Socio economic theme: Southern Laos Farming and Marketing Systems Project
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Socio economic theme: Southern Laos Farming and Marketing Systems Project

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Rice-based Systems Research: Regional Technical Workshop June 2012 Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)

Rice-based Systems Research: Regional Technical Workshop June 2012 Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)

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  • 1. Partners• Faculty of Agriculture – NUOL (staff and students)• Agriculture and Forestry Policy Research Centre – NAFRI• University of QLD (staff and students)• Savannakhet and Champasak PAFO• DAFO staff from project districts
  • 2. MARKET STUDIES AGRARIANTECHNICAL POLICY OPTIONS SYSTEMS OPTIONS ANALYSIS FARM AND COMMUNITY STUDIES
  • 3. Farm and community studies: Developing a household typology PHASE 1 - Consultation PHASE 2 -with DAFO staff PHASE 3 - PHASE 5 - Village PHASE 4 - Case regarding Household Monitoring and reconnaissance study analysis village survey Evaluation field work classification and selection
  • 4. Agro-economic zones in Savannakhet
  • 5. Where would you put the structural boundaries? 6000 5000 4000Yield (kg/ha) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Area (ha) Self-sufficient line Market orientation
  • 6. Functional typology Labour Semi Subsistence Market oriented• Remittance • Intensive lowland • Rice specialists dependent • Extensive lowland • Cropping• Farm labourers • Upland/ lowland specialists --------------------- • Diversified cropping • Livestock• Farming • Swidden/NTFP/Collector focused professionals • Agro-forestry • Livestock keepers Diversified livelihood
  • 7. Number of households (n=300) 10 20 30 40 60 50 0 Labour Migration Labour Professional SmallscalelowlandLowland Medium Lowland TransitionalTransitional Swidden Subsistence LivestockkeeperUpland LowlandNTFP Rice Market (20%) Market Agroforestry Provisional classification (Savannakhet) Diversified Diversified
  • 8. Household rice security status in lowlands (2010) SupI SupI IR R TRAN TRAN IR SupI R IR SupI R 100%Percent of surveyed households 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Nagasor Oupalath Hieng Phonegnanang Phanomxai Phontan GeangXai Khamsa-e None Phajao Boungkeo Phaling Khoke Nongbua Outomphone Phalanxai Phin Phonethong Soukhuma Both Buy Self-suff Sell
  • 9. WS paddy yields by rice security status (2010) 6000 5000 4000Yield (kg/ha) 3000 Constraints 2000 Incentive 1000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Area (ha) Both Buy Self-sufficient Sell Self-sufficient line Market orientation
  • 10. Adoption of modern varieties (Champasak) 35 100% Cumulatice percent of households (%) 90% 30 80%Number of households 25 70% 20 60% 50% 15 40% 10 30% 20% 5 10% 0 0% Year Phaling Oupalath None Phajao Boungkeo Khoke Nongbua Hieng Cumulative adoption
  • 11. Fertiliser use in the lowlands (SVK &CPP): 80% of households (n=360) Top-dress Basal (64) (113) No top-dress Seedbed (49) (171) Top-dress No Basal (38) (58) No top-dress (20) Inorganic Fertiliser Top dressGrow paddy rice (276) (31) Basal (347) No Inorganic (68) None on No top-dress (71) seedbed (37) (86) No Basal Top dress No information (18) (18) (19)
  • 12. Rate of fertiliser remains low (kgN/ha)District/Village Only basal Basal + Top dress Only top dress TotalOutomphone 9.9 12.0 8.8 9.4 Nagasor 13.1 17.7 8.5 11.3 Phonegnanang 5.9 8.2 9.0 7.2Phalanxai 11.5 13.0 17.8 12.1 Phanomxai 16.8 17.6 19.1 14.4 Phontan 10.0 8.4 15.9 9.7Phin 9.6 16.3 8.0 2.2 Khamsa-e 7.3 0.6 GeangXai 9.6 16.3 8.4 3.6Phonethong 8.0 28.0 15.2 15.4 Phaling 6.4 26.3 17.2 19.3 Oupalath 18.1 29.8 23.5 21.8 None Phajao 5.3 6.1 2.4Soukhuma 11.1 24.9 10.7 13.0 Boungkeo 16.2 32.1 13.5 19.5 Khoke Nongbua 11.3 24.7 16.0 12.9 Hieng 6.3 10.7 4.3 5.7Grand Total 10.3 21.1 13.1 11.2
  • 13. Cumulative distribution of kgN/ha 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6Prob 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 KgN/ha (Basal + Top-dress) All paddy Apply N
  • 14. Mechanisation – Land preparation Own TractorDistrict/Village Own Tractor Buffalo Hire Tractor Buffalo/Hire and Buffalo NAOutomphone 78% 18% 2% 0% 0% 2% Nagasor 77% 17% 3% 0% 0% 3% Phonegnanang 80% 20% 0% 0% 0% 0%Phalanxai 56% 19% 20% 3% 0% 2% Phanomxai 60% 13% 23% 0% 0% 3% Phontan 52% 24% 17% 7% 0% 0%Phin 85% 9% 6% 0% 0% 0% Khamsa-e 88% 8% 4% 0% 0% 0% GeangXai 81% 11% 7% 0% 0% 0%Phonethong 43% 47% 3% 5% 1% 1% Phaling 59% 21% 10% 7% 0% 3% Oupalath 45% 45% 0% 7% 3% 0% None Phajao 24% 76% 0% 0% 0% 0%Soukhuma 69% 6% 16% 8% 1% 0% Boungkeo 67% 7% 20% 3% 3% 0% Khoke Nongbua 67% 7% 13% 13% 0% 0% Hieng 75% 4% 14% 7% 0% 0%Total 64% 21% 10% 4% 1% 1%
  • 15. Barriers to market development Labour Semi Subsistence Market oriented• Remittance • Intensive lowland • Rice specialists dependent • Extensive lowland • Cropping• Farm labourers • Upland/ lowland specialists --------------------- • Diversified cropping • Livestock• Farming • Swidden/NTFP/Collector focused professionals • Agro-forestry • Livestock keepers Diversified livelihood
  • 16. Internal and external constraintsFarming system External• Soil fertility • Price of output• Water • Price of inputs• Rice quality • Infrastructure • Processing • Taxes and trade restrictions
  • 17. Savannakhet rice production1.2. Trade in Agricultural sector Rice production share by district, 2010 20% 18% 18% 17% 16% 14% Production (Tons) 14% 12% 10% 8% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 4% 4% 3% 2% 2% 1% 0.3% 0% Source: Annual report 2010, PICO of Savannakhet province
  • 18. Location of studies
  • 19. Potential• The study area has the geographical position advantage for the expansion of exports to Vietnam as it located on road n. 9 which links the study area to Quang Tri province via Lao Bao – Dansavanh cross border ; • 20 % of rice collected by rice millers in study district is export to Vietnam• The study area has approximately 14,000 metric tons of rice surplus every year. This is an opportunity for farmers to supply local mills in their own district;• The horizontal integration between traders can facilitate the trade negotiation in the market level – Rice millers group
  • 20. Major constraints• Seasonality of supply source: it is increasing the difficult to source the rice in study area – > 50% of rice is collected outside the study area ;• Price fluctuation due to production levels and policy decision – Low production (drought or flood) – Banned of rice exports – 1700 kip/kg (2009), 3500 - 4200 kip/kg (2010) and 1800 kip/kg (2011)• Difficulty to set up quality standards recognized by international actors due to poor processing facilities in the rice mill; – High percentage of broken piece, low percentage of whole grain (35%) – High humidity of polished rice (> 16%)• Market fragmentation due to the lack of horizontal linkage in the supply site (non formal farmer’s organisation)
  • 21. RecommendationsRice marketing chain• Strengthening the horizontal linkage in the supply site: Farmers in the study area should have a formal collective action in order to facilitate the purchase of rice by traders, whilst giving them “a bargaining power”;• Improving the vertical linkage: the vertical linkage can be leveraged to increase the flow of information to farmers. If the information transfer between farmers and traders is better organized and linked, farmers can orient their production to meet the market demand rather than produces for home- consumption;• Improve processing knowledge and facilities to be able to ensure quality recognized by international standard.
  • 22. Further information