Seminar_Belotti_050813_Linking agricultural development to nutrition and health outcomes

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Seminar by Professor Bill Belotti: Linking agricultural development to nutrition and health outcomes”

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  • On the Plateau, the vast majority of rice area is medium uplands like this
  • Rainfall in 2006 was 1153 mm compared with 6-year average of 1208 mm (close to long-term of 1250 mm Purulia) – this is not a particularly bad year.From this graph we can tell:Why it is said EIP has great potential with its water resourcesWhen a farmer can cultivate for the nursery – early JuneWhen he could transplant (it was delayed to early August or later)The duration of ponded conditions (87 for early transplant, followed by drought)How much water was in the soil after rice maturity (esp. if early-mid maturity (mid Oct) – over 200 mmThis is enough to produce > 2t/ha wheat with no irrigation
  • Higher drainage rate says results apply in better drained soils and even if soils improve after rice
  • Seminar_Belotti_050813_Linking agricultural development to nutrition and health outcomes

    1. 1. Presenter Professor Bill Belotti Vincent Fairfax Chair in Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development Topic “Linking agricultural development to nutrition and health outcomes” Related to ACIAR project: LWR/2010/082 Improving livelihoods with innovative cropping systems on the East India Plateau Date 12.30pm, Monday 5 August 2013 Venue ACIAR House, Canberra Acknowledgements Belotti B (2013) Linking agricultural development to nutrition and health outcomes, ACIAR Seminar Series presentation, 5 August 2013, Canberra, Australia.
    2. 2. India: 54% of 1.2 billion in poverty Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, www.ophi.org.uk
    3. 3. Poverty in east India (OPHI) Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) = Incidence of Poverty x Severity of Poverty Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, www.ophi.org.uk
    4. 4. Inadequate nutrition is the major contributor to MPI in India Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, www.ophi.org.uk
    5. 5. Diet diversity could be key to improving nutrition, particularly in south Asia Starchy staple ratio = share of total calorie intake derived from cereals. Herforth, 2013, World Bank
    6. 6. Propositions • Poverty and malnutrition are particularly extensive and severe in east India. • Need to focus on nutrition, not just calories. • A more diverse agriculture could lead to a more diverse diet. • Does it? What is the evidence for this?
    7. 7. Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health (LCIRAH) • LCIRAH established in 2010 with a grant from the Leverhulme Trust to develop “unifying approaches and methodologies for understanding the relationship between agricultural production and population health, and the factors which drive them both.” • Part of London International Development Centre (LIDC) and School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS); University of London.
    8. 8. 3rd Annual LCIRAH Conference 13-14 June 2013, London Focus on concepts and methodologies • Lack of integrated datasets linking agricultural development to nutritional security • Need better understanding of linkages between subsistence and larger food systems • Concepts like ‘household’ and ‘family farm’ are fluid and often need fuzzy definitions to reflect reality • Research interventions intended to deliver behaviour change; what works? • Place farmer first, at the centre of research. • LCIRAH and A4NH will form a Agri-Health Academy to support a community of practice
    9. 9. Key findings: Cornish Medium-uplands of East India Plateau • Transplanted rice is unreliable • Higher value options (horticulture) available • Season-landscape crop option matrix • Increase in crop intensity and diversity • System change • Based on changing perceptions – Land – Water – Self
    10. 10. Transplanted rice on medium uplands - EIP
    11. 11. Soil water was measured in many fields – used to make a model that predicts soil water Available water for rice in medium uplands, Pogro 2006 (Total rainfall 1153 mm – 6-year average 1208 mm)
    12. 12. Rainfall varies from year-to-year But what about soil water and ponding 0 1000 2000 Annualrainfall (mm) Hazaribag rainfall The duration of ponding in medium uplands is much more variable even than rainfall (0-106 days) This why rice crops fail so often
    13. 13. Rainfed cropping with non-flooded crops (including aerobic rice) a safer option than paddy Soil water in medium uplands with no ponding, Pogro 2006-2011 Rainfed – bunds open Abundant water, even in 2010
    14. 14. In project villages cropping systems are becoming more intensive and diverse
    15. 15. Season-Landscape Crop Matrix Learning Tool
    16. 16. Self Help Groups planning ‘year-round’ cropping
    17. 17. Improving livelihoods with innovative cropping systems on the East India Plateau
    18. 18. Research and Development Objectives 1.Research into process of scaling out 2.Monitoring and evaluation of impact AusAID Development Objectives 1.PRADAN education & training 2.PRADAN scaling out on EIP ACIAR Research Objectives 1.Water 2.Soil 3.Crops 4.Livestock 5.Integration
    19. 19. 40 newly trained PRADAN Development Executives focussed on WSD and INRM to develop more resilient, diverse cropping systems Development focus on five EIP states
    20. 20. Research focus in Jharkhand and West Bengal Three locations: 1. Purulia 2. Bokaro 3. West Singbhum
    21. 21. Mechanisation of rice seeding 2-wheel tractor 4-row seeder Separate seed and fertiliser boxes Possible to intercropRejected by farmers
    22. 22. Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) changes the cropping system (everything) • Earlier seeding, earlier harvesting • Early sowing of rabi crop, preferably a pulse • Climate resilient agriculture • Gender supportive (frees women from drudgery) • Nutrition enhancing
    23. 23. 2010 kharif widespread failure to transplant rice 2013 also delayed transplanting Farmers unimpressed with manually pulled seeder
    24. 24. Diversify the farming system further • Pulse agronomy • Vegetable crops • Small ruminants (forage legumes) • Legumes for nitrogen, protein, nutrition • Vegetables for cash income & home consume • Goats for very poor & landless (walking ATM)
    25. 25. Existing M&E in LWR/2010/082 1. Longitudinal survey of 1080 households 2. Understanding PRADAN’s education program and innovation system (‘Agency’ focus) 3. Opportunities to add-on
    26. 26. Household Level Survey • Three districts: – Purulia, West Singbhum, Bokaro • Three target populations: – No contact PRADAN, + PRADAN, PRADAN + ACIAR • Four villages per target group • 30 Households per village • Total = 3 x 3 x 4 x 30 = 1080 households • Surveyed in 2013, 2015, 2017 • Comprehensive (Knowing – Doing – Being)
    27. 27. PRADAN education and innovation • PRADAN ‘in-house’ training program, Development Apprenticeship program • New partnership with Ambedkar University, Master of Philosophy in Development Practice • New PRADAN focus on ‘agency’ • How can we facilitate transmission of ACIAR innovations throughout PRADAN? – 290 staff; 42 Districts; 268,600 families; 16,555 SHG
    28. 28. Opportunity 1 Linking crop diversity to diet diversity • We know our research is resulting in more intensive and diverse cropping systems. • Are we having an impact on diet and nutrition? • What evidence is needed?
    29. 29. Indicators for diet quality, continuity of food access, and food insecurity
    30. 30. Monitoring to link diet to nutrition & health • Should we include health indicators? • If yes: – Body Mass Index (BMI) – Middle Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) – Stunting (low height for age) – Wasting (low weight for age) – Low birth weight • Mixture of short- and long-term indicators
    31. 31. Opportunity 2 Wider economy implications of intensification • More diverse and intense cropping systems, higher household income from on- farm activity • Creating demand for input supply and services, as well as output supply chains • Wider economy development may have greater impact on nutrition and health than on-farm production and home consumption
    32. 32. Wider economy indicators • Generation of employment • Off-farm income • Small business start-ups • Household expenditure – Education – Health – Other?
    33. 33. Nutritionally sensitive A4H 1. Invest in women: safeguard and strengthen the capacity of women to provide for the food security, health, and nutrition of their families. 2. Increase access to and year-round availability of high-nutrient content food. 3. Improve nutrition knowledge among rural households to enhance dietary diversity. 4. Incorporate explicit nutrition objectives and indicators into project and policy design. Herforth, 2013, World Bank
    34. 34. LWR/2010/082 has several interventions in place, but currently not formally monitoring World Bank pathway ACIAR project LWR/2010/082 1. Increase overall macroeconomic growth. Yes, but currently not monitored. 2. Increase access to food by higher production and decreased food prices. Likely, some data but need to monitor formally. 3. Increase household income through the sale of agricultural products. Yes, positive impact and included in formal M&E. 4. Increase nutrient dense food production for household consumption. Yes, increasing vegetables, pulses, goats, but currently not monitoring impact on diet. 5. Empowering women through targeted agricultural interventions. Yes, women SHGs are central to our engagement process.
    35. 35. Livelihood aspirations and transformations • Hanging in – maintaining status quo, hold farm but little interest in innovation • Stepping up – increasing levels of production, innovation and investment • Stepping out – engaging in non-farm production activities • Falling down and out – falling to a lower level of production, possibly failing to survive (Dorward, et al, 2009 & 2013)
    36. 36. Transdisciplinarity 1. Deliberate plan to transcend discipline boundaries from outset of research. 2. Active participation of non-scientists in the research process. 3. Respect for different knowledge systems and world views. 4. More effective research impact; particularly for behavioural change.
    37. 37. Consider . . . • A region of extensive and severe poverty and malnutrition • An intervention process (PRADAN-ACIAR) that appears to be delivering real impact • An opportunity to expand the M&E to quantify linkages between agriculture- health, and between on-farm production and wider economy

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