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Labour Migration Acamdemy - Pre-Training Module
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Labour Migration Acamdemy - Pre-Training Module


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  • A smaller-than-expected decline in 2009 overall, but differences across regions Remittances to Mexico started declining in early 2008, but there are emerging signs of a bottoming out Remittances to Latin America and Caribbean appear to be bottoming out US employment levels – signs of recovery for migrant workers Remittances to Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Philippines are still growing, mainly from the GCC “ Sale effect” -Exchange rate effects encouraged investment-related remittances to India Widening interest rate differentials sustained incentives to send remittances to India Currency effects Depreciation of the ruble has reduced remittance flows to Central Asian countries in US dollar terms (Tajikistan) Weakness of the British pound may be related to a larger decline in remittances in US dollar terms
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    • 1. © International Training Centre of the ILO 1Pre-training Module:Labour MigrationAcademy2013
    • 2. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007DefinitionsHow do you understand theseterms?Migration ?Immigration?Emigration?Labour Migration
    • 3. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007• Migration: movement from a place to another could beindividual/group – organized/spontaneous –intern/international – different reasons• Emigration : The act of departing or exiting from oneState with a view to settle in another. Internationalhuman rights norms provide that all persons should befree to leave any country, including their own, and thatonly in very limited circumstances may States imposerestrictions on the individual’s right to leave itsterritory.• Immigration: A process by which non-nationals moveinto a country for the purpose of settlementDefinitions
    • 4. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007International Labour Migration:Defined as the movement of peoplefrom one country to another with thepurpose of employmentDefinitions
    • 5. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Migrant workerInternational Convention on the protection of the Rights ofAll Migrant Workers and Members of their families•A person who is to be engaged, is engaged, or has been engaged in aremunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a nationalC097 - Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949•A person who migrates from one country to another with a view tobeing employed otherwise than on his own account and includes anyperson regularly admitted as a migrant for employmentDefinitions
    • 6. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Some figuresWHAT DOES THIS NUMBERWHAT DOES THIS NUMBERSTAND FOR?STAND FOR?214 Million in 2010214 Million in 2010
    • 7. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Migrants = 3 % of theglobal population
    • 8. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Migrant populationbreakdown
    • 9. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Growth of world migrantpopulation 1965 - 2010
    • 10. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Statistics214 million migrants (half being migrant workers) - 2010•49,0 percent (%) are female migrant workers (in Europe more than 50%)•3,1 percent (%) world population (same as the beginning of the 20th Century)•Percentage (%) is higher in some countries (i.e.Western Europe) due todemographic changes (Shrinking Population growth rates and Labour forces)227 million people in the labour force in West/Central Europe•2005: 4% are Third Country Nationals in Total Employment (EU-15)•Third Country Nationals are 10 % of the population of developed countriesWorld Bank study: Gains produced by the liberalization of migrationsurpass those of trade liberalization•3% growth of migration by 2025 - $356 billion gains for the global economyNetworks
    • 11. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Migration byGender
    • 12. © International Training Centre of the ILO 12Percentage of female migrantsWomen migrants
    • 13. © International Training Centre of the ILO 13United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2009). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2008 RevisionWomen migrants
    • 14. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007• Feminization of migration since 1960• Women’s labour migration is concentrated in avery limited number of occupations• More vulnerable• Double discrimination (women AND migrant)• Risks of abuses, trafficking, forced labour• Need adequate protectionWomen migrants
    • 15. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007InternationalMigration Routes
    • 16. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Why PeopleEmigrate
    • 17. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007LABOUR MIGRATION THEORY:Factors behind labour migration• Labour market pressures in countries of origin : unemploymentand underemployment• Poverty• Labour demand in countries of destination (demographic factors,need to sustain economic activities and development)• Income inequality between countries within countries• Technological development in communication and transportation• Geographical proximity• Historical and cultural links• Political reasons• Ecological reasons• Family unification
    • 18. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007LABOUR MARKETSDestination CountriesEconomic Theory: Increase in labour supply will reduce wages orincrease unemployment.Migrant workers improve economic performanceThrough the labour market by:• Spurring productivity growth• Increasing the employment rate• Expanding the working age populationThrough augmenting the level of consumption, i.e. demand forgoods and services, thus also raising labour demand, whichbenefits nationals as wellThrough contributing their entrepreneurial capacities
    • 19. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007• Migrant workers are complements rather than substitutes fordomestic workers.• Migrant workers may affect salaries of low-skilled national workers,but the share of low-skilled workers is low and declining inindustrialized countries• Occupational distribution of majority migrant workers is verydifferent from national workers - proof that they do not compete• Migrant workers specialize in labour market activities that would notexist at the same scale, or not at all, without their presence -therefore the economy gainsLABOUR MARKETSDestination Countries
    • 20. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007• Labour migration can reduce pressures on labour markets in labour-surplus countries• In some countries, migrants are replaced easily without loss inproduction or increase of wages• But, migration is selective: Produces upward pressure on salaries in certain sectors In general, emigration of low-skilled workers generates gains forthose who remain behindLABOUR MARKETSOrigin Countries
    • 21. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Brain-drain: However, is a major challenge – conflict withdevelopment objectives. Can set in motion vicious circles that slow development byreducing human capital. It is particularly serious in certainsectors: health care and education• Lowers returns to capital because: Governments may be reluctant to invest in higher education Local firms that invest in training people will find it difficult torecoup their investment if trained workers leave• Might affect capital mouvement Companies take into account skills and personnel locally availableand might be discouraged to investLABOUR MARKETSOrigin Countries
    • 22. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Remittances :Some figuresRemittance flows to developingcountries in 2012$406 billion6.5% growth since 2011
    • 23. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO200723DefinitionsREMITTANCES=Monies earned or acquired bynon-nationals that aretransferred back to theircountry of origin.
    • 24. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007RemittancesRemittances: most immediate and tangible benefits.2nd Largest source of external funding for developing countriesMore reliable source of incomeThe flows of remittances fluctuate with economic cycles (counter-cyclical)Better distributed than Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)World Bank: remittances transfers more than doubled1995-2010, up to $406 billion
    • 25. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Remittances
    • 26. © International Labour Migration Programme 26Size of remittance flowsto developing countries
    • 27. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Top recipientsof remittancesSource: IMF BoP Yearbook, 2004, and World Bank staff estimates
    • 28. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Source: World Bank, April 2009Remittances ODA and FDI flows :
    • 29. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Source: World Bank, April 2009Remittances ODA and FDI flows :
    • 30. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Source: World Bank, April 2009Remittances ODA and FDI flows :
    • 31. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Source: World Bank, April 2009Remittances ODA and FDI flows :
    • 32. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Source: World Bank, April 2009Remittances ODA and FDI flows :
    • 33. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Source: World Bank, April 2009Remittances ODA and FDI flows :
    • 34. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Source: World Bank, April 2009Remittances ODA and FDI flows :
    • 35. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Source: World Bank, April 2009Remittances ODA and FDI flows :
    • 36. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONCountries of originRemittances:• Positive Effects: The first waves of migrants, coming from middle class, theirremittances may increase inequality. As low-skilled workers, frompoor families, start to migrate, their remittances reduce povertyand inequality. Families receiving remittances spend more than average onhuman capital formation (education and health care) Long-term: increase local production (income and investment)• Negative Effects: Spent on non-tradables – additional demand drive up the prices ofsuch goods and services Short-term: may reduce local production (rely heavily on labour)
    • 37. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Remittances andImpact of the crisis• A smaller-than-expected decline in 2009 overall, but differencesacross regions Larger-than-expected decline in remittances to Latin America andthe Caribbean, but emerging signs of a bottoming out Better outcome in South Asia and East Asia, but emerging signs ofa peaking Flows declining in Europe & Central Asia, and Middle East & NorthAfrica Sub-Saharan Africa doing better• Currency effects: Effects on consumption/investment motivation Valuation effects for instance: Depreciation of the ruble has→reduced remittances flows to Central Asian countries in US dollarterms (Tajikistan)
    • 38. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007International CooperationExamples of policies and measures• Bilateral Agreements• Regional and inter-regional conferences• Evaluation of labour market needs in the countries of destination• Increasing opportunities and means of regular migration• Reducing the cost of remittances by promoting competition and developmentof intermediate financial services• Ethical Recruitment Practices:Destination countries should refrain from actively recruiting skilled workersin low-income countries with skills shortage• Promoting investment in critical skill areas• Mutual recognition of academic degrees and qualifications• Accumulation and portability of social security pension benefits• Exchange of statistical dataPOLICY:Labour Migration
    • 39. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Protection of Migrant Workers:• Protection of migrant workers and respect for their labour andhuman rights are important values per se Most effective instrument for ensuring their equality of treatmentwith native workers• Non-discrimination and equality of treatment Among the four (4) categories of fundamental principles and rights atwork recognized by ILO members Best means to protect the interests of native workers Guarantee labour market efficiencyPOLICY:Labour Migration
    • 40. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007International LegalFrameworkProtection of Human Rights under the UN• Universal Declaration on Human Rights, 1948• Seven (7) Human Rights Instruments adopted in thecontext of the United Nations• Special Focus: Convention on the Protection of the Rightsof All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families,1990
    • 41. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Rights of Migrant WorkersILO MANDATEThe protection of human rights of men and womenmigrant workers and:the promotion of their equal treatment and opportunityare enshrined in the: ILO Constitution (1919) Declaration of Philadelphia (1944) Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work(1998)The Social Justice Declaration (2008) reaffirms the role ofILS and states that gender and non-discrimination shouldbe 41
    • 42. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007International Labour Conventions:All International Labour Conventions, including the eightfundamental ones, under the 1998 ILO Declaration on FundamentalPrinciples and Rights at Work and its Follow-up, apply to migrantworkersEight Fundamental Labour Conventions• Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)• Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention,1948 (No. 87)• Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98)• Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100)• Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111)• Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)• Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)• Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)International Legal Framework
    • 43. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Specific ILO standards in reference to migrant workersMigration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97)Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975(No. 143)• Basic components of a comprehensive labour migrationpolicy• Measures to facilitate migration movements• Promote equality of treatment and opportunity for migrantsand nationalsInternational Legal Framework
    • 44. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007Multilateral Frameworkon Labour MigrationA set of non-binding principles, guidelines and best-practices for Governments,organizations of employers and workers to pursue a rights-based approach tolabour migration. The Framework aims to foster cooperation in order to assistin the implementation of effective policies on labour migration.Based on significant international instruments, an analysis of policy, and themandate of the ILONine (9) sections, 15 principles and about 120 guidelines:• Decent Work for All• Governance• Protection of Migrant Workers• Migration and Development• International Development• Annex: Examples of best practices, corresponding to the principles, drawnfrom all regions.
    • 45. ©InternationalTrainingCentreoftheILO2007ILO Approachto Development• Promoting development and combating poverty, throughthe creation of employment and decent work, in countriesof origin.• By promoting development and employment, conditionswould be created for countries of origin and destination tocooperate fully in formulating and implementing labourmigration policies that realize their interests, as well asthose of migrant workers.• Best means to reduce migration pressures so that peoplemigrate by choice and not by necessity.