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Women in RadiologyWomen in Radiology
K. Krizmanich-Conniff, M.D.
Radiology Grand Rounds
February 3, 2010
Women in MedicineWomen in Medicine
• Now an equal number of men and
women in medical schools
• Women account for:
–74% of ...
Women in MedicineWomen in Medicine
• However, only 25% of radiology residents are
women, stable for approximately 20 years
Why is this occurring?Why is this occurring?
• Women may choose specialties such as
OB/GYN and Peds due to:
–Exposure to f...
• Family responsibilities often play a role in
selecting specialties for women
• So, given the possibility for a “better l...
Why Radiology?Why Radiology?
• Top 4 reasons: (3000 Radiologists surveyed, randomly
selected from AMA data base)
– Interes...
Roubidoux et al. Female Medical StudentsRoubidoux et al. Female Medical Students’’ Interest in RadiologyInterest in Radiol...
ResultsResults
• Women with high levels of interest in
radiology were more likely to rate “role
models” positively
• 3 dif...
Results (cont.)Results (cont.)
• No significant differences in level of interest
in radiology between genders
• Fewer wome...
Fielding J et al. Choosing a Specialty in Medicine: Female Medical Students
and Radiology. AJR 2007; 188:897-900
• Survey ...
ResultsResults
• Overall, both men and women ranked
direct patient contact and intellectual
stimulation as the most import...
Results (cont.)Results (cont.)
• For those that did not consider radiology
as a possible career, lack of direct
patient co...
Lastly, yet another possible factorLastly, yet another possible factor……
• At RSNA in 2004, survey results were
presented ...
What can be done to changeWhat can be done to change
this pattern?this pattern?
Based on the dataBased on the data……
• Importance of exposing 1st and 2nd year
medical students to radiology, and all of
i...
More important thoughtsMore important thoughts……
• Women are more likely to avoid competitive
situations
– Given the compe...
Impact of Fewer Female RadiologistsImpact of Fewer Female Radiologists
• 18% of all professionally active
radiologists are...
Impact of Fewer Female RadiologistsImpact of Fewer Female Radiologists
• Has a negative impact on
academic radiology as a ...
Impact on Breast ImagingImpact on Breast Imaging
• From 2004-2007, BI had highest proportion
of unfilled positions among a...
The U of M ExperienceThe U of M Experience
Staff Radiologists at U of MStaff Radiologists at U of M
• 39 women out of 105 total (37%)
• 13 women in Breast Imaging (3...
20082008--2009 RESIDENT SELECTION2009 RESIDENT SELECTION
COMMITTEE REPORTCOMMITTEE REPORT
• “Women make up 25% of the cand...
12 Women Emailed, 10 Responses12 Women Emailed, 10 Responses
• 5 noted that they are single and/or
would like to live in a...
Survey of our current residentsSurvey of our current residents
• 28/43 responded (65%)
–8/12 females (67%)
–20/32 males (6...
During the interview day, do you think it would be useful to have a session
specifically dedicated to family issues such a...
Did you have a mentor in Radiology when youDid you have a mentor in Radiology when you
were in medical school?were in medi...
What year in medical school did you decide onWhat year in medical school did you decide on
Radiology?Radiology?
• Average ...
How happy are you with your choice to go intoHow happy are you with your choice to go into
Radiology?Radiology?
0
10
20
30...
How much did futureHow much did future ““lifestylelifestyle”” play into your residencyplay into your residency
decision?de...
How much did future earning potential play into yourHow much did future earning potential play into your
residency decisio...
Have you had or do you plan on having children duringHave you had or do you plan on having children during
residency?resid...
Do you think having children during residency puts you at aDo you think having children during residency puts you at a
dis...
Upon Graduation from residency/fellowship, how muchUpon Graduation from residency/fellowship, how much
do you plan on work...
Will you be (or are you already) the primary wageWill you be (or are you already) the primary wage--earnerearner
in your h...
Which type of environment would you prefer to work in?Which type of environment would you prefer to work in?
0
10
20
30
40...
Given the choice, do you prefer a workGiven the choice, do you prefer a work--day that includesday that includes
patient c...
ConclusionConclusion-- U of MU of M
• All women like the idea of the added session
on interview day
• Roughly equal % ♂ an...
Overall ConclusionOverall Conclusion
• Equal # of ♂ and ♀ in medical school, but only 25%
of radiology residents are ♀
• I...
Thank you!Thank you!
Special thanks to Dr. Bailey and Dr. RoubidouxSpecial thanks to Dr. Bailey and Dr. Roubidoux
for thei...
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Transcript of "Women in radiology"

  1. 1. Women in RadiologyWomen in Radiology K. Krizmanich-Conniff, M.D. Radiology Grand Rounds February 3, 2010
  2. 2. Women in MedicineWomen in Medicine • Now an equal number of men and women in medical schools • Women account for: –74% of OB/GYN residents* –67% of Pediatrics –56% of Dermatology* –51% of Psychiatry –50% of Family medicine * Growth over the past 10 years Applegate, KE. The Future Workforce in Academic Radiology: Gender, Generational and Cultural Influences J Am Coll Radiol 2005; 2:133-138.
  3. 3. Women in MedicineWomen in Medicine • However, only 25% of radiology residents are women, stable for approximately 20 years
  4. 4. Why is this occurring?Why is this occurring? • Women may choose specialties such as OB/GYN and Peds due to: –Exposure to female role models –Expected societal role to care for women and children –Work environment (both as resident and staff) that is flexible • Stanford female faculty members surveyed: Need w/ significantly highest ranking was “flexible work environment without negative consequences for women with young children.” McGuire LK et al. Career advancement for women faculty in a U.S. school of medicine: perceived needs. Acad Med 2004; 79(4):319-22.
  5. 5. • Family responsibilities often play a role in selecting specialties for women • So, given the possibility for a “better lifestyle” with radiology, why not more women?
  6. 6. Why Radiology?Why Radiology? • Top 4 reasons: (3000 Radiologists surveyed, randomly selected from AMA data base) – Interest in diagnostics – Potential quality of life – Diversity of practice – Potential for defined hours • Significant gender differences: – Men placed more emphasis on “Interest in procedures and technology” and “Presence of strong role model” – Women placed more emphasis on “Potential for defined hours” and “Potential for part-time work” Chertoff JD at al. Career paths in diagnostic radiology: scope and effect of part-time work. Radiology 2001; 221(2):485-94.
  7. 7. Roubidoux et al. Female Medical StudentsRoubidoux et al. Female Medical Students’’ Interest in RadiologyInterest in Radiology Careers.Careers. J Am Coll Radiol 2009J Am Coll Radiol 2009; 6:246; 6:246--253.253. • First year medical students, given a survey before and after a required 7 week course in Radiology • Asked to rate 10 factors that could affect residency choice as positive, neutral or negative • Also asked to rate their level of interest in Radiology in particular
  8. 8. ResultsResults • Women with high levels of interest in radiology were more likely to rate “role models” positively • 3 differences between men and women: –Women more commonly rated “patient contact” positively –Less commonly rated “visual work” positively –More commonly rated “technological work” negatively
  9. 9. Results (cont.)Results (cont.) • No significant differences in level of interest in radiology between genders • Fewer women rated “no interest” after the course (1%) compared with before (10%)
  10. 10. Fielding J et al. Choosing a Specialty in Medicine: Female Medical Students and Radiology. AJR 2007; 188:897-900 • Survey completed by 3rd and 4th year medical students completing their radiology clerkship at 5 institutions (n=288, 47% women) • Asked to rank 10 factors in order of importance to their residency choice • If they didn’t consider radiology a possible career, asked to rank the factors that dissuaded them most
  11. 11. ResultsResults • Overall, both men and women ranked direct patient contact and intellectual stimulation as the most important factors. • For those going into radiology, 22% of men considered a mentor to be an important factor, compared to 0% of women.
  12. 12. Results (cont.)Results (cont.) • For those that did not consider radiology as a possible career, lack of direct patient contact was the #1 factor (94% in women, 97% in men). –Competitiveness: strong dissuading factor for 33% women (vs. 20% for men) –Radiation exposure: strong dissuading factor for 10% women (vs. 3% of men)
  13. 13. Lastly, yet another possible factorLastly, yet another possible factor…… • At RSNA in 2004, survey results were presented indicating fewer than half of all radiology residency programs had a written policy for pregnant residents and radiation safety • However, 2/3 reported resident concerns about the subject Fielding J et al. Choosing a Specialty in Medicine: Female Medical Students and Radiology. AJR 2007; 188:897-900
  14. 14. What can be done to changeWhat can be done to change this pattern?this pattern?
  15. 15. Based on the dataBased on the data…… • Importance of exposing 1st and 2nd year medical students to radiology, and all of its possibilities • Importance of exposing females to subspecialties with patient contact including mammography, pediatrics, IR, GI/GU • Importance of establishing female role models
  16. 16. More important thoughtsMore important thoughts…… • Women are more likely to avoid competitive situations – Given the competitiveness of Radiology, mentors counseling qualified women should help them overcome any reservations • Change the emphasis from patient contact to patient impact – Nearly every patient will undergo an imaging examination, and we do impact patient care significantly, even when we are not directly caring for the patient Fielding J et al. Choosing a Specialty in Medicine: Female Medical Students and Radiology. AJR 2007; 188:897-900 Sax L.. Why gender matters: what parents and teachers should know about the emerging science of sex differences. New York, NY: Doubleday, 2005:39-76.
  17. 17. Impact of Fewer Female RadiologistsImpact of Fewer Female Radiologists • 18% of all professionally active radiologists are women • The 2003 ACR Survey revealed that generally women are: –Younger than male counterparts –Work fewer hours –Perform more breast imaging work –Tend to accept salaried positions in academia over private practice Fielding J et al. Choosing a Specialty in Medicine: Female Medical Students and Radiology. AJR 2007; 188:897-900
  18. 18. Impact of Fewer Female RadiologistsImpact of Fewer Female Radiologists • Has a negative impact on academic radiology as a whole (↑ # of vacancies/academic department since 2003) • Especially in Breast Imaging: – 82% of breast fellows are women (and many spots unfilled each year) – 75% of radiologists who consider breast imaging their 1° or 2° subspecialty are women Update on the Diagnostic Radiology Employment Market: Findings Through 2007- 2008. JH Sunshine; J Am Coll Radiol 2008; 5:827-833.
  19. 19. Impact on Breast ImagingImpact on Breast Imaging • From 2004-2007, BI had highest proportion of unfilled positions among all subspecialties w/ vacancies in almost 30% of practices • Although, overall 3% surplus in 2007 • With ↑ patient population over 40 years, means longer waiting time • More BI centers closing than opening in 2006-07 w/ recruiting and retaining mammographers playing a significant role Update on the Diagnostic Radiology Employment Market: Findings Through 2007-2008. JH Sunshine; J Am Coll Radiol 2008; 5:827-833. Roubidoux et al. Female Medical Students’ Interest in Radiology Careers. J Am Coll Radiol 2009; 6:246-253.
  20. 20. The U of M ExperienceThe U of M Experience
  21. 21. Staff Radiologists at U of MStaff Radiologists at U of M • 39 women out of 105 total (37%) • 13 women in Breast Imaging (33%) • 10 women in Cardiothoracic (26%) • 4 women in Abdominal (10%) • 2 female division directors (Chest & ER) • Female Residency Program Director
  22. 22. 20082008--2009 RESIDENT SELECTION2009 RESIDENT SELECTION COMMITTEE REPORTCOMMITTEE REPORT • “Women make up 25% of the candidate pool, year in and year out • Women who matched at Michigan: 2006- 3, 2007- 2, 2008- 4 (but 1 withdrew to do emergency medicine), 2009- 1 (20% total) • We plan to survey women who could have come here, but went elsewhere, to see if there are gender issues affecting our recruitment” (Excerpt from a power point sent by Dr. Barry Gross)
  23. 23. 12 Women Emailed, 10 Responses12 Women Emailed, 10 Responses • 5 noted that they are single and/or would like to live in a larger city • 2 based their decisions on being closer to family • No gender issues were noted • 1 suggestion: During interview day have a “separate session for women talking about quality of life issues in the city, maternity leave policy, child care, etc.”
  24. 24. Survey of our current residentsSurvey of our current residents • 28/43 responded (65%) –8/12 females (67%) –20/32 males (63%) –By class: • 1st years: 6/11 (54%) • 2nd years: 8/11 (73%) • 3rd years: 7/10 (70%) • 4th years: 7/11 (64%)
  25. 25. During the interview day, do you think it would be useful to have a session specifically dedicated to family issues such as maternity/paternity leave, local child care options, part-time possibilities? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Yes No Men Women %%
  26. 26. Did you have a mentor in Radiology when youDid you have a mentor in Radiology when you were in medical school?were in medical school? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Yes No Men Women %%
  27. 27. What year in medical school did you decide onWhat year in medical school did you decide on Radiology?Radiology? • Average for women: 3.1 years • Average for men: 3.3 years
  28. 28. How happy are you with your choice to go intoHow happy are you with your choice to go into Radiology?Radiology? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Very Happy Happy Indiff. Not Happy Men Women %%
  29. 29. How much did futureHow much did future ““lifestylelifestyle”” play into your residencyplay into your residency decision?decision? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 A lot Somewhat Not at all Men Women %%
  30. 30. How much did future earning potential play into yourHow much did future earning potential play into your residency decision?residency decision? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 A lot Somewhat Not at all Men Women %%
  31. 31. Have you had or do you plan on having children duringHave you had or do you plan on having children during residency?residency? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Yes No Unsure Men Women %%
  32. 32. Do you think having children during residency puts you at aDo you think having children during residency puts you at a disadvantage in comparison to residents without children (as fardisadvantage in comparison to residents without children (as far as learning is concerned)?as learning is concerned)? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Yes No Men Women %%
  33. 33. Upon Graduation from residency/fellowship, how muchUpon Graduation from residency/fellowship, how much do you plan on working?do you plan on working? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Full time Part time Men Women %%
  34. 34. Will you be (or are you already) the primary wageWill you be (or are you already) the primary wage--earnerearner in your household?in your household? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Yes No Shared Men Women %%
  35. 35. Which type of environment would you prefer to work in?Which type of environment would you prefer to work in? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Academic Private Unsure Men Women %%
  36. 36. Given the choice, do you prefer a workGiven the choice, do you prefer a work--day that includesday that includes patient contact?patient contact? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Yes No Men Women %%
  37. 37. ConclusionConclusion-- U of MU of M • All women like the idea of the added session on interview day • Roughly equal % ♂ and ♀ with mentors • Lifestyle more of a driving force for women in residency selection • Men more likely to have children during residency, be the 1° wage earner and work full-time • Women more likely to work part-time in academics
  38. 38. Overall ConclusionOverall Conclusion • Equal # of ♂ and ♀ in medical school, but only 25% of radiology residents are ♀ • Important factors: – Lack of role models – Lack of exposure to subspecialties with patient contact • Impact on academic radiology and especially breast imaging • Things to consider: – Female mentoring program – Elective catered to patient-care subspecialties – ? Required exposure to radiology earlier in med school
  39. 39. Thank you!Thank you! Special thanks to Dr. Bailey and Dr. RoubidouxSpecial thanks to Dr. Bailey and Dr. Roubidoux for their help and insight.for their help and insight.
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