Migration, Development and Mainstreaming

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Migration, Development and Mainstreaming

  1. 1. Migration and development Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  2. 2. Introduction FactsMigration of persons across international boundaries in search of decentwork, opportunities to survive or as a result of war, conflict and politicalinstability has risen substantially over the yearsAs technological, structural and demographic changes intensify, this trend islikely to continue in the foreseeable futureEmerging consensus that if migration is properly governed by both countries oforigin and countries of destination, it has a positive impact on countries ofdestination as well as origin countries.Migration should be regulated and migrants protected in manners that supportits positive impact, particularly in the economic sphere Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  3. 3. Introduction Debates and arguments Globalisation debateRecognition that migration is inevitableexpressed need for it to be regulated andgoverned, rather than just allowing market forces topush and pull it without concern for the protectionand welfare of human beings involved. Concept of developmentUsually expressed in narrow terms, synonymous witheconomic growth; namely, an increase in theproduction of goods and services.It is in reality much broader: the elaboration ofproductive means, forces, and capacities to providegoods, services, technology and knowledge to meethuman needs for sustenance and well being.human development - enhancing thepolitical, economic, social, intellectual, educational, technical and cultural capacity of individuals andcommunitiesNot just generation of income and wealth, but also the Migration in ACP Countries :redistribution thereof Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  4. 4. Development and Human Rights Human development• „Rights based approach to development that goes beyond economic growth.• Human rights and development not separate spheres, but development a subset of human rights Right to development • Emphasis on the centrality of the human person as a subject of the development process. • Discrepancies between demands of economic globalisation and the requirements of human development Argument: Globalization marginalisation of the developing world. Causes deeper levels of poverty and prevent state interventions that support the human development envisaged Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  5. 5. Skilled migration "Brain Drain" Definition: Cross-border migration of highly skilled persons out of developing countries, most of whom possess a university degree or equivalent experience, and generally stay abroad for long periods of timeImpact:Difficult to gage due to a lack of data in both source and destinationcountries, particularly data on skills, qualifications, economic activity and employment, ofboth emigrants and immigrants. Also differing policy definitions of immigrationworldwide, and a dearth of research on who skilled migrants are, specific skills andqualifications that migrate with them, and why they decide to migrateWho they are?•persons whose occupations are “vital to the functional core of a national economy”,•Persons who have generally “received specialised training that results in superiortechnical competence, talent, or abilities that are applied in professional occupations•Persons with less formal education or training, but have gained skills, experience andqualifications on the job, have developed successful businesses, or play a critical role inthe public sector”, and whose skills may be therefore “in short supply in relation to thelabour market as a whole Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  6. 6. RemittancesSignificant ties between migrants and their home countries.At household level, particular in rural areas, remittances usually finance day-to-dayconsumption of goods and services essential for survival and welfare.Health care, education, housing, nutrition, as well as income and income-generatingactivities, and social securityRemittances seen as “new development finance” despite being individual earningsRemittances have become the second largest international capital flow behind ForeignDirect Investment (FDI), and volumes have surpassed Overseas Development Assistance(ODA).However they are individuals earnings from work, just as are earnings for workers athomeSizeable proportion of the GDP in many developing countriesEnormous impacts on economic growth, poverty reduction and development, albeit atcosts of losing skilled workers, labour power, family disintegration, social and communitydisruption. Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  7. 7. Diaspora Networks Impact on source country Beyond financial benefits, migration can offer source countries a range of other benefits, primarily related to nationals returning from abroadWhen return to source country• Bring back international work experience and a network of new contacts• Skills and experiences can be applied to specific, key sectors in the source country• New knowledge and connections with partners can lead to poverty reduction policies and strategies.• Economic, social, cultural and political impacts new ideas and ways of doing things Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  8. 8. Unskilled Migration• Many of the issues pertaining to skilled migration are equally applicable to unskilled migration• Harnessing of the actual or potential benefits of unskilled migration usually overshadowed by exploitation, abuse and lack of protection of unskilled migrants Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  9. 9. Concluding comments pros Relationship between migration and development is complex PROS & CONSPros: •Migration is an important sustainable livelihood strategy used as a means to alleviate poverty and advance development on micro and macro scales •Resourcessent to families used for consumption and human capital development: health, education, nutrition, housing etc. •Remittances may allow a household to develop its economic potential through investments in land and enterprises •Skilledmigrants contributes to the economy brings new skills, ideas, and can replace emigrating skilled labour •Migrants (including unskilled) are also consumers of services and spend money on commodities, all of which has a cumulative positive effect on destination as well as origin countries Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  10. 10. Cons:•Migrants may return home ill, disabled or old and while the country of originhas not had the economic benefit of their labour (and taxes) to contribute topension funds and health care services, they have to bear the costs of having toprovide for and take care of these migrants•Sending countries have to bear the social costs of migration and separatedfamilies Final note Restricting migration is a waste of resources, not least because of the potential benefits it provides. It must be recognised that increasingly, all countries are part of a globalized labour market demand and supply and thus, the thrust of policies should be tofacilitate mobility, ensure protection and decent work for migrants, andthus ameliorate relationships between development and migration. Thismay include facilitating aspects that alleviate poverty and contribute to national and household economies and development Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  11. 11. Mainstreaming migration into development planning Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  12. 12. DefinitionMainstreaming migration in development planningmay be defined as the process of assessing theimplications of migration on any action (or goals)planned in a development and poverty reductionstrategy. This means mainstreaming M&Dconcerns into legislation, policies and programmesat all levels (local, national and, ifapplicable, regional). It also means integratingM&D concerns at all stages of developmentplanning, including design, implementation, andmonitoring and evaluation. Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  13. 13. Migration and development nexus The contribution of labour migration to employment, economic growth, development and thealleviation of poverty should be recognised and maximised for the benefit of both ORIGIN and DESTINATION countries. Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  14. 14. Stages of development planning Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  15. 15. Ensure involvement of all relevant actors• Inter-Ministerial Committee• Ministries of Labour, Finance, Education, Health, Planning, etc.• National Consultative Committee• Social partners, NGOs, migrant and diaspora representatives, human rights associations, research institutions, etc.• UN Country Team Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  16. 16. Migration in ACP Countries :Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  17. 17. Role-playAdvocating Mainstreaming Migration One participant convinces other participants of the relevance of Mainstreaming Migration into Development Planning. The other participants represent: Ministry for Labour/Employment Ministry of Industry/Entreprise Ministry of Finance Planning Ministry (PM office) Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection

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