Fail to meet standards 100% Formal sector is not better Raw milk PasteurisedHazards are notrisks • Generates million of jobsEvery study finds • Raw milk earns more for the farmer and costs less for the householdbenefits • Consumers prefer taste and provenance of local products 5
Nutrition, safety and access are linkedBut typically assessed and managed separatelyThis can lead sub-optimal solutions and missed opportunities 6
Regulatory and institutional framework that drives, enables or hinders changes ENVIRONMENT: Change in land use, loss of biodiversity, CO2, methane, nitrous oxides, waste, use of water, fertiliser, pesticides, fossil fuels, etc. (Transport) Crops Drivers ANIMAL WELFARE Move Move Move Move Land Grow Harvest Process Retail EatFoodborne Disease emergence. hazards Nutritional and safety quality at retail Contamination Handling: Mixing, partitioning, removal, x-contamination of feed and Disease introduction, Biological: Growth & inactivation Affordability water transmission & spread Acceptability Accessibility FOODBORNE HAZARDS - Probability of contamination Utilisation Consumer Feed used (e.g. Age at New combinations Feed/food/fuel knowledge, Nutrient Availability of content grass vs grain slaughter of raw ingredients, competition attitude, practice based, fish vs soy Impact of Processing that energy and Manure as nutrients at meal) stress impacts on fertiliser Breed, spp, age hormones on bioavailability of retail level Energy, nutrient, Production meat quality nutrients system, etc hazard intake Vulnerability NUTRIENT CONTENT - Probability of nutrient loss of deficiency 7 HUMAN HEALTH
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