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virtualization tutorial at ACM bangalore Compute 2009
 

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compute 2009 tutorial presentation on virtualization by mohan parthasarathy, HP, bangalore, india.

compute 2009 tutorial presentation on virtualization by mohan parthasarathy, HP, bangalore, india.

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    virtualization tutorial at ACM bangalore Compute 2009 virtualization tutorial at ACM bangalore Compute 2009 Presentation Transcript

    • The Hardware Revolution in Server Virtualization Mohan Parthasarathy (Hewlett-Packard) ACM Compute 2009 Tutorial 9th Jan 2009 © 2008 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice
    • Agenda Server Virtualization technologies ~15 min • − Overview and history − VMM architectures − Criteria for a processor to be virtualizable X86 Virtualization ~30 min • − The x86 processor architecture overview − Virtualization challenges in x86 processors Break 1 – Q&A • Software techniques for virtualization ~ 45 min • − CPU virtualization (Binary Translation/Para-virtualization) − Memory virtualization (shadow tables/Xen writeable page tables) − I/O virtualization (device emulation) Break 2 – Q&A • Hardware techniques for virtualization ~45 min • − CPU virtualization (VT-x/AMD-V) − Memory virtualization (Intel EPT/AMD NPT) − I/O virtualization (VT-d/Vt-d2/PCI SIG SR-IOV/MR-IOV) Future Trends ~ 5 min • − Manageability − Security Did you ever wonder if the person in the puddle is real, and you're just a reflection of him? ~Calvin and Hobbes 2 16 January 2009
    • Server Virtualization Technologies Software/ Software/ Hardware Firmware Resource Firmware Partitioning Virtualization Virtualization Partitioning APP1 APP2 APP1 APP2 APP2 APP1 APP2 APP1 OS1 OS2 OS1 OS2 OS2 OS1 OS Hypervisor Layer Hypervisor Layer S/W (Software/ (Software/ Firmware) Firmware) H/W CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU CPU Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory Memory HP Integrity VM HP-UX SRP HP vPar HP nPar IBM SLPARS (micro- Solaris Containers IBM DLPAR Sun DSD partitions) (Zones) Sun Logical Domains Hitachi Virtage PVC (earlier SWSoft) VMware ESX/GSX OpenVZ, Microsoft Hyper-V Isolation IBM WPAR Flexibility 3 16 January 2009 Xen, KVM, xVM…
    • A brief history lesson 1960’s 1996 APP APP APP APP APP APP APP APP CMS MVS MVS CMS W2K3 W2K WNT4 Linux IBM VM/370 VMware IBM Mainframe Intel / AMD x86 Server Stanford Research VMM on IBM Mainframe • • DISCO project • Many apps on $$$ HW • VMM on cheap x86 HW • VMware in 1999 Commodity hardware becomes powerful enough to support a virtual machine manager (VMM) – so it’s back to the future with a proven technology! 4 16 January 2009
    • VMM Architectures Hybrid VMM Hypervisor Type-2 VMM Hypervisor Type-1 VMM Hypervisor Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest 1 Guest 2 VMM Host OS VMM Host OS VMM (Hypervisor) Hardware Hardware Hardware Examples: Examples: Examples: -HPVM -UML -VMware ESX -VMWare GSX -Xen -Microsoft Virtual Server -MS Hyper-V 5 16 January 2009
    • Hosted VM Architecture HP Integrity VM, Microsoft Virtual Server, VMware GSX 6 16 January 2009
    • Virtualization Requirements – Popek and Goldberg A Model of Third Generation Machines • − Two modes of execution − Protection mechanism for the supervisor mode − A method to automatically signal the supervisor when the VM executes a sensitive instruction. Properties for a Virtual Machine Monitor • − Equivalence − Resource control − Efficiency 7 16 January 2009
    • VMM Requirements (Sensitive Instructions) Ref : Analyzing the Intel Pentium’s ability to support a secure VMM – John Scott Robin (1999) 8 16 January 2009
    • Agenda Server Virtualization technologies • − Overview and history − VMM architectures − Criteria for a processor to be virtualizable X86 Virtualization • − The x86 processor architecture overview − Virtualization challenges in x86 processors Software techniques for virtualization • − CPU virtualization (Binary Translation/Para-virtualization) − Memory virtualization (shadow tables/Xen writeable page tables) − I/O virtualization (device emulation) Hardware techniques for virtualization • − CPU virtualization (VT-x/AMD-V) − Memory virtualization (Intel EPT/AMD NPT) − I/O virtualization (VT-d/Vt-d2/PCI SIG SR-IOV/MR-IOV) Future Trends • − Manageability − Security 9 16 January 2009
    • X86 architecture – Privilege Levels Data Structures contains Privilege Levels • DPL : Descriptor privilege level • CPL : Current Privilege Level − DPL of the access rights byte in CS segment descriptor cache register − privilege level of the code and data segment for the current task • RPL : Requested Privilege Level − the privilege level of the new selector loaded into a segment register 10 16 January 2009
    • X86 memory management CS, DS, SS, FS, ES, GS 11 16 January 2009
    • X86 memory management - segmentation Upper 13 bits of segment selector are used to index the descriptor table GDTR, LDTR TI = Table Indicator Select the descriptor table 0 = Global Descriptor Table 1 = Local Descriptor Table Access selector Segment base Segment limit rights Hidden part of segment register 12 16 January 2009
    • X86 Paging – 32 bit mode Page Table Page Table Entry 13 16 January 2009
    • X86 paging - registers 14 16 January 2009
    • X86 paging – 64 bit mode with 4KB pages 4Kb Page Translation 63 48 47 39 38 30 29 21 20 12 11 0 Linear Address Page Offset Sign Extend PML4E Offset PDPE Offset PDE Offset PTE Offset 4-Kb Page In Physical Memory Page Table Page Directory Entry Entry Page Directory Page Map Pointer Level 4 12 9 9 9 9 36 512 PML4E * 512 PDPE * 512 PDE * 512 PTE = 2 4-Kb pages 15 16 January 2009
    • X86 paging – 64 bit mode with 2MB pages 2Mb Page Translation 63 48 47 39 38 30 29 21 20 0 Linear Address Page Offset Sign Extend PML4E Offset PDPE Offset PDE Offset 2-Mb Page In Physical Memory Page Directory Entry Page Directory Page Map Pointer Level 4 9 21 9 9 27 512 PML4E * 512 PDPE * 512 PDE = 2 2-Mb pages 16 16 January 2009
    • X86 virtualization challenges Incorrect execution when Non-faulting read Excessive run in ring level > 0 (3C1) of privileged Faulting registers (3B1) Guest Guest Ring 3 CPUID Sysenter Apps Apps Ring POPF LAR/LSL/ SGDT/SIDT/SLDT/STR CLI/ VERR/VER aliasing/ /PUSHF/SMSW/POP/ STI STR/POP W/CALL/ PUSH compression Ring 1 /PUSH INT/JMP/ RET Address space compression Ring 0 VMM Leakage of privilege level (3C1) Hardware Non-faulting write to Segment privileged state reversibility issue (eflags.IF) (3B1) on context switch 17 16 January 2009
    • Agenda Server Virtualization technologies • − Overview and history − VMM architectures − Criteria for a processor to be virtualizable X86 Virtualization • − The x86 processor architecture overview − Virtualization challenges in x86 processors Software techniques for virtualization • − CPU virtualization (Binary Translation/Para-virtualization) − Memory virtualization (shadow tables/Xen writeable page tables) − I/O virtualization (device emulation) Hardware techniques for virtualization • − CPU virtualization (VT-x/AMD-V) − Memory virtualization (Intel EPT/AMD NPT) − I/O virtualization (VT-d/Vt-d2/PCI SIG SR-IOV/MR-IOV) Future Trends • − Manageability − Security 18 16 January 2009
    • Dynamic Binary Translation x86 Parser & x86 x86 High Level Binary Binary Translator Data RAM Disk Code Cache Code Cache High Level Tags Optimization Low Level Code Generation Low Level Optimization and Scheduling Translator Runtime -- Execution Ref : Virtual Machines and Dynamic Translation:Implementing ISAs in Software – Joel Emer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 19 16 January 2009
    • Binary Translation - C Code Example int isPrime(int a) { for (int i = 2; i < a; i++) { if (a % i == 0) return 0; } return 1; } Ref : Keith Adams and Ole Agesen. A comparison of software and hardware techniques for x86 virtualization. Operating Systems Review, 40(5):2–13, December 2006 20 16 January 2009
    • Basic Block Translation Most instructions copied identically. • Privileged instructions must be emulated. • Jumps must be translated since translation can alter code layout. • Each translated BB must end with jump to next translated BB. • Ref : Keith Adams and Ole Agesen. A comparison of software and hardware techniques for x86 virtualization. Operating Systems Review, 40(5):2–13, December 2006 21 16 January 2009
    • Translation of isPrime(49) Note that prime: BB never translated since 49 is not prime. Ref : Keith Adams and Ole Agesen. A comparison of software and hardware techniques for x86 virtualization. Operating Systems Review, 40(5):2–13, December 2006 22 16 January 2009
    • Para-virtualization – Xen architecture 23 16 January 2009
    • Memory Virtualization – Shadow Page Tables 24 16 January 2009
    • Memory Virtualization – Shadow PT vs Writeable page tables (Xen) PT PT Guest Guest PD PD VA->PA VA->MA Sync’ed Page Fault PT VMM VMM Shadow PT PD Verifies that page table update is okay CR3 CR3 25 16 January 2009
    • Dynamic memory resizing - Ballooning Inflating a balloon • − When the server wants to reclaim memory − Driver allocates pinned physical pages within the VM − Increases memory pressure in the guest OS, reclaims space to satisfy the driver allocation request − Driver communicates the physical page number for each allocated page to VMM Deflating • − Frees up memory for general use within the guest OS 26 16 January 2009
    • I/O system architecture overview (PCI/PCI-e) OS driver OS driver OS driver VMM CPU CPU CPU CPU CHAOS!! Root Memory Configuration Complex RX TX space 01 2 27 16 January 2009 3, 0, 0 (BDF)
    • I/O Virtualization Architecture Service VM Model Monolithic Model Pass-through Model Guest VMs Service VMs VMn VM0 VMn VM0 VMn I/O Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Services VM0 and Apps and Apps and Apps and Apps Device Device Device Guest OS Drivers Drivers Drivers I/O Services and Apps Device Drivers Hypervisor Hypervisor Hypervisor Assigned Shared Shared Devices Devices Devices Pro: Higher Performance Pro: High Security • Pro: Highest Performance • • Pro: I/O Device Sharing Pro: I/O Device Sharing • Pro: Smaller Hypervisor • • Pro: VM Migration Pro: VM Migration • Pro: Device assisted sharing • • Con: Larger Hypervisor Con: Lower Performance • Con: Migration Challenges • • VMWare ESX Xen 28 16 January 2009
    • Network Virtualization (VMWare GSX example) 29 16 January 2009
    • Xen I/O Architecture - Safe Hardware Interface 30 16 January 2009
    • Networking in Xen Guest Driver Domain Domain 1 Back-End Drivers Packet Data Guest Front-End Domain 2 Driver Guest Ethernet Hypervisor Domain ... Page Bridge Flipping Virtual Interrupts NIC Driver Driver Control Interrupt Hypervisor Dispatch Hardware Control + Data Packet Data Interrupts NIC CPU / Memory / Disk / Other Devices 31 16 January 2009
    • Agenda Server Virtualization technologies (15 min) • − Overview and history − VMM architectures − Criteria for a processor to be virtualizable X86 Virtualization (30 min) • − The x86 processor architecture overview − Virtualization challenges in x86 processors Software techniques for virtualization (30 min) • − CPU virtualization (Binary Translation/Para-virtualization) − Memory virtualization (shadow tables/Xen writeable page tables) − I/O virtualization (device emulation) Hardware techniques for virtualization • − CPU virtualization (VT-x/AMD-V) − Memory virtualization (Intel EPT/AMD NPT) − I/O virtualization (VT-d/Vt-d2/PCI SIG SR-IOV/MR-IOV) Future Trends (5 min) • − Manageability − Security 32 16 January 2009
    • CPU Virtualization with Intel VT-x Virtual Machines (VMs) Two new VT-x operating modes • − Less-privileged mode (VMX non-root) for guest OSes Apps Apps Ring 3 − More-privileged mode OS OS (VMX root) for VMM Ring 0 Two new transitions • VM Exit VM Entry − VM entry to non-root operation VMX VM Monitor (VMM) − VM exit to root operation Root Execution controls determine when exits occur • − Access to privilege state, occurrence of exceptions, etc. − Flexibility provided to minimize unwanted exits VM Control Structure (VMCS) controls VT-x operation • − Also holds guest and host state 33 16 January 2009
    • VT-x Operations VM 1 VM 2 VM n VMX Ring 3 Ring 3 Ring 3 ... Non-root Ring 0 Ring 0 Ring 0 Operation VM Exit VMCS VMCS VMCS 1 2 n Ring 3 VMX IA-32 Root Operation VMRESUME VMLAUNCH Ring 0 VMXON 34 16 January 2009
    • VT-x new instructions VMXON and VMXOFF • − To enter and exit VMX-root mode. VMLAUNCH: Used on initial transition from VMM to Guest • − Enters VMX non-root operation mode VMRESUME: Used on subsequent entries • − Enters VMX non-root operation mode − Loads Guest state and Exit criteria from VMCS VMEXIT • − Used on transition from Guest to VMM − Enters VMX root operation mode − Saves Guest state in VMCS − Loads VMM state from VMCS VMPTRST and VMPTRLD • − To Read and Write the VMCS pointer. VMREAD, VMWRITE, VMCLEAR • − Read from, Write to and clear a VMCS VMCALL • − Hypervisor entry point for hypercall from guest 35 16 January 2009
    • VT-x Data Structures (VMCS) VMCS is a 4K table VM execution controls Controls External interrupt • which specifies the processor exiting, interrupt behaviour in window exiting, VM environment non-root mode CR3 load/store Physical addressing exiting, VPID • only, and is accessed enable, VPID value, EPT through enable, EPTP… VMREAD/VMWRITE interface Guest save state Processor state EIP, ESP, saved on VM EFLAGS, IDTR, Loads and Stores to • exits and loaded Segment the current VMCS from on VM registers etc.. pointer through entries VMPTRLD and Host save state Processor state CR3, EIP set to VMPTRST loaded on VM monitor entry, exits EFLAGS etc.. VMRESUME used if • same VMCS is being VM exit controls These fields MSR save etc.. control VM exits resumed on a processor. Else, VM entry controls These fields Interrupts on VMCLEAR followed by control VM entry, MSR VMLAUNCH. entries loads etc.. 36 16 January 2009
    • VT-x solution to x86 virtualization challenges Sysenter calls into guest All reads return privilege Guest OS in full control of OS. CLI/STI optimized to level 0, GDT/LDT owned by segment/task descriptors deliver virtual interrupts to guest OS, CPUID can be VM made to trap into VMM Guest Guest Ring 3 CPUID Sysenter Apps Apps No ring LAR/LSL/VERR/ POPF compression – CLI/ SGDT/SIDT/SLDT/STR VERW/CALL/IN Ring 0 all rings STI /PUSHF/SMSW/POP/ T/JMP/RET PUSH available No need for VMM to share address space with guest – no address compression Ring -1 VMM Hardware Clean context switch on Eflags.IF is no longer used for VM entry/exit interrupt masking 37 16 January 2009
    • Intel EPT/AMD NPT GPT Base Pointer (hCR3) gCR3 Guest Physical Guest Host x86 Guest Host GPT Address Linear Physical Page Tables Page Tables Address Address TLB & Caches GPT directly translates Guest Virtual addresses into Host Physical • addresses on the fly. − Uses Guest Page Table and Host-based Page Table Significant reduction in “exit frequency” • • Primary page table modifications are as fast as native • Page faults require no exits • Context switches require no exits − No shadow page table memory overhead However, results in more expensive TLB misses - The “memsweep effect” – • mitigated by large guest pages AMD ASID/Intel VPID - segments the TLB, reduces TLB purge overheads. • 38 16 January 2009
    • VT-x extension: Extended Page Table (EPT) All guest-physical addresses go through extended page tables • • Includes address in CR3, address in PDE, address in PTE, etc. 39 16 January 2009
    • VT-x extension: Virtual Processor IDs (VPID) The idea of a tagged TLB is that each • TLB entry is “tagged” with an identifier • Having such a tag allows the TLB entries to not be “flushed” when switching between the host and a guest • VPID is activated if the new “enable VPIP” control bit is set in VMCS Tag Virtual Address Physical Address Host 0x1000 0x10001000 Host 0x2000 0x10002000 Host 0x3000 0x10003000 Host 0x4000 0x10004000 Guest 0x1000 0xFFF01000 Guest 0x2000 0xFFF02000 Guest 0x3000 0xFFF03000 Guest 0x4000 0xFFF04000 40 16 January 2009
    • VT-x extension: CPUID spoofing (Flex Migration) Allows software to “spoof” the CPUID feature bits (e.g. make • the value of the CPUID feature bits appear different than they really are). • This is the same than the CPUID spoofing feature that the current VT processors have. Live VM Live VM Migration Migration Pre 2004 2006+ (Intel® Core™) 2004+ 64 bit 32 bit 64 bit dual, single core single core quad-core Older / Existing Servers Newer Servers 41 16 January 2009
    • Intel VT-d Architecture Detail DMA Requests Dev 31, Func 7 Device ID Virtual Address … Length Dev P, Func 2 Bus 255 Page Frame Bus N Fault Generation Bus 0 Dev P, Func 1 4KB Page Tables Dev 0, Func 0 Address Translation DMA Remapping Structures Device D1 Engine Device Assignment Translation Cache Structures Device D2 Address Translation Structures Context Cache Memory Access with System Memory-resident Partitioning And Physical Address Translation Structures 42 16 January 2009
    • VT-d: Remapping Structures VT-d hardware selects page-table based on source of DMA request • − Requestor ID (bus / device / function) in request identifies DMA source VT-d Device Assignment Entry • 127 64 Rsvd Domain ID Rsvd Address Width 63 0 Address Space Root Pointer Rsvd Ext. Controls P Controls VT-d supports hierarchical page tables for address translation • − Page directories and page tables are 4 KB in size − 4KB base page size with support for larger page sizes − Support for DMA snoop control through page table entries VT-d Page Table Entry • 63 0 Rsvd Page-Frame / Page-Table Address Available S Rsvd Ext. W R P Controls 43 16 January 2009
    • VT-d: Hardware Page Walk Requestor ID DMA Virtual Address 15 87 32 0 63 57 56 48 47 39 38 30 29 21 20 12 11 0 Level-4 Level- Level-3 Level- Level-2 Level- Level-1 Level- 000000b 000000000b Device Func Bus Page Offset table offset table offset table offset table offset Base Page Device Assignment Tables Level-4 Level- Level-3 Level- Page Page Table Level-2 Level- Table Page Example Device Assignment Level-1 Level- Table Table Entry specifying 4-level Page page table Table 44 16 January 2009
    • PCI SIG IOV Overview PCIe Multi-Root IOV PCIe Single-Root IOV SI SI SI SI SI SI VI VI VI PCI SIG is standardizing mechanisms that enable PCIe Devices to be directly shared • − Single-Root IOV – Direct sharing between SIs on a single system − Multi-Root IOV – Direct sharing between SIs on multiple systems PCI-SIG IOV Specification covers “north-side” of the Device • 45 16 January 2009
    • PCI SIG IOV Terminologies SR-PCIM SI SI VI VI System Image (SI) • − SW, e.g., a guest OS, to which virtual and physical devices can be assigned Virtual Intermediary (VI) • − Performs resource allocation, isolation, management and event handling PCIM – PCI Manager • − Controls configuration, management and error handling of PFs and VFs − May be in SW and/or Firmware. − May be integrated into a VI Translation Agent (TA ) • − Uses ATPT to translates PCI Bus Addresses into platform addresses PCIe Address Translation and Protection • Switch Table (ATPT) − Validates access rights of incoming PCI memory transactions. − Translates PCI Address into platform physical addresses F F 46 16 January 2009
    • VT-c: Virtual Machine Device Queues (VMDq) • On the receive path, VMDq provides a hardware ‘sorter' or classifier that essentially does the pre-work for the VMM of directing which end VM the packets should go to. The NIC or LAN silicon is performing a hardware assist for the VMM layer. 47 16 January 2009
    • Intel / AMD Comparison VT-x VT-x2 VT-d2 VT-d LT Intel VMENTER, VMRESUME, Extended Page IOMMU IOMMU SENTER VMREAD, VMWRITE Tables (EPT) AC VMCS – VM control seg Virtual Processor IDs (VPID) unknown 2006 2005 2008 2007 SVM-3 IOMMU SVM-2 SVM ? PCI-SIG AMD Nested page tables VMRUN ATS Improved #VMEXIT VMCB – VM control block Decode assist ASID tagged TLB (performance) Paged realmode SKINIT (security) DMA exclusion vector (security) 48 16 January 2009
    • Deja-Vu – Back to the future What VT calls quot;non-root modequot;, and Pacifica calls quot;guest • modequot;, was called quot;interpretive executionquot; on the IBM VM/370 and VM/ESA mainframes. • VT's quot;vmlaunchquot; instruction and Pacifica's quot;vmrunquot; was called as quot;sie“ • Intel's quot;VMCSquot; and AMD's quot;VMCBquot; was called as quot;state descriptionquot; on the IBM mainframes. • IBM also defined the concept of shadow translation tables and a dual page-table walk in hardware. • IBM also defined a interpreted SIE for nested hypervisor support (not yet in Intel/AMD) 49 16 January 2009
    • Agenda Server Virtualization technologies • − Overview and history − VMM architectures − Criteria for a processor to be virtualizable X86 Virtualization • − The x86 processor architecture overview − Virtualization challenges in x86 processors Software techniques for virtualization • − CPU virtualization (Binary Translation/Para-virtualization) − Memory virtualization (shadow tables/Xen writeable page tables) − I/O virtualization (device emulation) Hardware techniques for virtualization • − CPU virtualization (VT-x/AMD-V) − Memory virtualization (Intel EPT/AMD NPT) − I/O virtualization (VT-d/Vt-d2/PCI SIG SR-IOV/MR-IOV) Future Trends • − Manageability − Security 50 16 January 2009
    • Future Trends Secure Hypervisors – The hypervisor itself like an OS can have holes. • BluePill attacks – subverting the hypervisor • Trusted Virtualization - Virtualizing TPMs for use by guest virtual machines • Trusted Virtualization – How do we trust the VMM ? Intel’s LT (LaGrande) and • AMD’s Presidio introduce architectural extensions for security Firewalls to protect guests. Xen Motion security hole • Storage QoS – FC NPIV, Storage vMotion • Datacenter/Lifecycle Management (Virtualiztion 2.0) • − OpsWare PAS (now HP Operations Orchestrator) − Novell ZENworks Orchestrator − VMware Lifecycle Manager 51 16 January 2009
    • References D. L. Osisek, K. M. Jackson, and P. H. Gum. ESA/390 • interpretive-execution architecture, foundation for VM/ESA. IBM Systems Journal, 30(1):34–51, 1991. • John Scott Robin and Cynthia E. Irvine. Analysis of the Intel Pentium’s ability to support a secure virtual machine monitor. In USENIX, editor, Proceedings of the Ninth USENIX Security Symposium, August 14–17, 2000, Denver, Colorado, page 275, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2000 • Keith Adams and Ole Agesen. A comparison of software and hardware techniques for x86 virtualization. Operating Systems Review, 40(5):2–13, December 2006 • PCI IOV talks at WinHEC and HP by Michael Krause • VMWorld 2007 talk by Ole Agesen • Intel IDF 2007/2008 presentations 52 16 January 2009