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Fostering the social and professional reintegration of return labour migrants en 2

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  • 1. Fostering the Social andProfessional Reintegration of Return Labour Migrants Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 2. Dealing with return and reintegration : Current policies and priorities Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 3. “Return” policies and bilateral cooperation for readmission What is a return policy?Should cover all stages of the return process (in receivingand sending countries);The durability of a return policy depends on the extent towhich : • The country context is enabling for returnees to invest their financial and human capital at home; • Inclusion of measures to support the socio professional reintegration, regardless of the migrant; • It mutually serves the interests of receiving and sending countries; • Effective cooperation between sending and receiving countries. Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 4. Return and reintegration is part and parcel of the EU’s approach tomigration;“Effective return has to be ensured”→ incentives.Are there mechanisms to sustain the reintegration of migrants in theircountries of origin, whether return is temporary or permanent? • April 2002: Green Paper on a Community Return Policy on Illegal Residents…[the understanding of “return” is framed]; • November 2002: Return Action Programme; • September 2005: Communication on migration and development: “the return of migrants to their country of origin may have a significant positive impact in development terms”; • Late 2005: Global Approach to Migration (GAM): strengthened dialogue on return management and illegal migration. • Late 2006: GAM Mobility packages • May 2007: Circular migration schemes + mobility partnerships (selective and conditionally linked with security-driven safeguards); Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 5. • The EU Return Fund (as of 2008): “The Fund would in principle cover the return of both [illegally staying] immigrants and asylum-seekers who have received a negative decision”.• Directive on common standards for returning illegally staying third country nationals.• March 2011: “Return arrangements” and readmission further promoted in the framework of the New European Neighbourhood Policy + Mobility partnerhips + “Partnership for democracy and shared prosperity”.• May 2011: Mediterranean dialogue on migration, mobility and security: called for “assistance for the voluntary return of third country nationals apprehended as irregular migrants on the territory of the partner State” + “voluntary return arrangements”.• June 2011: The conditional link between mobility partnerships and effective cooperation on readmission and security is reasserted + cooperation is differentiated.• November 2011: Global Approach to Migration and Mobility: “Readmission and return should be firmly embedded in the broader Global Approach” + integrated border management.• May 2012: The EU announced the opening of „dialogues‟ with Tunisia and Morocco on mobility partnerships.• October 2012: Malta declaration... Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 6. Current priorities and implicationsA credible offer?• The search for securitised temporariness + security-driven conditionality• Resilient bilateralism + subtle alignment prioritizing security concerns over migrants‟ rights and over development concerns• Recurrent dialogues…shaped by a common lexicon and predominant schemes of understanding + search for a consensus which remain biased by receiving- country concerns• Temporariness impacts on :  the ability to benefit from economic and social rights and to be protected from vulnerability  The realisation of migrants‟ labour and human rights  Family reunion rights  Migrant workers‟ freedom of association  Migrant workers‟ working conditions  employers‟ (low) propensity to invest in the training of temporary workers (see EMN study). Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 7. It is the drive for temporariness, notthe repeated to and fro movements ofmigrants, that has configured therationale for circular migrationprogrammes. If it were the opposite,the issues of return and reintegrationwould have been dealt with moresubstantially by policy-makers incountries of destination and of origin. Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 8. Some data Migration in ACP Countries :Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 9. The Cobweb of Agreements Linked to ReadmissionConcluded Among the EU Member States and with Third Countries, (1970s) Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 10. The Cobweb of Agreements Linked to ReadmissionConcluded Among the EU Member States and with Third Countries, (1980s) Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 11. The Cobweb of Agreements Linked to ReadmissionConcluded Among the EU Member States and with Third Countries, (1990s) Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 12. The Cobweb of Agreements Linked to ReadmissionConcluded Among the EU Member States and with Third Countries, May 2010 Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection

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