Accelerating Innovation in Agriculture 2014 01-23


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Dr Achim Dobermann, outgoing Deputy Director General (Research) International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) presented a seminar at ACIAR on “Accelerating Agricultural Innovations for the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda” on 23 January 2014

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  • Sri Lanka, December 2010Two laborers mixing an insecticide with ureaPrecise management, BMP cannot be implementedthis way – science is wasted
  • Vertical integration of value chains – consumer-driven production systemsGrocery store in a middle-class neighborhood in Khartoum, Sudan, 2011
  • IR 64 NIL IR 87707-445-B-B-B with drought yield QTLs 2.2 and 4.1
  • Ecological Intensifi9cation platform at IRRI, 4 ha for each system
  • Point-out the different elements
  • Accelerating Innovation in Agriculture 2014 01-23

    1. 1. Presenter Dr Achim Dobermann. Deputy Director General (Research) International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Topic “Accelerating Agricultural Innovations for the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda” Date 23 January 2014 Venue ACIAR Acknowledgements Dobermann, A (2014) Accelerating Agricultural Innovations for the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda, ACIAR Seminar Series presentation, 23 January 2014, Canberra, Australia.
    2. 2. Accelerating Agricultural Innovations for the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda Achim Dobermann Seminar at ACIAR, Canberra, 23 January 2014
    3. 3. What could make the next 15 years different from the previous? • Unique opportunities: – end extreme poverty and hunger by 2030 – rapid technological advances • Grand challenges: – human impact on the physical Earth could exceed safe planetary boundaries – increasing inequality and social exclusion – increasing complexity and difficulties of global governance
    4. 4. The key post-2015 driver Broad material improvement of life: 6/7 of the world‟s population want to catch up with 1/7 By 2030, 5 bln people who will each consume $10100 per day Global economy will grow at 3-4% per year = doubling in size every generation Annual global GDP will rise from $90 trillion (7.2 bln people) to >$300 trillion by 2050 (9-10 bln people)
    5. 5. The pillars of the new sustainable development agenda Economic development Social inclusion Environmental sustainability Good governance
    6. 6. Our generation needs to make deep changes in technologies and policies to decouple future economic growth from unsustainable use of: Fossil fuels Land Oceans Freshwater Other resources
    7. 7.
    8. 8. Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) 1. Support the High-Level Panel, OWG and other post-2015 SDG processes 2. 12 thematic Groups to identify long-term pathways to sustainable development 3. Promote testing, demonstration, development of promising new “solutions” 4. Build a global Knowledge Center Network for local and regional problem solving 5. Global online university for sustainable development
    9. 9. Website: Email:
    10. 10. 10 SDGs proposed by the SDSN 1. 2. 3. End Extreme Poverty Including Hunger* Achieve Development within Planetary Boundaries* Ensure Effective Learning for All Children and Youth for Life and Livelihood 4. Achieve Gender Equality, Social Inclusion, and Human Rights for All 5. Achieve Health and Wellbeing at All Ages* 6. Improve Agricultural Systems and Raise Rural Prosperity* 7. Empower Inclusive, Productive and Resilient Cities 8. Curb Human-Induced Climate Change and Ensure Sustainable Energy* 9. Secure Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Good Management of Natural Resources* 10. Transform Governance for Sustainable Development* * Goals that could include targets and indicators for agriculture
    11. 11. Goal 6: Improve Agriculture Systems and Raise Rural Prosperity Targets: • 6a. Ensure sustainable food production systems that achieve high yields with high efficiency of water, nutrients, and energy, and have low food losses and waste. • 6b. Halt forest and wetland conversion to agriculture, protect soil resources, and ensure that farming systems are resilient to climatic change and disasters. • 6c. Ensure universal access in rural areas to basic resources and infrastructure services (land, water, sanitation, modern energy, transport, mobile and broadband communication, agricultural inputs, and advisory services).
    12. 12. Target 6a: Sustainable food production systems Indicators: • Cereal yield growth rate (% p.a.) • Crop yield gap (actual yield as % of yield potential) • Livestock and fish productivity growth • Crop water productivity (tons of harvested product per unit irrigation water) • Full-chain nitrogen [phosphorus] use efficiency (%) • ….. • ……
    13. 13. Target 6a: Sustainable food production systems Aspirational outcomes: • Annual yield growth rate of major food crops approaches or exceeds [1.5]%. • The majority of farms achieve [80]% of the attainable water-limited yield potential by 2030. • Livestock productivity in developing countries doubled by 2030, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. • Water productivity of crop production increased by [30]% in countries with high water use for irrigation. • Full-chain efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus increased by [x]% relative to current levels in each country with sub-optimal efficiency.
    14. 14. The CGIAR should adopt the post-2015 framework and terminology Post-2015 SD • SDG • Targets • Indicators and metrics for them • (specific outcomes) CGIAR • SLOs • IDOs • Indicators • …  the timelines for the post-2015 process, a new SRF and developing a CRP II portfolio seem to match: 2014-2016
    15. 15. Could the CGIAR also step up and become the world leader in science and practice of monitoring the performance of global agriculture?
    16. 16. The new food system challenge • Change behavior towards healthier diets and reduce food loss and waste • Increase productivity by more than 60% on existing crop and pasture land by 2050 • Preserve the environment through lower resource intensity and sound use of inputs • Make farming an attractive economic opportunity for (young) people living in rural areas
    17. 17. Total factor productivity is the primary source of growth in agriculture – but is highly variable among countries S&T role Source: K. Fuglie et al., 2012
    18. 18. More public and private investments in agricultural S&T • Increase funding for public agric. R&D in all countries. • Target 10b: • Low- and middle-income should spend at least 10% of natl. budget on agriculture, including at least 1% of agricultural GDP on R&D in their country (currently: ~0.5% or less) • ODA: spend at least 10% on agriculture • Create IP laws, other regulations, technology incentives that encourage greater private sector investments in S&T as well as wide access to innovations.
    19. 19. Challenge: long lag times from research to large impact of new technologies <20 to >90% Adoption Cumulative adoption 10-15 years of R&D Variable, slow adoption Disadoption Annual adoption rate Basic research Technology development Release 0 10 20 Time (years) 30
    20. 20. How can we accelerate S&T for sustainable agricultural intensification? How can we ensure that all countries have sufficient S&T capacity and wide access to S&T innovations?
    21. 21. The problem of too much water The problem of too much water 20 million ha affected by floods in South and Southeast Asia Growing problem with climate change Rice is only crop suitable, but „drowns‟
    22. 22. Science innovation: flood-tolerant rice FR13A IR64-Sub1 Samba-Sub1 Samba IR49830 (Sub1) Samba IR64 IR42 IR42 IR64 IR49830 (Sub1) IR49830 (Sub1) IR64-Sub1 IR64 Samba Samba-Sub1 IR64-Sub1 IR42 IR49830 (Sub1) IR42 IR64-Sub1 Samba IR49830 (Sub1) Samba-Sub1 IR64 Gene for submergence tolerance (sub1) found in a local variety (FR13A) and moved into popular “mega-varieties”
    23. 23. Science innovation: flood-tolerant rice Farmers’ submergence tolerant landraces collected, including FR13A Gene bank screened; FR13A identified Semi-dwarf & submergence tol. combined First modern varieties, but poor agronomic features 1950 1978 1990 2000 1995: Sub1 mapped to Chr. 9 Fine mapping & marker development initiated 2002: Swarna crossed with IR49830-7 (Sub1) 2006: Sub1-A gene conferring submergence tolerance 2006: Swarna-Sub1 developed by marker assisted backcrossing 2008: Sub1-A mode of action: inhibit response to GA 2009: Swarna-Sub1 released in India, Indonesia, IR64Sub1 in Indonesia, Philippines 2010: Two Sub1 varieties released in Bangladesh 2010
    24. 24. Diffusion of flood-tolerant rice through PPP Spillover: sub1 varieties in SE Asia; wide use of sub1 gene in public and private sector breeding (Africa, Asia, South America)
    25. 25. Impact Swarna-Sub1: recovered after 17 d flood Local variety: re-planted after total loss due to flood October 2010, Mymensingh, Bangladesh 2013: new Sub1 varieties reached >4 million farmers in Asia Free “crop insurance” Yield advantage of 1-1.5 t/ha; earlier harvest
    26. 26. How to accelerate S&T impact? • R&D: – Precise product profiling (gene targeting): digital spatial technologies, market research – Speed up gene discovery and trait development: genomics, phenomics, bioinformatics – Precision breeding pipelines with high-throughput technologies to cut variety development time in half • Policy: – Wide access to traits and breeding know-how – Modernize variety release procedures and seed laws – Incentives for developing a vibrant private seed sector
    27. 27. The problem: Low nitrogen use efficiency Full Chain NUEN,P Source: Sutton, M.A. et al. 2012).
    28. 28. Science innovation: Site-specific N management Active Panicle tillering initiation Early growth Maturity Heading Transplanting -20 -10 0 10 20 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Direct seeding 0 Early 30 40 50 60 Active tillering & PI • Apply only moderate • Apply at critical growth amount of N stages • Increase amount in proportion to crop yield • PI application at 60 days before harvest • Vary N based on crop N needs and status 70 80 90 100 110 days Heading • Diagnose need for extra N 110 DAT
    29. 29. Science innovation: Site-specific N management R&D 1992-2005 demonstrated: • • • • • • 10-20% more yield and profit 30-50% greater N use efficiency Less fossil fuel Less N2O emissions Less water pollution Less pests (and pesticides)
    30. 30. How to achieve behaviour change in +100 million rice farmers?
    31. 31. Diffusion: Smartphone applications for farmers User interface: obtain information from farmer Personal computer Smartphone Cloud based server Rice Crop Manager app Ag Professionals Actionable field advice Printed guidelines • • • • • • Localized databases and spatial information Administrative units Variety traits Climate-based yield targets Climatic risks Soil and water information Providers of inputs, services, knowledge Image on Smartphone SMS
    32. 32. NMRice fertilizer recommendations by region in the Philippines. Total of 18,796 from Jan 2012 – 30 Sept 2012 Source: IRRI NM webapps analytics; includes web and Android but not IVR
    33. 33. How to accelerate S&T impact? • R&D: – Precise product profiling (targeting): market research – Invest more in S&T to accelerate tailored product development (public and private) • Policy: – Incentives for farmers to adopt more resourceefficient technologies: smart subsidies – Broadband internet access – Incentives and opportunities for people and private sector: business models, financing and professional skill development for services providers
    34. 34. Structure of public food and agricultural research worldwide, 2009 $34.1 billion (2005 PPP$) Annual rate of return on investments in public agricultural R&D: 20-80% P. Pardey et al., 2013
    35. 35. What should be IRRI’s future role?
    36. 36. The Global Rice Equation: Per capita consumption stable over last 20 years Rice consumption MMT milled rice 1 billion people = ~65 M tons rice consumed (milled) = ~100 M tons rice produced (paddy)
    37. 37. Consumers, processors, exporters and the food industry will drive what rice to grow and how to grow it.
    38. 38. Wage rate for agricultural labour (male), South Asia Wage rate index (2000 =100) 500 Bangladesh 400 300 200 India 100 0
    39. 39. What is the future of smallholder farming?
    40. 40. RICE SEED VALUE CHAIN Public Breeding DRIVERS OF CHANGE Breeding companies NARS Growing demand (food, energy, etc.) Economic growth in emerging markets Private sector involvement • Seed companies • • • Intellectual property Farmer Trade Processing Industry Consumer
    41. 41. IRRI Vision 2035 • Targeted trait and variety development for smallholder farming environments (with spinoffs) • Interdisciplinary research on future rice-based production systems • Healthier rice • Technical services and consulting, including genomics, breeding technology and services, agronomy, and rice information • Education, including new, targeted education programs in collaboration with strategic partners
    42. 42. • IR74371-70-1-1 (parents: 1 IRRI, 1 TV) • Cross made in 1997: target was upland rice • Succession of projects and IRRI breeders (3) • Funds: CGIAR core, GCP, Cirad, BMZ, IFAD, BMGF, government, st ate, …. • 1 key NARS (CRURRS) + drought network partners • Official release in 2009 in JH and OR for RL • Spreading fast in India through local partners: seed + agronomy • Also released in Bangladesh and Nepal “Rice developed through collaboration”
    43. 43. IR64-drought: first molecular product for drought tolerance - QTL + QTL IR64 drought Parent 2007 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 QTL 2.2. & 4.1. introgression 2010 IR 64 ir87729-69-b-b-b ir87728-102-b-b ir 87707-446-b-b-b ir 87707-182-b-b-b ir87707-445-b-b-b ir87705-444-b ir 87705-83-12-b ir87705-14-11-b IR87706-215-b-b-b Aday sel Entry Rajsh ahi Nepal ganj IR64 drought IR 64 1525 980 3472 1597 A. Kumar & drought team IR64 • 0.6- 1.2 t/ha yield advantage under drought . • Similar high yield under irrigated situation. • Similar cooking quality • Release: Oct. 2013, Jharkhand, India • Release: Nov. 2013, Nepal • .... Raipur Hydera bad SS Hydera bad MS Hazari bag 1684 660 3800 3085 1604 958 IR64 Rewa 3956 2662 IR64 drought 3731 2503 IR64 IR64 drought
    44. 44. Breeding product pipelines TRAIT DEVELOPMENT TRAIT DISCOVERY  Traits GENE DISCOVERY  QTLs, Genes, DNA-sequences MARKER APPLICATIONS  DNA-markers, marker applications VARIETY DEVELOPMENT   Varieties, Variety portfolios  E. Nissilae Product profiles - trait packages Breeding lines, Parental lines  Breeder / Foundation seeds
    45. 45. IRRI’s new breeding structure E. Nissilae
    46. 46. Pakistan India Nepal Bangladesh Myanmar Indonesia Philippines Vietnam Hyderabad, India Hub SA Sri Lanka Cambodia, Laos HQ & Hub SEA Los Banos, Philippines Malawi Bujumbura, Burundi Hub ESA Kenya Burundi Uganda Rwanda Madagascar Tanzania Mozambique Africa Rice Breeding Task Force Others Other world regions (W-C Africa, E Asia, W-C Asia, LAC, Europe,.. .)
    47. 47. Future cropping systems Rice Rice Rice-Rice Rice Rice Maize-Rice Maize Rice Maize Maize-Rice-Rice Rice Rice Others Jan Mar May Jul Sep How to manage them? How sustainable? Implications for wider range of ecosystem services? Nov Jan
    48. 48. Future mechanized cropping systems CEIRS – Consortium for Ecological Intensification of Rice Systems (IRRI, Yara, Bayer, Lindsay, Kellogg‟s)
    49. 49. GRiSP Product 5.3.1. Global rice monitoring and forecasting system IMHEN PhilRice TRD TNAU CARDI CTU Remote sensing-based information and insurance for crops in emerging economies ICALRD
    50. 50. Monitoring the stages of growth and planting dates - Mekong
    51. 51. Hybrid Rice Development Consortium (HRDC) HRDC with 68 public & private members HRDC Formed 38 members End of ADB project
    52. 52. Increased impact through licensing breeding lines to local companies Contract growers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) Company Retail Customers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) IRRI Company Company Retail Customers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) Company Retail Customers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) NARES Seed sector Customers (Farmers) Informal seed exchange
    53. 53. Wide access to traits through trait platforms and market segmentation Companies NARES IRRI Customers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) Industrialized Nations • Development of new improved technology • IP protection • Other crops Customers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) Customers (Farmers) Developing Nations Directed access to new improved technology
    54. 54. 3000 new rice genomes indica Phylogenetic tree for 200,000 random SNPs aus/boro intermediate basmati/sadri japonica temperate japonica tropical japonica BGI, CAAS, IRRI
    55. 55. International Rice Informatics Consortium (IRIC) • Global portal for public and private sector • Sequences and analysis of 3,000 genomes • Other rice genome sequences, diversity panels, GBS data • Sequences of rice microorganisms • Sequences of other grasses (e.g. for C4 project) • Phenotypic data • Gene expression data, gene functions and networks • Analysis tools • Access to seed, links to other databases
    56. 56. ACI Ltd. company model in Bangladesh Full service provision or farmer capture Technology Development Technology transfer Farmer service provision • • • • • • On-farm trials • Promotion • Product sales • Input supply • Finance services • Farmer machines services – laser levelers, planting, transplanters, herbicide spray, harvesting, storage Hybrid Rice Niche rice varieties Veg, pulse, oil seeds Farmer machinery Pesticides Crop purchases- Contracts to buy all crops in cropping system Processing & Marketing through supermarket chain
    57. 57. INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE Los Baños, Philippines Established 1960 • Product and outcome oriented research strategy – many new initiatives • ~1400 Staff, 35 nationalities (+500 new since 2007) • ~700 R&D partners in >60 countries; expanded private sector collaboration • Increased regional & country presence • More efficient management • Annual budget of >US$ 95 million; 80 different donors
    58. 58. IRRI’s new regional hub for East and Southern Africa Bujumbura, Burundi, October 2013
    59. 59. Thank you Australia. IRRI’s new Plant Growth Facility