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Fostering the social and professional reintegration of return labour migrants en 1

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  • 1. Fostering the Social andProfessional Reintegration of Return Labour Migrants Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 2. Note: There exist different definitions as applied to “return migrants” and “return”.Please read the various definitions mentioned below and analyse their scope andimplications for policy-making. Please note when such definitions were provided.Which concerns and criteria drove the definitions?Return Migrant:• Frank Bovenkerk (1974): Persons returning to their country of origin, on a temporary or permanent basis.• Definition recommended by the United Nations (1998): “Persons [who] return to their country of citizenship after having been international migrants (whether short-term or long-term) and who are intending to stay in their own country for at least one year.”Return:• IOM (2004): “Refers broadly to the act or process of going back. This could be within the territorial boundaries of a country, as in the case of returning Internally Displaced Persons and demobilized combatants; or from a host country (either transit or destination) to the country of origin, as in the case of refugees, asylum seekers, and qualified nationals. There are subcategories of return which can describe the way return is implemented, e.g. voluntary, forced, assisted and spontaneous return; as well as subcategories which describe who is participating in the return, e.g. repatriation (for refugees).”• EU (2002): “Comprises the process of going back to one’s country of origin, transit or another third country, including preparation and implementation. Return may be voluntary or enforced.” Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 3. Note: There exist as many migration cycles as return motivations. On thebasis of your own experience, please list below the categories of returneesyou identify, as well as the reasons for which such categories of returneesdiffer from one another. 1. Categories of returnees: 2. Categories of returnees differ in terms of: Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 4. Categories and ProfilesNumerous categories:• Labour migrants, whether skilled or non skilled;• Seasonal labour migrants;• Students;• Refugees;• Rejected asylum-seekers;• Trafficking victims;• Irregular migrantsProfiles differ in terms of:• The motivations to return;• Duration of the migratory experience• Type of experience in the destination country• Place of reintegration (urban/rural context)• Mobilized resources (human and financial capital)• Return preparedness… Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 5. Measuring Return and Counting Returnees• Definitions and categories shape the ways in which returnees are counted.• Definition recommended by the UN (1998): “Persons returning to their country of citizenship after having been international migrants (whether short-term or long- term) in another country and who are intending to stay in their own country for at least a year.”• Population registries (census data):  Host country: number of legal residents who left the territory: they (should) un-register (not fully reliable);  Home country: number of native-born persons returning their home country and who declare having changed residence. Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 6. A central issue in the reintegration process: Return Preparedness The returnee’s preparedness Willingness to Readiness to return return Circumstances in host and home countries Resource Mobilisation Tangible Intangible Social resources resources capital Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 7. Different levels of return preparednessOptimal level: Migrants have been able to organize theirreturn while mobilizing the needed resources (tangible andintangible);Low level: Migrants did not mobilize enough resources toprepare for their return, for instance, because theexperience of migration abroad was too short or becausethey could not mobilize the needed resources to reintegrateback home;No preparedness: Abrupt interruption of the migrationcycle: neither willingness to return, nor time to get preparedfor return (e.g., removal, readmission, also so-called“assisted voluntary returns - AVRs”). Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 8. Question 1: In your opinion, a genuine „return policy‟ involves predominantly:1. The country of destination2. The country of origin3. Both countries of destination and of origin4. None Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 9. Question 2: In your opinion, a genuine„return policy‟ should predominantly:1. Make sure that migrants (are) effectively returned2. Address return migrants’ aspirations and rights3. Inform migrants about their conditions back home4. Prompt migrants to return back home Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 10. Question 3: Is return…1. A stage in the migration cycle?2. The end of the migration cycle?3. A synonym of readmission?4. Either “voluntary” or “forced”? Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection
  • 11. Question 4: We know that “return preparedness” is a key factorallowing returnees‟ patterns of reintegration to be better understood. Irrespective of the duration of the experience of migration andregardless of the conditions back home, which categories of migrants would be more likely to reintegrate back home? 1. Rejected asylum seekers 2. Labour migrants 3. Irregular aliens 4. Seasonal migrant workers Migration in ACP Countries : Promoting Development and Enhancing Protection