiene Plan; Chemical Hygiene Officer – Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) -  Hazard Labeling; MSDSs •  Performance-based regulations – Employer must comply with regulation – How it is done is up to employer -  Chemical Hygiene Plan required; Employer designs -  Labels required; Supplier or Employer designs -  Require safety training 7
  8. 8. GHS Specifications •  GHS specifies requirements – Definitions, terms – Hazard Classifications – Pictograms (Symbols) – Signal words Danger – Warning statements Causes severe skin – SDS (MSDS) format (Hazard Class) burns and eye damage •  Implementation of GHS requires Corrosive? OSHA change HCS to specific requirements Hazard Category? 8
  9. 9. Challenges, Opportunities for Laboratory Workers •  Learning about details of GHS – New language, terms, definitions – New symbols – New ways to recognize, classify hazards – Standardizes new SDS format •  GHS Hazard Classes & Categories – Valuable tools for laboratory workers – Define all hazard types – Separate into relative categories – Helps judging relative risks in lab operations 9
  10. 10. Hazard Classification •  GHS defines, classifies hazards – Ex.: GHS Flammable liquid – liquid w/ flash point ≤ 60 °C -  Hazard Class (HC) 1 – f.p. < 23 °C, boiling point ≤ 35 °C -  HC 2 – f.p. < 23 °C, b.p.> 35 °C -  HC 3 – f.p. ≥ 23 °C but ≤ 60 °C ° -  HC 4 – f.p. > 60 °C but ≤ 93 °C – Signal words: Danger; Warning •  GHS provides no examples •  Chemical manufacturers, suppliers – use GHS to determine hazard classes, hazard categories 10
  11. 11. Many Hazards Classes •  29 Physical, Health, Environmental Hazard Classes •  16 Physical Hazard Classes – Ex.: Flammable gases; Flammable liquids; Pyrophoric solids •  11 Health Hazard Classes – Ex.: Acute toxicity; Respiratory sensitization; Carcinogenicity •  2 Environmental Hazard Classes – Ex: Acute hazards to aquatic environment 11
  12. 12. Multiple Hazard Classes •  88 Hazard Categories (HC) within 29 Hazard Classes [not uniform] – 20 Classes: HC 1, 2, etc. [HC 1 most hazardous] – 5 Classes: HC 1A, 1B, etc. [HC 1A most hazardous] – 2 Classes: Type A, Type B, etc [Most hazardous designated “Danger”] – 1 Class: Explosives [Unstable; Division 1.1, 1.2, etc.] – 1 Class: Gases Under Pressure (Compressed Gas) •  Signal word “Danger” used for 44 HCs •  4 Classes HC1 use signal word “Warning” – Corrosive to Metals; Skin Sensitizer; Acute Hazards to Aquatic Environment; Chronic Hazards to Aquatic Environment 12
  13. 13. GHS Definitions •  Most – same as OSHA HCA •  Changes should not affect how hazards used in labs – NFPA definition: flammable liquids, f.p.<38 °C – GHS definition: flammable liquids, f.p. ≤ 60 °C – GHS produces change from “combustible” to “flammable” -  acetic acid (f.p. 39° C), dimethylformamide (f.p. 58° C) •  Many definitions established by exacting numbers – Acute toxicity, HC1, ingestion: ≤ 5 mg/kg •  Other definitions more subjective – Carcinogenicity: carcinogens, presumed carcinogens, etc. 13
  14. 14. GHS Pictograms •  Many Familiar to Laboratory Workers Flammable Oxidizer Explosive Corrosive Compressed Gas Poison or Toxic 14
  15. 15. GHS Pictograms •  Some Not Familiar to Laboratory Workers Health Hazard Exclamation Point Environmental Hazard 15
  16. 16. Pictograms & Puzzles •  GHS uses decision trees for selection process •  Most selections seem straight forward, except: •  Exclamation Point (E!) – Puzzling – Does Not Evoke Picture in Mind – Represents Hazard < Torso (T) or Skull/crossbones (SC) – Always uses “Warning” – Toxic hazard: -  HC1, 2, 3 - SC (Danger); HC4 – E! (Warning) – Specific Target Organ Toxicity – Single Exposure: -  HC1 – T (Danger); HC2 – T (Warning); HC3 – E! (Warning) 16
  17. 17. Puzzles for Laboratorians •  GHS Respiratory Sensitization – HC 1 (Danger) •  GHS Skin Sensitization – HC 1 (Warning) – Why Not? – Appears that skin sensitization slight health hazard – Serious laboratory incidents with skin sensitizers •  Specific Target Organ Toxicity – Single/Repeated – New term for laboratory workers – Seems similar to Acute Toxicity; Chronic Toxicity 17
  18. 18. Puzzles for Laboratory Workers •  Some Common Hazard Terms Not Used in GHS – Poison, Lachrymator, Stench •  Poisons – GHS Acute Toxicity, HC 1 & 2; Uses •  Lachrymators – GHS Severe Eye Damage/Eye Irritation; Uses – Does symbol convey hazard? •  Stenches – GHS Classificaton?; Will suppliers omit? 18
  19. 19. Hazard Statements •  Provided for each type of hazard and class •  Likely to be distinct improvement – “Fatal if inhaled” for HC 1 Acute Toxicity by Inhalation – “Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air” for HC1 Pyrophoric Liquids – “Explosive, mass explosion hazard” for Division 1.1 Explosive 19
  20. 20. Conflicts with NFPA •  NFPA Diamond – Used by fire fighters; laboratory workers – Judges relative hazard under fire conditions – Highest Hazard Class 4, Lowest Class 1 •  GHS Hazard Ratings – Highest Hazard HC 1, Lowest Hazard (highest number) •  NFPA & GHS ratings are OPPOSITE! •  NFPA Diamond use likely to continue •  Learn to live with both systems 20
  21. 21. Conclusions About GHS for Laboratory Safety •  GHS provides opportunities for improving laboratory safety in future •  Learning details - Important for laboratory workers •  Change itself is always a challenge •  GHS is new systematic way to assess hazards •  GHS presents challenges – New, but not perfect •  Remember the incident? •  Now, If we can only learn to read, use the label! 21
  22. 22. Questions? •  Robert H. Hill, Jr., Ph.D. •  Atlanta Analytical Services •  Battelle Memorial Institute •  Century Plaza 1, 2987 Clairmont Road, Suite 450 •  Atlanta, GA 30329 •  Email: hillr@battelle.org •  Tel: 404-460-1453; Cell: 678-362-3040 22

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