Contents of the PresentationI. General background of Lao PDRII. Current Land Use PatternIII. Contribution of Agriculture in National EconomyIV. Enabling environment for agricultureV. Major Problems for agriculture developmentVI. Current Cropping PatternVII. Sustainable NRM & Productivity Enhancement projectVIII. Opportunity for Linkages of Development Projects with Research ProjectsIX. Some photo of project activities
I. Lao PDR General Background Land linked country surrounded by 5 countries (Vietnam, China, Myanmar, Thailand & Cambodia) Population 6.65 Million 49 Ethnic Groups 2.1% annual population growth rate Population Density: 24 people/square KM
I. Lao PDR General Background•Forest cover was 41%•Every 10 years Forest coverchange assessment (1982, 1992,2002, 2010)•Protection Forest 5.2 Mil Ha.• Conservation Forest 2.7 Mil Ha.• Production Forest 3.1 Mil Ha.
II. Current Land Use Pattern • Total land area: 23.68 Million ha. • Total forest land area: 9.7 million ha. (41% of total area of country) Dense Forest 5.5 Million Ha. (out of which 3.31 Ha, under 21 National conservation forest) Degraded Forest 4.2 Million Ha.
II. Current Land Use Pattern • Total Agriculture area: 1.8 Million ha. (Only 7.6% of total area of country) • Total Plantation Area 0.5 Million Ha. • Miscellaneous Land: 4.78 Million Ha.
II. Current Land Use Pattern 59% farmers are engaged in subsistence agriculture. 6% of farmers have good marketable surplus production. 35% sell some of their agriculture production. Top 5 crops are: 2% 10% Rice 4% 3% Coffee 7% Vegetables Maize 5% 65% Legumes Starchy root & 4% cassava Peanut Others crops
Agriculture Production High Mountain 10 % System of Lao PDR High slope 20% Plateau 15 % Slope 30%Flat land 25%
III. Contribution of Agriculture in National Economy Agricultural contributing 35% of the GDP. 79.7% population is engaged in farming 93% of the area devoted to rice production. 8% farmers are engaged in aquaculture Livestock: ◦ 31% farmers have cattle, ◦ 48% have water buffaloes, ◦ 49% have pigs, and ◦ 73% farmers raise poultries.
IV. Enabling environment for agriculture 1. Availability of land for Agriculture 2. Good climatic conditions 3. Infrastructure development & Connectivity to major ports 4. Plenty of Rainfall, rainy months from April to October
IV. Enabling environment for agriculture Long lasting rainy season average rainfall more than 2,000 MM ◦ Dry Season: November to Mid April ◦ Wet Season: Mid April to October Rainfall Pattern in Lao PDR
IV. Enabling environment for agriculture Good temperature can enable round the year cultivation Fertile soils Rainfall Pattern in Southern Lao PDR
IV. Enabling environmentfor agriculture Lot of source of water including perennial streams, rivers, ground water enabling to establish irrigation system
IV. Enabling environment- Good Infrastructure development
IV. Enabling environment Good Infrastructure development Mawlamyin
V. Major Problems for agriculture development › Insufficient paddy land for farmers; › Presence of un-exploded ordnance (UXO); › Poor soil fertility management › Shifting cultivation; › Lack of equipments and machinery and agro-inputs; › Lack of availability of improved seeds of crops; › Very less area under irrigation; › Poor Technical knowledge of farmers;
V. Major Problems for agriculture development Subsistence farming; Extreme poverty in rural farming community;◦ Long hungry season for many families◦ Natural Disaster like floods and droughts
VI. Current Cropping Pattern Upland Area: ◦ Shifting cultivation cycle 4-5 years ◦ Main crop rainfed upland aerobic rice ◦ Some farmers started growing Corn ◦ Negligible cultivation of legumenous crops ◦ Farmers are not aware of crop rotation
VI. Current Cropping Pattern Low Land Area: ◦ Paddy rice cultivation mainly rainfed paddy rice; ◦ Most of the rice fields are fellow in dry season; ◦ Negligible cultivation of legume crops in dry season; ◦ Farmers are not aware of crop rotation; ◦ Farmers are not aware of the soil fertility management.
SNRMPE ProjectDuration: 6 yearsFrom: Jan 2010-Dec 2015
Sustainable Natural Resource Management & Productivity Enhancement project Project is covering 42 districts. Targeting 19 poor and very poor districts as identified in the NGPES for the Poverty Reduction Subprojects, all 42 districts for the subprojects of Commercialization of Agricultural and NRM subprojects. Total of 1,895 villages (out of total 2,261) and 230,000 households Project website: http://www.snrmpep.gov.la GIS website http://gis.snrmpep.gov.la/
Grant 0144-LAO (SF) US$ 20 Million or 53.4% Grant 8025-LA US$ 15 Million or 40.0%, Counterpart Funding US$ 1.775 Million or 4.7% Special Grant Fund (TA-JSF) TA 7241-LAO US$ Million or 1.9 %. Total US$ 37.475 Million
Project Components & Subcomponents A. Capacity Building in Sector Management: a) Land Use-Suitability Planning b) Support for Producer Groups c) Policy Development B. Subproject Investments a. Commercialization Initiatives b. Poverty Reduction Initiatives c. Natural Resource Management Initiatives C. Implementation Management
Land Use Suitability Planning GIS Resource Mapping Center established at NAFRI and in 5 provinces. LUP units established in 5 provinces and all are equipped with necessary equipment. LUP in 71 subproject area in 5 provinces, Equipped the government agencies for the appraisal of land concession to take appropriate decision. Land allocation and issue of permanent land certificate to target farmers
Main features of subprojects Based on genuine stakeholder demand; Have sound technical, commercial, social, and environmental prospects; Potential impact on poverty reduction by targeting poor farmers; Based on a demonstrated technology; Financially and institutionally sustainable; Consistent with national agricultural development strategies; Start with start-up activities we have prepared total 71 subproject amounting US$ 21.6 million. Feasibility studies for all subprojects completed.
Groups of Subprojects Subprojects are grouped in 9 types: ◦ 6 Subprojects: Promotion of service providers for small livestock raising. ◦ 5 Subprojects: Establishment of Sustainable Livestock Health Management System. ◦ 12 Subprojects: Integrated Livestock based mixed farming system. ◦ 22 Subprojects: Integrated Rice Based Farming System. ◦ 7 Subprojects: Sustainable upland
Groups of Subprojects◦ 4 Subprojects: Promotion of Organic Coffee Value Chain.◦ 6 Subprojects: Natural Resource Management.◦ 5 Subprojects: Organic Vegetable cultivation and value chain development.◦ 3 Subprojects: Other Miscellaneous.
Targeting under differentCategory of Subprojects Commercialization: ◦ 133 Village clusters; 724 villages & 74,771 Households Poverty Reduction: ◦ 195 Village clusters; 1,088 villages & 148,996 Households NRM: 8 subprojects, US$ 2.14 Million ◦ 14 Village clusters; 83 villages & 6,338 Households
Example: Small Livestock Development with ValueChain Approach Sub Pigeon pea andMaize cultivation: Quality raw REVOLVING FUND material for feed SUPPORT THROUGH factories VDC Dev. of Meat I Processing - N Dev of Feed Centers Farmers to be M - N T Factories - E (PPP) organized as A - L A R Producer Groups T - O N R - C I A O Dev of Demonstration Units K - A N T at village level - L I Breeding E - A O Centers & L T - N hatcheries - A Exposure visits L Integrated Health and Training Management Support Programmes
Marketing StrategyTo brand it as unique product with competitive advantage for domestic as well as international markets. Organic Product Halal method of (No use of chemicals or Processing pesticides in the entire (To access highly lucrative process) markets in neighboring Countries) Final Product Native Breeds Fair Trade Product (Produced by rural poor (High in taste and households for poverty uniqueness in availability) reduction)
Example for rice basedfarming system Farmers Group Development; Capacity Building of Technical Staff and Production Groups; Land Use Planning & Issue of Permanent Land Certificate Linking the farmers groups with rice miller (Apply lessons of SNV, HELVETAS, EMRIP); Rice Seed Production Programme; Soil Fertility Improvement Programme using green manure, compost; Introduction of crop rotation; Demonstration & Productivity Enhancement; Support for Irrigation System; Farm Mechanization: Up scaling of production system; MIS & Fare Trade.
Partners for Technical Cooperation AllDepartments of MAF including NAFRI, NAFES, DoA, DOF, DoI, DoL and NLMA, MoNRE, MPI, MOF Research Projects & International Institutions: IRRI, FAO, AIT, CIET, KfW, SNV, ACIAR, ICRISAT, ILRI, NACA NGOs: PROCASUR, VFI, AGPC, CUSO VSO Private Sectors: SWIFT Co., Ltd. Green
VIII. Opportunities for linkages with ResearchProjects with development projects A. Linkages for Production Research in upland areas: ◦ Easy technique for the stabilization of the shifting cultivation by developing technical interventions to improve the profitability of low-input household farming systems as an alternative to shifting cultivation; e.g. Intercropping of Pigeon pea with upland rice (impact on soil fertility, root knot nematode, yield etc.)
VIII. Opportunities for linkages with ResearchProjects with development projects A. Linkages for Production Research in upland areas: ◦ Some research on improving the pigeonpea varieties like introduction of short term high yielding varieties of pigeonpea. SNRMPEP introduced 10 ton seeds of 2 pigeonpea varieties from Myanmar. White Bold and Linkhe which mature in 130 days and can produce 2 ton grains per ha while existing Lao pigeonpea takes 280 days to ripe and can produce only 0.5 ton grains per ha. ◦ Need research for the sole cultivation of pigeonpea and other legumes in upland area in 2nd year after rice. ◦ Research on other legume crops like red bean, Mung bean, rice bean and other bean to improve the soil fertility and generate more income;
VIII. Opportunities for linkages with ResearchProjects with development projects A. Linkages for Production Research in upland areas: ◦ Zero tillage farming system ◦ Weed management in upland farming system ◦ High value area specific upland crops (like coffee, green cardamom, condiments and spices, herbal medicinal plants) ◦ Low cost water harvesting and water management technologies for the upland; ◦ Livestock based farming system; ◦ Planting of rainfed upland dry season crops in upland areas like Chickpea after upland rice as relay cropping.
VIII. Opportunities for linkages with ResearchProjects with development projects B. Linkages for Production Research in lowland areas: ◦ Research trials on Integrated Rice-Livestock Based farming System; ◦ Some trials for use of both fodder and food crop residue for livestock raising and livestock residue for compost, bio fertilizer development and soil fertility and soil structure improvement. 20% area under fodder crops 80% under food crops
Post harvest management of fodder & Conservation of greenfodder for dry season tiny bag silage making
VIII. Opportunities for linkages with ResearchProjects with development projects B. Linkages for Production Research in lowland areas: ◦ Research trials on use of legume as crop rotation in dry season under irrigated areas. ◦ Research trials use of green mannuring (residue of legume crops after picking of pods, planting of susbennia and crotolaria for green mannuring)
VIII. Opportunities for linkages with ResearchProjects with development projects B. Linkages for Production Research in lowland areas: ◦ Research trials on development of intercropping system in Lao condition. (Corn- Pigeonpea or other pulses based intercropping)
VIII. Opportunities for linkages with ResearchProjects with development projects B. Linkages for Production Research in lowland areas: ◦ Research trials on development of relay cropping system in Lao condition. (Myanmar is producing the dry land Pigeonpea in un-irrigated area after harvest of rice. Pigeonpea has deep root system and doesn’t require irrigation in dry season. Myanmar export Pigeonpea worth US$ 500 million per year to India)
VIII. Opportunities for linkages B. Linkages for Production in low land areas ◦ Research to develop some insect resistant and wilt resistant genotype for rice & legumes ◦ Drought-tolerance and drought avoidance , flood tolerant varieties; ◦ Research on short-duration pulse crops varieties that have enabled an expansion of the crop into tropical latitudes in dry season for planting just after harvest of rice;
VIII. Opportunities for linkages B. Linkages for Production in low land areas ◦ Increase Organic Matter in soil by green manuring, use of compost etc. Susbenia Sunhemp
VIII. Opportunities for linkages C. Farm Mechanization ◦ Lao Farmers still use traditional system for land preparation and most of the farmers use spade, buffaloes for the land preparation. ◦ There is need to do some research and trials for the partial farm mechanization
VIII. Opportunities for linkages D. Linkages for Processing & Marketing ◦ Promotion of Private Sector for the hygienic processing, packaging and marketing. ◦ Establish linkages for promotion of PPP ◦ Coordination for the adoption and improvement of Value chain approach- Linking with general and super markets ◦ Organic approach-Organic works well in Lao PDR. There is need to conduct more scientific research.
TurmericCurcuma longa Linn.Part to be used : RootTarget Pest
Neem Azadirachta indicaPart to be used: Seed, Bark Pesticide Property: MediumTarget Pests:
Cymbopogon nardusPart to be used: Roots, Stem, Leaves (methyleugenol) Pesticide value: High Target Pests:
Nerium indicumPart to be used: Flowers, Leaves andfruits Pesticide Value: HighTarget Pests:
Tinospora rumphiiPart to be used: Stem Pesticide Value: High Target Pests:
Acorus calamus L.Part to be used: BranchesPesticide Value: HighTarget Pests:
VIII. Opportunities for linkages E. Knowledge Sharing & Networking ◦ Regional Networking with research & development projects/institutions to share best practices ◦ Technical cooperation for the preparation of Technical Literatures of best practices for Technical Staff & Farmers. ◦ Capacity Building for technical staff and producer farmers ◦ Large scale adoption of best applied research practices by IFAD funded projects (Convert knowledge in Products).
VIII. Opportunities for linkages E. Policy & Regulations ◦ Support for the seed systems and policy research on grain legumes and cereals; ◦ Support the government to update/establish Quality control standard and regulation of agricultural products; ◦ Study for the trans-boundary trade of crops- import-export regulations, sanitary & other requirements of different countries and dissemination of these information to producers, processors and traders
Mobile Soil Analysis Kits 49 Kits 3 in 1 Protractor /Angle Finder/Level Measuring ToolAnalyser for N, P, K, SoilpH in the soil, Light Salinity Meter Seed Moisture Meter Soil Augersand Moisture
Rapid composting technology can make compost within 15 days 57
Preparation of Bio-Pesticides for organic vegetable cultivation 58
Direct Seeded rice cultivation in KhongDistrict in Dry season 59
Support for Rice SeedProduction Mobile seed Graders
Duck farming in Phou Sava Irrigation Area Start-up activity in Savanakhet Province 61
Integrated crop production andcattle raising 62
Chicken, pigs and caged fish farming as a Startup Activity in Attapeu Province 63
Over handing Vetenary Tools to Livestock Section for Vaccination Capaign in Sekong 64